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Mediterranean; still lower, one marked W., showing her winter immersement in the Mediterranean; and, lowest of all, a line placed considerably below Plimsoll's, marked W.N.A= Winter North At

lantic. J. F. MANSERGH. Liverpool.

The upper edge of the horizontal line passing through a disc amidships is the load line of the vessel at sea. The letters L.R., I believe, signify that the mark was placed on the vessel by the Committee of Lloyd's Register, who, since the passing of the Merchant Shipping (foad Line) Act of 1890, have power to assign free-boards to British vessels. The explanation of the other horizontal lines and letters is as follows: F.W. = Fresh Water line; I.S. = Indian Summer line; S. = immersion in Sea water; W. = Winter line; W.N.A= Winter line North Atlantic. Coasting vessels are required to be marked with only the maximum load line in fresh water; sea-going vessels with such of the horizontal lines as are applicable to their employment. L. L. K.

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ancients, was an emblem of death. It is found on sarcophagi, and, if I remember right, on the Catacombs at Rome; and a more poetic and affecting emblem than our disgusting skeleton with an hourglass. J. CARRick MooRE.

I have not the original German of this; and if I had I could not read it. But so far as can be judged from a translation, it would seem that the herald is a simple personification of “death as a friend,” and the inverted torch the common symbol, so often seen on old-fashioned tombs, of the extinction of life.

There seems, however, to be a question of reading here. J. A. J. writes fate, and so I find it in Routledge's edition, 1860. But Warne's, 1882, has faith. Will some German scholar tell us which it ought to be Still, one may possibly be a misprint, for I find no other differences.

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. Longford, Coventry.

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6.

strachey" (small s) was a lady of rank or of good sists of eight stanzas, and it is included in Mr. extraction.

WALTER W. SKEAT. Locker-Lampson's ‘Lyra Elegantiarum,' ed. 1891, INGULPA'S CROYLAND CARONICLE' (8th S. ii. |

JONATHAN BOUCHIER. 467).—The question of the genuineness or other- URBAN may be glad to know that some verses wise of this chronicle came into notice in ‘N. & Q.;' about this young lady, with a portrait of her, 40 S. ii. 80, 142, 482. At the last reference, the appeared in the magazine called London Society, contributor remarks that there is an exhaustive soon after her early death ; and Mr. H. S. Leigb, article apon the subject in the Archeological in his Carols of Cockayne,' has written (after the Journal for March, 1862. ED. MARSHALL. manner of E. A. Poe) on the same fair subject, in "The Chronicle of Crovland Abbey by Ingolph · 3 poem entitled" Chateaux d'Espagne.'

EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. was printed by Mr. Birch in 1883. For further

Hastings. information I would advise ANON. to consult the * Dict. of Nat. Biog.,' s.n. “Ingulf.”

“FESTUM PATEFACTIONIS(8th S. ii. 366).

G. F. R. B. For “Festum Patefactionis Christi in Monte Anon. will be able to get all the information he Thabor" see Hampson's 'Medii Ævi Kalendarium' wishes for from the translation in Bohn's well-|(London, 1841), vol. ii. pp. 172, 173. known “Antiquarian Series." LE Mans.

L. L. K.

Manila (861 S. ii. 406).- The word Manila is A JESUIT PLAYWRIGAT (8th S. ii. 486).

genuine Spanish, being a corruption of Latin Adverting to the editorial query, I further ask,

manicula, with a dozen meanings, somewhat allied Is it not the universal practice of the members of

to our word manacle. It appears certain that the the Society of Jesus to write the plays that are acted by their pupils ?

L. L. K.

| town was founded in 1571 by Legaspi, the Spanish

commandant. This applies to what is now called Is not “W. C. H.," W. C. Hazlitt, grandson, old Manila, meaning the fort or garrison town. not son, of the essayist ?

C. C. B.

The suburb, called Binondo, may represent an

older native settlement, being nearer to the river Gray's 'BARD'(8th S. ii. 485). —

and the busy part.

A. HALL.
Cold is Cadwallo's tongue
That hushed the stormy main, &c.

I know nothing about the origin of this word ; This passage is evidently imitative of what bad but a Spanish friend of mine used always to prolong before become a commonplace of the poets. nounce it Man-isle-aye. What could he have done The idea of actual magic is not necessary, but

this for? Was it to suit our supposed pronunciawould rather detract from the praise of the bards. tion of i before a single 1? If be bad kept to his If Orpheus, merely by his lute, could make

own Spanish he would have been nearer to the trees English sound.

C. A. WARD.
And the mountain tops that freeze

Chingford Hatch, E.
Bow themselves when he did sing;

FIRE BY RUBBING STICKS (8th S. ii. 47, 114, if a nameless mermaid could utter

231, 314, 432).—The following extract from The Such dulcet and harmonious breath

Western Pacific and New Guinea,' by Hugh That the rude sea grew civil at her song,

Hastings Romilly, second edition, London, 1887, wby should not Modred (whoever he may bave may be of interest : been), or Cadwallo, or Urien, bave done the like

“When I was last in England I found very few people by the same means ? Whatever a Greek could do who would believe in the possibility of making fire with in this line, we may be sure that any one of the two sticks. I might perhaps have convinced them of its old Welsh bards could " go one better"--at least, practicability, as it is not a very difficult thing to do."in his own estimation. Celtic romance abounds Pp. 12, 13. with such stories. Thus, for instance, Taliesin,

C. N. B. M. in the ‘Mabinogion,' by his song alone, raises a

| Edinburgh. storm that shakes to its foundations the castle of For the possibility of civilized men getting a Maelgwyn Gwynedd. It is true that these bards light with fire-sticks, and a good deal of trouble, were frequently magicians too; but then everything reference should be made to tbat very entertaining was more or less magical in those days ; witness work The Art of Travel,' by Mr. Francis Galton, the barp of Teirtu, which if desired would play of pp. 25-27. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. itself.

C. C. B. Hastings. Nelly MOORE (8th S. ii. 408, 457).-The late “IT FAIR SHEDS” (8th S. ii. 429).-Halliwell Henry S. Leigh, the author of 'Carols of Cockayne,' bas as one meaning of shed, and that a Lancashire &c., wrote a clever parody of Edgar Poe's 'Raven,' one, “to surpass.” “It fair sheds” therefore, as of which this young lady is the heroine. It con- HERMENTRUDE states, means "it quite surpasses"

belief. Cf. “I were fair stagger'd” as the Lanca James's Square, with several devices, and mottoes,
sbire for“ I was quite astounded,” in which fair= trampling down Popery, breaking the chains of
quite, or completely. In the Yorkshire dialect "it bondage, slavery," &c. Surely a unique work, if
fair sheds” means “it is quite surprising," and it had ever come to anything.
Halliwell gives shed=surprised.

W. F. WALLER.
J. F. MANSERGH.
SERGH.

The frontispiece to the fifty-fourth volume Liverpool.

(July to December, 1808) of the European MagaSheds (or sheads, as it is sometimes written and zine consists of an engraving representing "the spelt) is derived from an Anglo-Saxon word which Equestrian Statue in Bronze of King William the means to distinguisb, or beat the record, and is still Third, dow Erecting in St. James's Square.” The used in North Lancashire by elderly people ; but engraving is by S. Rawle, and at the top of the the phrase is fast dying out. EDWARD LORD. pedestal of the monument appears “ J. Bacon Jun" 5, Albion Street, Burnley.

Sculptor.” We are toldGEORGE ISHAM, OF LONDON, CITIZEN AND IRON

“This statue is executed pursuant to the will of Samuel

Travers, Esq., who lived in the reign of King William" MONGER (8th S. ii. 467).-Twenty references to the

(p. 37). Isham family, of Northampton, will be found in

The will, being disputed, “was thrown into Chanthe four volumes of the Northamptonshire Notes

cery, and was not confirmed for nearly a century”; and Queries, some of which are of a date anterior

hence the delay in the erection of tbe statue. to those given by your correspondent, and may be

J. F. MANSERGH. of service to him. EVERARD BOME COLEMAN.

Liverpool. 71, Brecknock Road.

Wilde Jäger (8th S. ii. 128, 218, 413, 475)."A DREAM OF FAIR WOMEN'(8th S. ii. 407, It ought not to be forgotten that this legend is 478).-I do not wonder C. C. B. should doubt mentioned by Dousterswivel to Sir Arthur Wardour wbether young Mr. Tennyson ever wrote :

in their search for treasure in the ruins of St. One drew a sharp knife through my tender throat, Ruth:Touch'd, &c.

"Den you should bear borns winded dat all de ruins The Tennyson of maturer years wrote:

ring-mire wort, they should play tine bunting piece, as The bright death quiver'd at the victim's throat,

good as him you call'd Fischer with his oboi : vary well Touch'd, &c.,

-den comes one berald, 28 we call Ernhold, winding

| his born-and den come de great Peolphan, called de which, as Huckleberry Finn said of something mighty Hunter of de North, mounted on bims black steed. else, “ states the case”; but in the Dream' of But you would not care to see all this?' 1833 the lines stand :

“Why, I am not afraid,' answered the poor Baronet, One drew a sharp knife through my tender throat,

'if-that is-does anything-any great mischiefs bappen

on such occasions?'. Slowly-and nothing more.

". Bah! mischiefe? no---sometimes if de circle be no Whereupon, the wicked Edinburgh reviewer i quite just, or de beholder be de frightened coward, and inquired what more-her throat being cut-the not hold de sword firm and straight toward bim, de Great lady wanted.

W. F. WALLER.

Hunter will take his advantage, and drag him exorcist

out of de circle and throttle him. Dat does happens.'" My copy of Tennyson's 'Poems' (date 1851), -The Antiquary,' cbap. xxi. p. 153, bas

Note F appended says that much of a similar kind One drew a sharp knife thro' my tender throat is to be found in Scott's · Discovery of Witchcraft;' Slowly,--and nothing more.

published in London, 1584. Will this satisfy your correspondents ?

JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. Thomas BARKER,

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. St. James's SQUARE (8th S. ii. 267, 310, 339, Titae-Barns (8th S. ii. 246, 330, 397, 475). 368, 436).-MR. DASENT gays that a pedestal was Tithe. barns, or their remaios, are not uncommon. "updoubtedly" set up in the centre of the square But your readers ought not to be without a referas early as 1727. Cunningham says it was * ac ence to one of great present perfection at Littleton, tually erected in 1734," and cites New Remarks near Evesham. It is one hundred and fifty feet on London,' p. 264. This matters little. What, long, cruciform, with large pointed doorways and however, is curious is that no fewer than one hun-cross-bearing gables. There is an engraving of it dred and eleven years should have lapsed between in May's 'History of Evesham,' 1845, p. 238. the date of the order for setting up the statue of

W. C. B. Great Nassau " in these parts and the actual To the list contributed by MR. HARTSHORNE erection of such an effigy. Do Thursday, Dec. 9, may be added the very fine titbe-barn at Stanway, 1697, Mr. Luttrell says—but Narcissus bad better Lord Wemyss's place in Gloucestershire. be allowed to say it in his own way: “The king's

Louisa M. KNIGATLEY. statue in brasse is ordered to be sett up in St.'. Fawsley, Daventry.

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ii. 362).-Your correspondent is scarcely correct

in stating that the lines quoted by him have remained “untouched by any of the various editors of the book save one, viz., Archbishop Whately.” Dr. Aldis Wright, in his edition of Bacon's ‘Essays,’ 1874, has in a note, p. 332, “Mr. Daniel has suggested to me that the “Baugh’ is probably the Bass Rock, and the ‘May” the Isle of May in the Frith of Forth.” To the quotations given by your correspondent may be added the following lines from Sir David Lindsay’s ‘The Complaynt to the King, vol. i. p. 61, ed. 1871 :— Quhen the Basse and the Yle of Maye Beis sett upon the Mont Senaye; Quhen the Lowmound, besyde Falkland, Beis lyftit to Northumberland; Quhen kirkmen yairnis no dignitie, Nor wyfis no soveranitie; Wynter but frost, snaw, wynd, or rane; Than sall I geve thy gold agane.

F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY.

“CoALs to NEwcastLE” (8° S. ii. 484).-The noting by MR. F. ADAMs of the examples of this proverb, and the dates thereof, leads me to call attention to the fact that, at a still earlier period than the years he gives, there was another interpretation put upon “carrying coals” other than that inferred by the useless process of carrying coals to Newcastle or salt to Dysart. To carry coals—whether to Newcastle or elsewhere—was, indeed, equivalent to what we nowadays mean to express when we say a man will “stand anything,” or that another is so poor a spirited creature that any treatment is good enough for him. Thus, in “Have with you to Saffron Walden’ (1595), Nash says, “We will bear no coals, I warrant you”; in “Every Man out of His Humour,” Ben Jonson makes a character say contemptuously of another, “Here comes one that will carry coals, ergo will hold my dog"; in ‘Antonio and Melida’ (1602), a character is made by Marston to exclaim, “He has had wrong, but if I were he I would bear no coles”; and Shakespeare opens ‘Romeo and Juliet' by making Sampson remark that he and Gregory will not carry coals; while in “Henry V.” the boy gives his masters Nym, Bardolph, and Pistol a true character, and enumerates, amongst their other virtues, that “in Calais they stole a fire

shovel; I know, by that piece of service, the men would carry coals.” It seems to me, therefore, worthy of note that the suggestion of “carrying coals” had in past times no fewer than three interpretations attached to it. When they were supposed to be carried to Newcastle, the saying exemplified people who did useless things; and when the coals were simply spoken of as being carried, it typified either helpless, weak creatures, or such bullies and cowards as the above-named estimable adventurers. JNo. BloundELLE-BURTON. Barnes Common.

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CRossbows (8th S. ii. 147, 273, 377).-The following appears in Rapin's ‘History of England':

“It is remarked as a thing deserving particular notice, that this Prince [Richard I.], who restored the Use of the Cross-Bow, received his Death's Wound from that Instrument, as if Heaven intended to punish him for reviving that diabolical Invention. But I question whether this Remark is built on a good Foundation. We have observed the English made use of the CrossBow in the Conquest of Ireland, in the Reign of Henry II., and it is not likely they should discontinue it, in the few Years that were since passed.”—Ed. 1732, vol. i. p. 257. J. F. MANsergh.

Liverpool.

Chief Justice JEFFREYs (8° S. ii. 468).-The authority, I believe, was the actual admission in the Trinity College books. The late Dr. Luard kindly sent me the date in answer to an inquiry of mine. SoHo may remember that in the proceedings against Dr. John Peachell, Jeffreys himself stated that he was “once a member” of the Uni

versity of Cambridge. (“State Trials, xi. 1329.) G. F. R. B.

Livery CoMPANIEs of London (8° S. ii. 448). —I do not suppose it would be possible to collect full lists of freemen, it being the livery who

attract attention. One of our local historians remarks of the Drapers’ Company:“From this date (1518], in most instances, the parties subscribe their name or marks; both of which are wretched scrawls, and show the low state of education at this period. The most respectable citizens only made their mark.” I have sometimes found a variation, people signing in a plain hand here, will make a mark elsewhere. I fancy there was some dread of “consequences” at bottom of this assumed incapacity. The same historian, “Herbert,” records, under date 1509, the feat of a boy aged twelve transcribing the ordinances of the Fishmongers' Company in a clear, ornate hand. His name was “rychard felde.” A. HALL.

13, Paternoster Row.

Herbert, Librarian to the Corporation of London, in his ‘History of the Twelve Livery Companies,” gives the names of the Company of Yrenmongers from the record in the Chapter House, Westminster, about the year 1537; the Masters and Wardens from 1700 to 1817; the members of the Company who were Lord Mayor from 1410 to 1715; and the names of the benefactors, most of whom were probably members thereof, from 1500 to 1703. Similar lists are given for the remaining eleven great Livery Companies of London.

EveRARD Home ColeMAN.

Gloves AND Kisses (8th S. ii. 508).-See “Gloves: their Annals and Associations,’ by J. W. Beck, 1883, p. 234, where may be found several curious references to the custom, supported by good authority. A. L. HuMPHREYs.

The claim of gloves by ladies, as a reward, when they have stolen a kiss from a sleeping man, is alluded to by Gay (1688–1732):— Cicely, brisk maid, steps forth before the rout, And kiss'd with smacking lips the snoring lout; For custom says, “Whoe'er this venture proves, For such a kiss demands a pair of gloves. In chap. v. of the ‘Fair Maid of Perth,” by Sir Walter Scott, Catherine leaves her chamber on St. Valentine's morning, and finding Henry Smith asleep, gives him a kiss. The glover says to him:“Come into the booth with me, my son, and I will furnish thee with a fitting theme. Thou knowest the maiden who ventures to kiss a sleeping man wins of him a pair of gloves.” And in the following chapter she accepts it. The date and origin of the custom have not, I believe, been traced.

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“SELECT Historical Documents’ (8° S. ii. 440, 491).-MR. MARSHALL says that “probably there is, as there surely ought to be, a reference to this volume [Stubbs's ‘Select Charters'] in its latest form in the preface” of Mr. Henderson's ‘Select Historical Documents.’ It is only justice to the latter excellent volume to say that Mr. Henderson has not only acknowledged the work of his learned predecessor in the introduction (pp. 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6), but also on pp. 7, 11, 16, 20, 135, 148, and 151.

While on this matter, may I draw your readers' attention to the early notice of “tarring and feathering” on p. 135? It occurs in the “Laws of Richard I. concerning Crusaders who were to go by Sea,’ and runs thus:–

“A robber, moreover, convicted of theft, shall be shorn like a hired fighter, and boiling tar shall be poured over his head, and feathers from a cushion shall be shaken out over his head—so that he may be publicly known; and at the first land where the ships put in he shall be cast on shore.”

ARTHUR MonTEFIORE.

Jewish SECTs (8° S. ii. 508)—Early lists of these are given by Hegesippus, Epiphanius, and Justin Martyr, and MR. WARD will find the names which they mention brought together in the “Classified Table” at the beginning of Dr. Blunt’s “Dictionary of Sects and Heresies.” But in the article “Jewish Sects,” in the body of that work (which was written by my late father, a wellread man in early Church history), reasons are given for supposing that many of these are really only different names for the same bodies, and that the number may, therefore, be a good deal reduced.

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A.

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