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(x. 189). The Rev. Philip Teoison, D.D.,

the archdeacon, died June 15, 1660, cet, fortyCONTENT8,-N° 55.

eight, M.I. in Bawbergh Church, near Norwich, NOTES:-The Tennysons and Archbishop Tenison, 21

Poets in a Thunderstorm, 22-Tom Legge, 23—Garnett :
Hawtrey-Double F as an Initial-"Guy Fawkes, Guy !"

I wbich Blomefield says were granted to him : - Jarndyce, 24 - Translators Cobblers "Johnnies" - Sable, a foss embattled and in chief three doves Election of Mayor at High Wycombe-Alexander the

argent (ib. ii. 391). Philip was clearly John's Great Simple Simon'-Gelert in India, 25-Church Brasses-First Provincial Theatre Royal-Berkshire Villages in Kenilworth,' 26—Haydn's Dictionary of Dates,'

The object of this note is to suggest a clue to

The obiect of this note is to gnagesta

the father of these two clerical brethren, and one QUERIES :-"Cross - purposes" -“ Brouette," 27 — Mont

could almost take it for granted that he too was a gomery-Charles Lamb-Heraldic-J. Treworgie-"Shillam eidri" - Richard Smith - Paganini - "Wiggin" - clergyman, bred at the same university, i. e., CamAldine Swift' - "Philazer" -"De mortuis nil nisi | bridge. Since my reply (706 S. xii. 252) I have bonum." 28-Claypoole-St. Thomas's Day Custom-St. Clement's Day-Anne Vaux-"Kodak"-John Cutts

looked into the pedigree and been aided by some "Trissino Type,” 29.

potes of wills at York, for which I am indebted to REPLIES :-Portraits of Burns, 29 - Sophy Daws, 30 Busby, 31-Rev. George Croly-"To bone"-Poems in the

point :Greek Anthology--Bale, 32-Bucketing-Legend of St. Ffraid_"To Warp"_Chalks-Yates Family, 33-Jennings “Christopher Tennysone of Riell father -Fathers of the House of Commons-Col. Charters

John Tennyson son AM. and P.M.. 34Ben Price-“ Availed of"--Life of

son John at son Edward...... my wife Lockhart-Old Lease-Mottoes_Essex,' 35-Royal Scots Greys-Printers' Errors -- Leather Money-Chalk - Por daughter uncle traits Wanted-Tycho Wing-Tristram Shandy,' 36 Thornton of Hull. Dated March 1, 22 Eliz. (1579/80). • The Office of the Blessed Virgin'-Life of Daniel Defoe' -Gemmace-Italian Idiom, 37 _“Yele"-Sir G. Downing I have mentioned the will of Christopber's -Authors Wanted, 39.

father in my previous note, also John Thornton, NOTES :-Allen's Attis of Caius Valerius Catullus '-Morles's English Writers, Vol. IX.- Stoke d'Abernon'.

manor of Ryall, with lands there and in “Pawle" Weale's Rock's Hierurgia'-Lewis's Ancient Laws of Wales.'

and other places, by fine, Easter T., 1566 (Dr. Notices to Correspondents.

Collins's 'York Fines,' i. 319).

In 1597 licence was granted to John Tennyson,

B.D. of Downham, diocese of York, to marry Anne Notes.

Haldenby, “gent." (sic), of Gemling, in the

parish of Foston (-on-the-Wolds), Yorksh. Archeol. THE TENXYSONS AND ARCHBISHOP TENISON. Journal, vol. x. p. 35. I take this to be the son

In 'N, & Q.;' 3rd S. viii. 454, I find it stated by John at Cambridge, 1579-80, though proof is I. B. P. that there is in the Tennyson family " wanting. Anne was no doubt daughter of Philip tradition of long standing that it is descended from Haldenby, seventh and youngest son of Robert a collateral relative of Archbishop Tenison," in Haldenby, Esq., of Haldenby, by Anne, daughter epite of the difference in spelling the name. No of Thomas Boynton, Esq., of Barmstop, in Holderdoubt attempts would have been made to prove or ness. She is a legatee in the will of her uncle disprove this statement, but for the deterrent fact John Haldenby, of Patrington, gent., dated to which W. O. B. drew attention (6th S. xi. 153), May 5, 1591. " that the name of Tennyson is and has been for I shall be very much surprised if Jobn and centuries one of the commonest in Holderness." Anne are not the parents of John and Philip. The archbishop's descent from the Yorkshire stock Probably John obtained a benefice in the diocese tas hardly been suspected, so far as I am aware, of Ely, I could find nothing about him at Downespecially after the statement in Burke's ' Landed holme, near Richmond. Gentry(first edition, p. 1375) that his family The arms, with unimportant variations, Gules, * 80 early as the reign of Edward I. was represented in a bend between three leopards' heads jessant Oxfordshire in the persons of Henry, John and William fleurs-de-lis, borne by the good archbishop and the Tmesende, mentioned in the Hundred Rolls."

lamented poet, are of most unsatisfactory origin, as Could anything be less likely than that the name a reference to Papworth's laborious Ordinary of of Tenison should be a corruption of "atte Towns- Arms' (p. 930) will reveal at once. They are end"? On the same page we read that the Rev. nothing more nor less than the arms of Dennys, John Tenison, the archbishop's father, was son of an old West of England family, and illustrate the Dr. Philip Tenison, Archdeacon of Norwich, who improper use of a dictionary of arms, which the died 1660. If we turn to Blomefield's 'History of heralds themselves were often guilty of in a most Norfolk' we find that Philip was eleven years flagrant way. Tennyson may be Parson Evans's younger than Joba, who is made his son. pronunciation of Dennison; but in ancient heraldry The Rev. Jobo Tenison, B.D., died June 25, there was a reason for everything, bere nothing 1871, æt. seventy-two, M.I. Topcroft Church but a suggestio falsi, The arms of Cantelupe were

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THE POETS IN A THUNDERSTORM. (Concluded from 8th S. ii. 483.) The progress of scientific discovery has the effect on the best minds, and eventually on the public generally, of correcting erroneous impressions, so as to guide men nearer and nearer until they reach the truth as it is in mature. No great discovery remains long without effecting this kind of beneficent reform, and it may be traced as a result of Franklin's bold experiment which identified lightning with electricity. For example, a thunderstorm as described by Byron would naturally be a very different affair from a thunderstorm described by Thomson. The change does not consist in the difference between knowledge and ignorance, but in the mode of treatment. The one is content to describe in picturesque language what he sees and hears; the other attempts to explain what is altogether beyond the range of the knowledge of his day. Byron did not profess to be a scientific poet, but he was sufficiently discreet to confine his muse within the limits of accurate description. The poet of the future will have to do more than this. Descriptive poetry has had its day—it is exhausted; so that future numbers will have to conform to the scientific spirit of the time, otherwise they will be lacking in the most essential feature of all good writing—namely, truth to nature. The change here indicated has been making progress during the whole of the present century. Formerly it was not expected that a poet should be acquainted with science, so that much surprise was expressed when Coleridge was seen attending Davy's lectures at the Royal Institution. When asked what business he had there, he replied, “To lay in a new stock of ideas 1” The first poem, so far as I know, that appeared after Franklin's discovery, and described a thunderstorm, was one by W. Falconer, published in 1762, entitled “The Shipwreck, a Poem in Three Cantos, by a Sailor.” The ship was a merchantman, the Britannia, bound from Alexandria to Venice, but, being overtaken by a storm, she was driven out of her course, and wrecked on the coast of Greece, near Cape Colonne. The writer seems to have had some knowledge of electricity, judging from his reference to the “electric wire,” but his account of the thunder

storm is in a bad style of inflated poetry. He begins by supposing the thunder to be prepared in the torrid zone, and to be supplied to the temperate zone as it is wanted. Now thunders, wafting from the burning zone, Growl from afar, a deaf and hollow groan Portentous meteors blaze on the masts; ethereal doom lurks behind impenetrable shade (whatever that may mean); but when the author personifies the storm his bathos is complete:– It seem’d, the wrathful angel of the wind Had all the horrors of the skies combin'd; And here, to our ill-fated ship oppos'd At once the dreadful magazine disclos'd. And lo! tremendous o'er the deep he springs, Th' inflaming sulphur flashing from his wings . Hark! his strong voice the dismal silence breaks . Mad chaos from the chains of death awakes l Loud and more loud the rolling peals enlarge, And blue on deck their blazing sides discharge. And more to the same effect. With reference to “th' inflaming sulphur” in the above passage, it must be remarked that a flash of lightning in the open causes the chief ingredients of the atmosphere to combine chemically into a compound known as nitric acid, which, descending with the rain, combines with the potash or the soda of the soil, and forms nitre; but when lightning enters an enclosed space it generates ozone, or some of the lower oxides of nitrogen, the odour of which is well known to the chemist, but popularly it is said to resemble the fumes of burning sulphur. In my young days I heard Braham, and more recently Sims Reeves, sing the popular ballad, “The Bay of Biscay, O' The words, by Andrew Cherry, were apparently suggested by Falconer's poem, as in the line— The skies asunder torn, a deluge pour— and one or two other corresponding passages. In the ballad the tyranny of rhyme seems to have compelled the author to some irregularity in his tenses, the first four lines reading thus:— Loud roared the dreadful thunder, The rain a deluge showers; The clouds were rent asunder By lightning's vivid powers. It must be admitted that “showers” is rather a mild word for a “deluge.” It may also be objected that the lightning seems to act as a force external to the cloud, instead of being an integral portion of it. But, apart from these objections, the ballad is effective in its movement, and the more so when rendered by a good voice. In bringing these examples to a close, it may be remarked that a good modern poet, while indulging in the highest flights, will not offend against scientific accuracy. Thus, when Shelley was among the Euganian hills he heard how

the tempest fleet Hurries on with lightning feet.

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So also Wordsworth, in addressing the clouds, exclaims, in a noble apostropheO ye lightnings, Ye are their perilous offspring. And again:— Utter your devotion with thund’rous voices." And in his homely poem of “The Waggoner” he is still true to nature. Benjamin and his team are overtaken by a storm at night among the mountains. It is so dark that he and his horses are perplexed:— Astounded in the mountain gap, With thunder peals, clap after clap," Close treading on the silent flashes— And somewhere as he thinks by crashes Among the rocks; with weight of rain And sullen motions long and slow That to a dreary distance go, Till breaking in upon the dying strain A rending o'er his head begins the fray again." Lastly, Byron, in the third canto of “Childe Harold,” describes a thunderstorm in Switzerland, which occurred at midnight on June 13, 1816. He notices the awful stillness which precedes it:All heaven and earth are still—though not in sleep, But breathless, until From peak to peak, the rattling crags among Leaps the live thunder . Not from one lone cloud, But every mountain now hath found a tongue, And Jura answers, through her misty shroud, Back to the joyous Alps, who call to her aloud 1 The description is too long to quote, and, indeed, too well known; but Sir Walter Scott's criticism on it may not be so well known. He says:— “This is one of the most beautiful passages of the poem. The “fierce and far delight’ of a thunderstorm is here described in verse almost as vivid as its lightnings. The live thunder “leaping among the rattling crags,' the voice of mountains, as if shouting to each other—the plashing of the big rain—the gleaming of the wide lake, lighted like a phosphoric sea—present a picture of sublime terror, yet of enjoyment, often attempted, but never so well, certainly never better, brought out in poetry.” In conclusion, I would express an opinion that if any other grand natural phenomenon were examined by the light of its poetical expression, the best poetry would conform to the best science. When the poet Campbell, addressing the rainbow,

I ask not proud Philosophy To teach me what thou art, did he suppose that a knowledge of Sir Isaac Newton's account of that beautiful phenomenon would cool his poetic zeal 1 Apparently he did, for he goes on to say:When Science from Creation’s face Enchantment's veil withdraws, What lovely visions yield their place To cold material laws. Nevertheless, a little science would have saved him from the absurdity of seeing the rainbow

Mirror'd in the ocean vast
A thousand fathoms down.

The works of Tennyson and Browning bear testimony to the assiduity with which these two great poets cultivated a varied knowledge; and, to go further back, we are reminded of the answer given by Petrarch to one who asked him what he ought to know in order to become a poet. The reply was, “Everything !” and he might have cited his own example in learning all that he could, as well as that of the great author of the ‘Divine Comedy,’ who embodied in his works literally all the intellectual knowledge of his time.

C. ToMLINson, F.R.S. Highgate, N.

ToM LEGGE. – In the preface of Mr. G. A. Sala's gossipy “Twice Round the Clock’ the following passage honestly explains how the title of his book came to that versatile author's fancy :—

“It would be a sorry piece of vanity on my part to imagine that the conception of the history of a day and night in London is original. I will tell you how I came to think of the scheme of ‘Twice Round the Clock.’ Four years ago (1855), in Paris, my then master in literature, Mr. Charles Dickens, lent me a little thin octavo volume, which, I believe, had been presented to him by another master of the craft, Mr. Thackeray, entitled—but I will transcribe the title-page in full: “Low Life; or, one half the world knows not how the other half live. Being a critical account of what is Transacted by People of almost all Religions, Nations, Circumstances, and Sizes of Understanding, in the Twenty-Four Hours, between Saturday Night and Monday Morning. In a true Description of a Sunday, as it is usually spent within the Bills of Mortality, calculated for the twentyfirst of June. With an address to the ingenious and ingenuous Mr. Hogarth. “Let Fancy guess the rest.”— Buckingham. The date of publication is not given; but internal evidence proves the opuscule to have been written during the latter part of the reign of George the Second; and in the copy I now possess, and which I bought at a “rarity’ price, at a sale where it was ignorantly labelled among the facetiae—it is the saddest book, perhaps, that ever was written—in my copy, which is bound up among some rascally pamphlets, there is written on the fly-leaf the date 1759. Just one hundred years ago, you see. The work is anonymous; but in a manuscript table of contents to the collection of miscellanies of which it forms part, I find written ‘By Tom Legge.' The epigraph says that it ‘is printed for the author, and is to be sold by T. Legg, at the Parrot, Green Arbour Court, in the Little Old Bailey.’ Was the authorship mere guess-work on the part of the owner of the book, or was “Tom Legge'really the writer of “Low Life,' and, if so, who was ‘Tom Legge'? Mr. Peter Cunningham, or a contributor to Notes and Queries, may be able to inform us.”

What I want to know is, whether any contributor to ‘N. & Q.” has ever answered the double query; and, if not, can any one do so now I rather fancy that if the veteran G. A. S. was unable to solve the mystery, that must be a Thoms secundus who could succeed where he failed. However, the solution is worth attempting, and may possibly now be compassed by some such Thoms secundus in ‘N. & Q.” Mr. Sala hints at the authorship of the little volume thus:– “There are passages in it irresistibly reminding one of Goldsmith; but the offensive and gratuitous coarseness in the next page destroys that theory. Our Oliver was pure. But for the dedicatory epistle to the great#. refixed, and which is merely a screed of fulsome flattery, } could take an affidavit that ‘Low Life' was written by William Hogarth. And why not, granting even the fulsome dedication? Hogarth could have more easily written this calendar of Town Life than the “Analysis of Beauty’; and the sturdy grandiloquent little painter was vain enough to have employed some hack to write the prefatory epistle, if, in a work of satire, he had chosen to assume the anonymous. Perhaps, after all, the book was written by some clever, observant, deboshed man out of Grub Street, who had been wallowing in the weary London trough for years, and had eliminated at last some pearls which the other swine were too piggish to discern.” G. A. S. concludes his racy preface with the observation that “if in the year 1959, some historian of the state of manners in England during the reign of Queen Victoria, points an allusion in a foot-note by a reference to an old book called “Twice Round the Clock,'......that reference will be quite enough of reward for your friend. Macaulay quotes broadsides and Grub Street ballads. Carlyle does not disdain to put the obscurest of North German pamphleteers into the witness-box; albeit he often dismisses him with a cuff and a kick. At all events, we may be quoted some of these days, dear Gus, even if we are kicked into the bargain.” Should this note come under the eyes of the genial G. A. S. he will see he has been referred to and quoted before 1959, and—not “kicked.” J. B. S.

GARNETT : Hawtrey. (See 8th S. ii. 414.)— The statement appearing in the Admission Register of St. Paul's School, that John Garnett (admitted June 24, 1763, aged nine) was the son of a cook in Fetter Lane, London, clearly stands in need of correction in respect of the said scholar's parentage and age (Gardiner's ‘Admission Registers of St. Paul's School,’ 1884, p. 128). It may be noted that the father of John Garnett, admitted sizar of Trinity College, Cambridge, January 28, 1775, at 24, B.A. 1779, M.A. 1782, D.D. 1810, Dean of Exeter from 1810 to the date of his death in 1813, was John Garnett, D.D. (1709–1782), Bishop of Clogher, of whom a brief account is fur. nished in “Dict. Nat. Biog, vol. xxi. p. 5.

The Rev. John Hawtrey was the son of the Rev. Charles Hawtrey (died 1770), of King's College, Cambridge, B.A. 1710, M.A. 1714, instituted to the rectory of Wootton Courtney, Somerset, February 26, 1729, Rector of Dunton, Essex, Chaplain to Dr. Weston, Bishop of Exeter, Rector of Heavitree, Devon, and sub-Dean of Exeter, by a daughter of Richard Sleech, D.D., Fellow and Assistant Master of Eton College, and Rector of Hitcham, Bucks.

DANIEL Hipwell.

17, Hilldrop Crescent, N.

ORIGIN of THE Double FAs AN INITIAL. (See: 8th S. ii. 456.)—This subject having been mooted in ‘N. & Q., I am glad to have an opportunity of saying a few words, as the genesis of the initial ff was not mentioned in my “History of the Alphabet,' nor, so far as I am aware, has it been explained in any palaeographical work. It is not correct to say, as at the above reference, that “the capital F is a combination of two small fos, the curl in the middle being the remnant of the second f." Our capital F is, like our other capitals, a return to the Roman lapidary form, which was used in MSS. written in what are technically called “square capitals.” At the same time, it is perfectly true that in the “set Chancery hand” of the fourteenth century a capital F takes the form fs, which appears to consist of two small f's ; but if we trace this form backwards for some two hundred years, it will be found that what appears to be the second small f is in reality merely a prolongation of the vertical tick at the extremity of the upper horizontal bar of the capital F. In the twelfth century a fashion arose of prolonging this tick downwards till it became as long, or nearly as long, as the vertical stem of F, thus giving a form somewhat resembling a capital H with a cross-bar at the top. It is this elongated tick which has been mistaken for a second f. People who spell their names with f are merely using an obsolete law hand. Mr. Jones might just as reasonably spell his name Iones. From the “set Chancery” hand came the later “court hands,” in some of which, as well as in some copy-book hands, there is “a curl in the middle of F,” which may be considered as the survival of a fragment of the downward tick at the end of the upper bar of F, which got attached to the end of the middle bar; but, as our printing types have not descended from the law hands, the tick at the end of the middle bar of our capital F is, in fact, the tick of the Roman “square capital.”

Isaac TAYLoR.

“GUY FAwkes, GUY "-As we are informed by the press that the old-fashioned celebration of the 5th of November is flickering out, even in old-fashioned Lewes, which was foremost in its anti-Papal enthusiasm, it would seem desirable to place on record, for the benefit of future Brands and Hones, any ditties sung by the grimy celebrants of the doom of the miserable Guido. That there were many such versicles chanted hoarsely round the land is certain; and now seems the time, if, indeed, it be not too late, to rescue these staves from the oblivion of,

Il rauco suomo del Tartarea tromba. JAMEs Hooper. Norwich.

- JARNDYoF.—A diligent search through the indices to ‘N. & Q.” fails to discover any reference.

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