« EelmineJätka »
zealous and wisely directed investigation would last edition of the 'Synonyms, but the above is not permit him to perpetuate. In his 'Burns,' a regrettable oversight.
F. ADAMS, vol. ii. p. 168, Edinburgh, 1851, Chambers states: 105, Albany Road, Camberwell, S.E.
Having in the course of his [Burns’s] exertions for Johnson's Museum formed the acquaintance
JOAN CUTTS (gch S. iii. 29).—The Compleat of Mr. William Tytler, of Woodhouselee, he sent History of Europe, 'about which your correspondent him one of Miers’s portraits."
inquires, is in the British Museum, the press-mark Dr. Charles Rogers (with whom I had a long volumes, published in London between 1705 and
being P.P. 3405. It consists of eighteen octavo and very interesting " crack" on this very subject
F. ADAMS. in 1889), in his great work on Burns, vol. ii. p. 353, states that the poet sent William Tytler ‘METRICAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND' (7th S. viii. a copy of his silhouette portrait
88, 158, 238, 317, 398 ; ix. 218, 358; x. 15).The first Edinburgh edition of Burns's 'Poems,' To the lists of works at the above references should containing the Nasmyth-Beugo portrait, had been be added the following, recently advertised :"A published several months when the poet sent Rhyming Record of English History, and other Tytler his lyrical address with his portrait
. Is it Poems, by. Linda B. M. Collings, 1892, 38. 6d., not more than probable that he already possessed London, Digby, Long & Co." the alternative portrait facing the title-page of a
J. CUTHBERT WELÇA, F.C.S. volume of the 1787 edition ! If in error, I am in The Brewery, Reading. very good company.
EFFIGIES, and many others, will doubtless be WELSH Songs (8th S. iii. 68).-In a note to interested in hearing that the writer has, through his poem The Dying Bard,' Sir Walter Scott says, the courteous insertion of his inquiries respecting The Welsh tradition bears that a bard on his portraits of Burns in the pages of N. &Q., been death-bed demanded his harp, and played the air successful in unearthing the Dumfries miniature [ Daffydz Gangwen '] to which these words are of the poet by Alexander Reid, painted shortly adapted, requesting that it might be performed at previous to his crossing the border betwixt two bis funeral. The air of 'Sweet Richard' is said worlds. It is quite a distinct work from that in the to have been composed by Richard II.'s minstrel, Watson bequest (N.P.G. Edin.), which is a much Owen Glendower, during his master's captivity, earlier and sketchy prodaotion. Also a beautiful and it was afterwards played at the risings in portrait of Burns in coloured soft chalks, very favour of the unfortunate king, as the Jacobite spirited and masterly, and withal having a history airs were played to excite the adherents of the extending to prior ownership by a descendant of Stuarts. (See Miss Strickland's life of Isabella of the poet's family. It is ascribed to David Martin. Valois, in her 'Queens of England.) The popular
E. B. N. song, "Farwel iti Peggy ban,' was composed by 58, Glebe Place Studios, Chelsea.
the minstrels of North Wales when Margaret of
Anjou left Harlech Castle, where she had taken MR. SECRETARY JOHNSTONE AND THE JOAN- refuge after the defeat of July, 9, 1460, near STONES OF WARRISTON (765 S. 1. 364, 453 ; xi. Northampton. (See notes to the Warkworth 329, 450).-Permit me to correct an error into chronicle by J. O. Halliwell.) A. G. B. which I fell at the last reference. I find, on reinspection of the entry in the Edinburgh Burgess KIMBOLTON CASTLE (8th S. ii. 209, 291, 377). Rolls which seemed to prove that the father of -Strafford is doubtless derived from the WapenRachel Arnot or Johnstone was dead, before take of Strafford, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, May 15, 1577, that the word “umqubile," before from which the first earl took his title. Arms are “Jon Arnot,'' has been scored through with a recorded in Robson's 'British Herald,' and the pen, apparently at the time the entry was made. name-is extant at Wakefield and Pateloy Bridge The ink is so much faded as to render the whole in Yorkshire, Rogate in Sussex, and Belfast in Ireentry almost illegible, and the obliteration, which land.
GEORGE BOWLES. is barely perceptible, esoaped my observation in 10, Lady Margaret Road, N.W. the first instance.
R. E. B.
A VIEW OF LIFE (8th S. iii, 7).-This inscrips ARCHBISHOP WHATELY: “CONFESSOR” (8th S. tion appears to be much the same in purport as iii. 6).—In his note on “Prisoner" your corre- the well-known Latin epigramspondent J. quotes from the English Synonyms
Balnea, vina, Venus, corrumpunt corpora nostra. a passage in which “confessor” is adduced as a rare Sed faciunt vitam, balnea, vina, Venus. example of a noun with an agent ending having a These carpe diem gentlemen are all alike, and as passive function. This is a mistake. The priest wise as the philosophic sage who tells us that the is a confessor not because he is confessed by the object of life is happiness - happiness of man and penitent, but because he confesses the penitent. I nations"; secondly, that commerce is to bring gave Miss Whately some help in preparing the luxuries, not necessaries; and thirdly, that
luxuries are necessaries. This last follows; because time longer of the horror attending his irretrievable if you confine man's wants to the mere animal situation. requirements you brutalize nature and undermine I fail to see any "story” in this, except as applied cultivated society. Next follows the utility
wrangle, in a cynical sense to the Rev. Mr. Walter's account and then we get back to pleasure. So the theory of of the swimming. An equally able seaman had life is like that of poetry-to please. Such philo- been just in the same way canted overboard and sophies enable men to talk on for over, and arrive drowned a few days previously. We have neither nowhere at last.
C. A. WARD. "name" nor "age" mentioned here, and certainly Chingford Hatch, E.
we have them given nowhere else in Anson in con
nexion with any mishap of this kind that occurred WIGGIN (866 s. ii. 28). -Is not this a corrupt in the Atlantic voyage. . J. O'BYRNE CROKE. pronunciation of widgeon, the most
abundant and hardiest of our winter sea-birds ? I cannot say I
GELERT IN INDIA (8th S. iii, 25).-Many variants have ever heard it called so ; but I received a gift of the Gelert story, from different climes and times, (with a letter) of two “wigans" a few days ago. are given in Baring-Gould's well-known Curious And sometimes, I think, corrupt spelling produces Myths of the Middle Ages.'
O. O. B. corrupt pronunciation. For instance, the word demesne "is commonly pronounced "dimmense"
PENINSULAR MEDAL (8th S. iii. 108).-Replying here, which I presume arose from that oddly
to MR. RAYNER's question, I can inform him that placed s. H. CHICHESTER HART.
a Peninsular medal with fifteen clasps is catalogued Carrablagh, Portsalon, Letterkenny.
in Col. Eaton's collection, and that auother medal
with a similar number of clasps is exposed at an DR. SMYTHE PALMER will probably find that establishment in Great Newport Street, W. the word wiggin, used to signify a "sea-dog" or
W. C. GODDARD. “salt," is an equivalent or corruption of the North-country word wigger, meaning strong An best I think the only-method for protecting,
CHURCH BRASSES (8th S. iii. 26, 117).-The example of its use is thus given in Bailey's". Eng-best-I think the only-method for protecting, lish Dictionary' (my edition is dated 1733) with propriety, the brasses named by J. W. is the “Wigger, strong, as a clear pitched wigger fellow." following: Raise the slab and have it carefully G. YARROW BALDOCK.
fitted into a shallow box of oak or greenheart, like
à picture in its frame, with a stout door of the May I suggest that this word was merely the same wood shutting upon its face; slightly ex. Yarmouth boatman's rendering of “Vik'ing." We cavate the site, and replace the framed slab so that all know “wery vell” (as Sam Weller would say) the protecting trap-door is level with the chancel the habit which persons in a certain class have of floor. For lifting the door fasten down level a bar, substituting w for v, and that "nothin'” is more undercut for grasping. Darken the door to the common than the dropping of a final g. This tone of the adjoining floor. A precedent for this being granted, the transition from "Wik'in ” to is the covering by boards of the figures of the sibyls wiggin can be easily imagined. O. M. P.
in the pavement of the Cathedral of Siena.
J. A. B. SIR JOHN MENNES, KNT. (8th S. iii. 86).-Can MR. HIPWELL, from his treasure-house, tell me iii. 16). The following may be of general interest.
GEORGE ISHAM, OF LONDON (8th S. ii. 467; what relation the poetical admiral bore to Francis It is the rough draft of a letter in the handwriting Hamon, Gent., described in & Court Roll of March 21 (24 Car. II.) as his next heir ? Or can of Sir John Isham, of Lamport, to George Isham, he give me a reference to Sir John's will, for which
1607-8:I have made search in vain ? He acquired a copy-ing unto you that I protest. I know no on waye of satis
"Good cosin Isham I have bin so many wayes behold. hold of four acres at Loughton, co. Essex, in 1664, faction but only by ye acknowledgment of your kindnes possibly as a country house. W. C. W.
& ye assurednes of my love which you shall not faile to COWPER'S 'CASTAWAY' (8th S. ii. 107).-Since will so far as my poor abilitye will extende. The only
finde if at any tyme you will be pleased to use my rich my last, on a fresh reading of Anson's 'Voyages,' newse that I can sertefy you is of a greate incounter I find (ed. of 1749, p. 79) the following passage that we had this Chrismas betwixt M Maydwell's relating to the commodore's
ship the Centurion in Tobacco & my oulde Hammon the conflyckt was very the storm off the Straits of Le Maire:
longe & dangerus yet notwithstandinge at the last oulde
bammon with much adoo got ye victory because his “One of our ableet seamen was canted overboard ; and adversary tobacco was but leafe I did earnestly wish potwithstanding the prodigious agitation of the waves we your companyes here with us to bave incouraged your perceived that he swam very strong, and it was with cbampeon. 1 do intreate you that my ["brother Ardthe utmost concern that we found ourselves incapable ses " erased, and perhaps "self" omitted) with my of aesisting him; and we were the more grieved at his brother Ardges may be remembred to your selfe my unhappy fate, since we lost sight of him struggling with cosin your wife Mr Write M' Maydwell & yo rest of your ébe waves and conceived from the manner in which he good company with many thankes for our greate inter swam that he might continuo sensible for a considerable taydement My wife bath sent my cosin a cupple of
capons & 2 cheses for a token by this carrier. Thus in instead of those of Compton of Hartbury is inhaste I leave you to ge tuition of ye almighty from explicable, save on the ground of error.
The Lamport this sixth ( xijta: erased] of January your insertion in these columns of a copy of the Latin assured lovinge cosin J. ISHAM."
Mr. George Isbam's reply to the above is also inscription on his monument would be a great at Lamport. It is dated «6 Feb., 1607-8," from the history of the family of Stewart.
boon to those who, like myself, are interested in
SIGMA. London. He thanks his cousin John Isham for his kindness, and also for his pleasant discourses of “HARIOLE" (VERB) (8th S. iii. 86).-I should "y' olde Hamonde and Mi Maydwells tobacco butt I am be glad to have C. C. B.'s authority for the assergladd thatt our Englysh Champyon bathe the vyctoryo tion that the late Bishop of St. Andrews coined over thatt Indyan fume...... I would nott have thatt nasste this word. The noun hariolation (of which I take Indyan weed to have overcome so grand a captayne." No doubt this "conflyckt” (?) was the event of saying in Bailey's English Dictionary,' of which
it hariole is the verb) is quoted as an old Scotch Christmas, 1607, at Lamport. H. ISHAM LONGDEN, M. A.
my edition, which is the sixtb, was published in
1733. Dr. Wordsworth was not born until 1806. Shangton Rectory, Leicester.
G. YARROW BALDOCK. May I suggest that the entries in the Speene
TRUMBULL (8th S. ii. 527; iii. 98).-I am obliged registers may be recovered from the Bishop's transcripts? Mr. Rye ("Records and Record Search to MR. CULLETON for pointing out the works in stances, certain records are preserved” at Somerset Would he be so very kind as to give me a short ing,' p. 123) says that, “ owing
to special circum- which notices of Turnbull are to be found ; but
unfortunately none of them is within my reach. House" relating to inter alia) Berks.” Has MR. abstract of one of these notices ; just stating the LONGDEN consulted these materials ?
date and place of the artist's birth and death, and “PHILAZER” (8th S, iii, 28, 97).-Mr. Luttrell a list of his chief productions? I suppose he was spells this word in more ways than one, as is to an American loyalist ; for one of the other side be expected., On February 21, 1705-6, he spelt would hardly have commemorated the heroic de. it “Philizer," with a capital P, and this proved fence of Gibraltar, which shed a last gleam of lustre too much for the Oxford University Press. In on the British arms.
JAYDEE. the 1857 edition of the delightful 'Diary' (vol. vi. p. 19) is to be read how " Mr. Rider Philizer is 76). In the church of Abergavenny is a stone
THE CAUSE OF DEATH (8th S. ii. 428, 533 ; iii. dead, and his place worth 1,0001. in the disposal effigy attributed to Eva de Braose, who died in of the Lord chief (sic, for a wonder] Justice Trevor.” 1946, and to which a picturesque story is attached. That there was no accidental omission of the Churchyard, in bis quaint rhyming work,' The comma is evidenced by the index, where “ Philizer, Worthiness of Wales," first published in 1587, and Rider, dies" quite unsuspected.
W. F. WALLER.
another ladie lyes
And at her feete, in stone likewise, posed to have come to the Channel Isles from
A couching hound doth stand : St. Edmunds Bury, Suffolk, as shown by armorial
They say her squirrell lept away,
And toward it she run: bearings, &c., date 1577. Motto the same. I have
And as from fall she sought to stay since heard that three brothers are said to have
The little pretie Bun, settled in Jersey in 1606 from Ansford, co. Somer
Right downe from top of wall she fell set.
F. D. L.
And tooke her death tbereby.
Thus what I heard, I doe you tell, CHARLES STEWARD, OF BRADFORD-ON-Avon
And what is seene with eye. (2nd S. vi. 327, 359).—Thirty-five years ago, at the Symonds refers to the incident, adding that the first of the above references, Må. Wm. HENRY fall took place from the top of the castle wall. The Jones, Vicar of Bradford, inserted a query about effigy represents the lady in a plain, close-fitting Charles Steward, whose marble monument is in gown, buttoned to the waist, whence it falls the chancel of the parish church there, and to that in loose folds to the feet. The right band is laid query no reply seems to have been given. He across the body, and the left formerly held the was son (by Jane, daughter of Sir William Button, squirrel, now broken away. From this hand a Bart.) of Dr. Richard Stewart, Dean of the Chapel chain sweeps across the body and ends in a pocket Royal and Provost of Eton, who was born 1595, on the right side of the gown, a very unusual and died 1651. He married Mary, daughter (bý feature in effigies of this period. It must have Mary Habingdon, bis wife) of Walter Compton, been from the pocket and attached chain here of Hartbury, and died July 11, 1698. That bis represented that the animal escaped, with such arms on the monument should have been impaled disastrous resulte, for there seems no reason in this with those of Compton, Marquis of Northampton, caso to doubt the truth of the story that has been handed down for three hundred years. Many of alone. It is very seldom that we have such evidence the legends associated with monumental figures as in the case of St. Wilfrid's churches, scarcely ever, are mere fables, made to fit the crests or cagnons of in fact, and I am not disputing that the church of effigies ; they usually have their origin in the Durbam was dedicated to SS. Mary and Cuthbert, lively arcbæology of a parish clerk; but the one in but only asking if there be any evidence to that question has so good a record that I am tempted to effect, such as there is in the cases of Ripon and add it to the limited number which my first note Hexbam.
J. T. F. on the subject bas elicited.
Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham.
LUCE (8th S. ii. 328, 353, 391, 435, 511; iii. 93). The following is from an old tombstone, in Burke quotes the Skinners' arms thus: “Ermine, memory of one Thomas Rawlid, in Epworth on a chief gules, three princes' crowns composed of Churchyard :
crosses pattee and fleurs-de-lis or; with caps of the A pale consumption gave the fatal blow;
first, tasselled of the third.” This quotation fully The stroke was certain, but th' effect was slow; With wasting Pain death found me long opprest,
authenticates the presence of the lily, but, seeing Pity'd my Sighs and kindly brought mo rost.
that royalty in England has discarded this con
testible emblem, it may well become the Skinners C. O. B.
to do 80 likewise. The dates quoted vary very SLAUGHTER FAMILY (8th S. ii. 467 ; iii. 17, 75). considerably. One report says, granted Oct. 5, 1551; -There are two villages in Gloucestershire not far others say granted by William Harvey, varied to from Stow-on-the-Wold, named Upper and Lower Thomas Hawley, Clarencieux, 4 Ed. IV. (should Slaughter, but I am unable to say whether they be Edward VI.); again, entered and approved in gave name to the family or took their name from the Visitation of 1634.' Thomas Hawley, Clarenit. Readers of Vanity Fair,' by W. M. Thackeray, cieux 1534, died 1557; his reign would include one of the best of novels, though styled "a novel 4 Ed. VI., 1550-1; bis successor, Wm. Harvey, without a hero," may remember the description Clarencieux 1557, died 1566-7. It would thereof Old Slaughter's Coffee-House, where officers at fore appear that Harvey's name is incorrectly inthe time of the Battle of Waterloo "most did con- troduced ; but he may be responsible for the supgregate," as George Osborne, Capt. Dobbin, and porters in 1561.
A. HALL. Eosign Stubble. Are there any coffee-houses now? I have read that in Oxford, about the first half of of arms of the Skinners' Company. It is as I
MR. MARSHALL asks what is the “actual grant" the eighteenth century, they were the great resort of the gownsmen. JOAN PICKFORD, M.A.
stated in my last communication. Both Guillim Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.
and Edmonston were wrong as to charges and
dates. The Skinners' Company was incorporated ST. CUTHBERT (8th S. ii. 386, 449, 498, 535; in 1 Edward III. (1327), and confirmed in 16 iii. 53, 114).—Oswald, O.S.B., does not quite see Richard II. (1393). If your correspondent will the point of my inquiry. Of course, I know that consult Overall's Dictionary of Chronology,' p. the Cathedral Church of Durham was often called 782, and Boutell's exhaustive Historical Heraldry,'. “the Church of St. Mary and St. Cuthbert," and third edition, p. 369, he will come to the root of that Symeon calls it " ecclesia S. Cuthberti.” See the matter. I gladly endorse MR. MARSHALL'S my communication in gth S. ii. 498. But what I observations regarding the usual critical accuracy inquired for was any record of any formal de- of PROF. SKEAT's writings, some of which I posdication of the church to either saint. Simeon, in sess and use with grateful appreciation. his account of the dedication, does not mention any
S. JAMES A. SALTER. such thing, though we do read of Wilfrid long before Basingfield, Basingstoke. dedicating Ripon, “ in honorem S. Petri Apostolorum Principis” (Eddii Vit. Wilf. xvii.). Eddius
“ COMMENCED M.A.” (gib S. iii. 8, 57).- This
commencement" at Cam. also relates how St. Michael appeared to Wilfrid refers, no doubt, to the " to say from the B. Virgin that as he had built bridge. But there is a common expression in the churches in honour of St. Peter and St. Andrew
literature of the last century, "he commenced (which he did at Ripon and at Hexham), so he author, commenced patriot, cheesemonger,” or ought to have dedicated one to the Blessed Mother
whatever it might be. of God. He accordingly dedicated to St. Mary
EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A.
Hastings. another church at Hexham. It is this sort of information which seems wanting in the case of “SPIRITED AWAY" (8th S. ii. 485). -In Phillips's Durham, which, so far as I have yet seen, appears New World of Words,' ed. 1720, it is stated that to bave been called St. Cuthbert'e, or SS. Mary and “to spirit away children, is to entice or steal them Cathbert's, only by popular usage, as Ripon Min- privily from their parents or relations in order to ster was first the Church of St. Peter, then of SS. convey them beyond sea, especially to the plantaPeter and Wilfrid, and now usually of St. Wilfrid tions in the West Indies.” Cotton, in bis • Bar
lesque upon Burlesque,' 1675, uses spiriter in the that no references to records have come either sense of abductor :
from Oakham or Hastings.
A. T. M.
SMART'S SONG TO DAVID' (gth S. iii. 109).
As the great-great-grandson of Christopher Smart,
may I reply to the queries of the Rev. F. W. Ho bare him into Heaven's Lobby;
JACKSON? I have the 4to. edition of the Song to Whilst the poor boy half dead with Fear,
David' (signed by Smart), published in 1763, and Writh'd back to view his Spiriter.
this contains the following notes :-
Stanza 49. “The genuine word repeat."-P8. cxix.
75. "Shoots xiphias to bis aim."-Sword-fish. vulgarly called a spirit," vol. I. p. 156, and again,
81, “The largesg from the churl."-Sam, xxv. 18. vol. i. p. 164. My references are to Pearson's
“And Alba's blest imperial rays."-Rev. xi. 17. reprint. This part of the work dates to 1665. An evident misprint for Rev. ii., the white stone.
H. C. HART. It is interesting to note that the text of 1. 4
in st. 33 is corrected by Smart, who, in the margin - TITUS OATES (66 8. ix. 445; 745 S. xii. 209).- of the 4to. edition, substitutes bass for " base." Titus the perjurer was not married before August,
In 'an 8vo. edition, published in 1819, of the 1693, as may be seen from the marriage licences of Song to David,' the anonymous editor, in a note the office of the Vicar-General for that year, and to st. 57 remarks : from the Diary' of Narcissus Luttrell, who writes, under date August 19, “ On Thursday last Dr. ling is synonymous with shekel. Thus, in Isaiah vii. 23,
“ The silverlings and crusions, &c. The word silverTitus Oates was married to one Mrs. Wells, a A thousand vines, at a thousand silverlings, shall be for young gentlewoman in the city worth 2,000l.” The briers and thorns. Of crusion I am unable to speak name in the licence is written Weld. 'The Eden- with certainty ; but I should imagine that it is derived sor register, quoted at the second reference named from spoñois, wbich in general is applied to the pulsaabove, must refer to yet another of the many Oates tion of sonorous bodies, and also to the act of ascertainwho were doomed to bear the ill-omened name of ware, by what is sometimes called ringing them."
ing the integrity of money, veseels of metal, or earthenTitus. At the first reference a conjectural pedigree in another note the editor says, st. 69, " Anana of Titus Oates was given ; but I believe the follow is a species of pineapple.". ing to be equally probable :
In the 'Song to David,' published in a very Rev. Samuel Oates, Rector of Marsham, 1577 to 1605, abbreviated form in 'The Treasury of Sacred Song, and of North Reppe, 1588 to 1620.
Prof. Palgrave adds the following notes: "Glede Rev. Samuel Oates, born at Marsham-Anne Dis, of He (bawk). Xiphias (sword-fish). Gier-eagle, probefore 1580; ordained priest by Wm., vingham, Norf., bably circling.”
FREDK. COWSLADE. Bp. of Norwich, Dec. 21, 1601; insti. m. Nov. 3, 1608;
Earley, Reading. tuted to rectory of Marsham, May 8, executrix of her 1605; died there 1658; will proved in i husband's will; FRENCH PRISONERS OF WAR IN SCOTLAND London, March 9, 1659,
bur. at Marsham, (8th S. ii. 428, 511; iii. 72).-I have to thank Sept. 30, 1666. MR. COLEMAN and MR. WARREN for their kind
replies to my queries under this heading. With Rev. Samuel Oates
, born at Marsham, Nov. 18, 1610; regard to the toy coffins found on Salisbury Crags, adm. sizar at C.C.C.
, Cambridge, July 1, 1627 : ordained, Edinburgh, I am disposed to think that they were being then M.A., by Bp. of Norwich,' Sept. 24, 1635) made and placed there by French prisoners of Rector of All Saints', Hastings, 1666,
war on parole rather than by those expatriated
refugees who formed the court of Charles X. at Titus Oates, born at Oakham, 1649.
Holyrood. But the existence of these coffins is a The difficulty lies in the identification of Samuel, problem in folk-lore to be solved. I shall try to Rector of Hastings, with Samuel, born at Mar- see if any of them are still in existence in Edinsbam, 1610. But the coincidences of dates make burgb. the identity probable. The late ordination seems With regard to the places at which French to suggest the scholastic rather than the pastoral prisoners of war were confined from 1803 to 1814line, an idea favoured by his disappearance thence the period with which I wish to deal, there being so forth from the diocese. The work of an usher few prisoners of war in Scotland antecedently to the might well take him to Oakham, where Titus was former date the following would appear to be the born in 1649 or 1650, and to London, where his places of close immurement: Edinburgh Castle, father's will was proved in 1659. From Seddles. Greenlaw Depôt, Esk Mills Depôt, Valley Field combe to Hastings is a short flight. One wonders Depôt, Perth Depôt, and to a slight extent Dam