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of two styles, and some parts are of later date,
such as the references to Westward Ho' and Sir
Robert Shirley (1604-12). The appointment in
the Wardrobe is directly to the purpose.

Your correspondent MR. A. HALL, at the last reference, quotes Martin Keyes, Groom Porter to Queen Elizabeth, at the building of Sandgate Castle, 1539. Reynolde Scott, Esq., was surveyor thereof, and Richard Keys, Esq., then being sole paymaster of the said works, I find that at about that time a Richard Keyes, of Folkestone, was tenant of St. Radegund's Abbey, near Dover, 444 acres, value 137. 10s. 4d.; and in Arch. Cant., vol. xi. p. 388; Reynolde Keyes occurs in a pay list of the forces raised in Kent to resist the Spanish Invasion 1588, being described as "Corporall of the feilde." We thus have Martin, Richard, and Reynolde Keyes. Can their connexion with each other be now traced?


DICTIONARY (8th S. iii. 167).-Smart's 'Pronouncing Dictionary' (Longmans, 1846) meets the requirements of E. G. F. G. T. PEEVor.

A FUNERAL BY WOMEN IN 1677 (8th S. iii. 185).-On May 31, 1892, I was the officiating minister at the burial in a Worcestershire country churchyard of a girl aged thirteen months. The coffin was borne on white cloths by four girls, who wore white gloves and who lowered the coffin into the grave. This actual interment by the girls I had never seen before, but the other customs are not unusual in Yorkshire. W. C. B.

DRAUGHTS (8th S. iii. 186).-Cotgrave's 'Dictionary' has "Dame, & man at Tables, or

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Draughts"; damer, to make a Queen, as 8 Pawn at Chests; to double a man, or make a king, at draughts"; "dames, the playe on the outside of a paire of Tables, called draughts"; damier, a Chesse-boord, or paire of Tables." It has been supposed that Seneca alludes to a game somewhat similar to draughts, when he says "Catrunculis ludimus," Ep. 106, 11.


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was owner of New Place at the time that mul-
berry trees were being planted. All trees had a
charm for him; this slip was of a special, and then
rare, kind, to be planted in a special place, by the
wish of the king himself, and it is very much more
than likely that he planted it with his own hand.
This strong probability is strengthened by Clopton's
Mulberry trees live long.
assertion that he did so.
In the garden of a house in Colchester, at least as
old as the time of Shakespeare, there grew and
flourished and bore fruit abundantly, until 1884,
a noble mulberry tree. Tradition always supported
the view that it was one of King James's mulberry
trees; and when it was cut down for so-called
modern improvements, a scientific man counted
two hundred and ninety-eight clear rings of annual
growth, which would throw its origin back to the
close of the sixteenth century. Its diameter at the
base was six feet, at three feet from the ground
three feet nine inches, widening again to six feet
below the spread of the branches. Its wood was
sufficient to have made snuff-boxes and ornaments
innumerable. It was apparently prepared to live
quite as long again. Nothing now remains of it,
however, but its photograph.

CHARLOTTE CARMICHAEL STOPES. ABBEY CHURCHES (8th S. iii. 188).-The famous old church of St. George, at Dunster, near the North Somersetshire coast, is an interesting instance of a church that was partly monastic and partly parochical in pre-Reformation times. We have all read how that,―

Will Waddle, whose temper was studious and lonely, Hired lodgings that took single gentlemen only; and further that,

-Will was so fat he appear'd like a tun,
Or like two single gentlemen roll'd into one.

Much in the same way, Dunster Church consists of two churches, standing together "enderways," as they would say in Yorkshire. The original church was founded in the reign of William the Conqueror, by Sir William de Mohun, who also built the castle and founded a priory of Benedictine monks. The church nominally belonged to the priory, but was also used by the Vicar of Dunster and his parishioners. But in A.D. 1499 a serious dispute arose between monks and laymen, and ultimately the quarrel was referred to the Abbot of Glastonbury and others as arbitrators. The upshot was that it was agreed the vicar and his successors should have their choir distinct from that of the prior and his monks. From that time, therefore, the building has been of a dual character, and besides the altar at the eastern end (a part of the edifice known variously as the Old Church, the Priory Church, the Mohun Chapel, and the Luttrell Chancel), there has also been an altar on the western side of the central tower. This portion (i.e., west of the tower) has ever since

been used by the parishioners; whilst with the disappearance of the Benedictines the other end fell into a ruinous state. The historian Savage, in his 'History of the Hundred of Carhampton' (1830), refers to it thus :

"Oh that the voice of propriety and common decency, the voice that would command respect to the sacredness of the place, would call upon the living to honor the remains of the illustrious dead; then should we behold the Chancel of Dunster Church restored to its former venerable appearance, and the monuments of two once baronial families renovated by a judicious and well-timed expenditure. The restoration of the table monument of the Lord John de Mohun and his lady, and of their effigies, with the necessary reparations of those of the Luttrelle, a new floor, and some other repairs, would reflect that honor upon the living which we are so justly anxious to see paid to the memory of the dead."

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In reply to MR. JAMES HALL, who asks whether undoubted examples can be cited of parish churches that were partly monastic and partly parochial in pre-Reformation times, I would give as an example the church of which I am incumbent. My church (Davington Priory) was originally two churches under one roof, the western portion being the church of the Benedictine sisters of Davington, and the eastern portion of the building forming the parish church of Davington. The two parts were divided by a low partition wall, in which were two doorways-at each side the altar of the sisters' church-leading from one part of the edifice to the other. The whole building, viewed from the west door, would appear to be one church, as there would be nothing to break the long line of the roof. The parochial part of the building has long since been destroyed, and the partition wall is carried up to the roof and pierced with three graceful lancets. The present church, which was originally the monastic portion, consists of a Norman nave and south-west tower (corresponding with a tower which formerly stood at the northwest angle), and north aisle and porch of the Early English period. CARUS VALE COLLIER.

Davington Priory. Sherborne Minster was partly monastic, partly parochial. See Hutchins's History of Dorset.' H. J. MOULE.


HIGH SHERIFFS' DRESS (8th S. iii. 188).—I do not suppose that high sheriffs have ever had any distinctive costume. The red coat, &c., shown

in the portrait of the High Sheriff of Radnorshire in 1755 was probably merely his best suit, according to the fashion of the age, which he would have worn on any dress occasion, either at Court or elsewhere. Bright colours were not in those days, as Reynolds's portraits amply testify, confined to the army and the hunting field. I dare say the records of the Lord Chamberlain's Office would yield information as to the date when official uniforms were first instituted for civilians. The date would, I fancy, be well within the present century. George III. invented the "Windsor " uniform, blue coat with red facings, which is still worn, I believe, by the gentlemen of the Court when at Windsor, and which is very possibly the parent of all our civil service and diplomatic uniforms. It has been the custom for high sheriffs to wear at assizes a uniform or a so-called "court

dress," just the same as if they were attending a the ordinary costume of a private gentleman. As levee, but I do not know whether they would be guilty of contempt of court were they to appear in regards appearance at a levee or other state function, if a man is not dressed according to the Lord Chamberlain's regulations, he is simply refused admittance. Owing, no doubt, to the fact of many high sheriffs being deputy lieutenants, and wearing the uniform of that office, the idea has gained ground that that uniform is the official costume of a high sheriff. J. H. M.

ARTHUR ONSLOW (1691-1768), SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS (8th S. iii. 167).—Arthur Onslow-eldest son of Foot Onslow, Esq. (ob. 1710), returned as M.P. for Guildford, Surrey, in 1689, 1690, 1695, and 1698-is said to have been born at Chelsea, Oct. 1, 1691. He matriculated from Wadham College, Oxford, on Oct. 12, 1708, then aged eighteen, but did not proceed to a degree in that university. It appears that from about 1670 to 1720 there is an almost entire absence of entries in the admission register of Wadham College, consequently no record has been preserved of Onslow's earlier education. In addition to this it would seem that, prior to the appointment of the present Warden, it was contrary to custom to record in the college admission register particulars of the student's school or place of education. (Cf. Colline's Peerage,' 1779, vii. 248; Foster's Alumni Oxonienses,' 1500-1714, iii. 1090; Gardiner's Registers of Wadham College, Oxford,' 1889, i. 435.) DANIEL HIPWELL.

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17, Hilldrop Crescent, N.

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would be the better heading. The ghosts of dead miners may haunt the mines, but the Kobolds are spirits of another sort. Milton's line in 'Comus' may be remembered :—

No goblin or swart faery of the mine.

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ing. Burton, in his Anatomy of Melancholy,' quotes the passage from Georgius Agricola concerning the Cobali or Kobolds. The word Cobali must be the same as goblin, which includes most spirits, but not ghosts. Burton distinguishes between ghosts and goblins. It is difficult to say whether Shakspeare uses the word to express a devil or a ghost in the line from ‘Hamlet,'

Be thou a spirit of health or goblin damned.

Hamlet afterwards says,—



The Gospel of Saint Luke in Anglo-Saxon. Edited by J. W. Bright, Ph.D. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) IT is always a gratifying spectacle, and one that proThe spirits of the mines are often thought to be phetic Bishop Berkeley would have contemplated with gnomes, which are elementary spirits. They warn pleasure, when our cousins in the New World are found miners of approaching death by mysterious knock-looking back with filial affection to the mother that bore them and to the rock out of which they were hewed. The competent editor of this document of our oldest English hails from the Johns Hopkins University, and two of his collaborators, whose help he acknowledges, are Americans also. Dr. Bright follows the Corpus Christi MS. at Cambridge, with certain variations indicated by italics. With regard to these variations we venture to differ from him. So long as his MS. makes a good grammatical sense we hold it is an editor's business to follow it, and not to improve it by the arbitrary substitution of another word for one which he considers less suitable. For instance, in chap. i. v. 5 all the MSS. he cites give "of Abian tune," of Abiah's town, a reading perhaps due, as has been suggested, to the translator mistaking the vice editor boldly displaces it in favour of gewrixle, turn or of the Vulgate for vico. Not liking this rendering, the course, which he finds occurring afterwards in v. 8. The proper course would surely have been to print tüne in the text, as Bosworth did, and suggest gewrixle in a foot-note. Moreover, in this arbitrary emendation of his text Dr. Bright is not consistent. In chap. vii. v. 29 sundor-hälgan (Pharisees) by an error stands in the MS. as representing publicani of the Vulgate. Here, however, the editor leaves the word, without venturing to displace it by the proper word, manfullan, which occurs a few verses afterwards (v. 34). The notes, for a school edition, strike us as meagre, having to do almost altogether with the correspondence or discrepancy existing between the translation and the Vulgate original. Some linguistic and grammatical notes would have been more useful to a learner. Nevertheless, it is a handy little The Dawn of the English Reformation, its Friends and volume, and it has a good glossary. Foes. By Henry Worsley. (Stock.)

The spirit I have seen may be a devil, So it is likely enough that he may have thought at first he was addressing a devil which had assumed the appearance of the dead king.

Reform Club.


MR. BLACK's notice of this curious old superstition is very interesting. As additional sources of information on the subject, I may refer him to the Gentleman's Magazine for 1795, pp. 559, 739; and to the Quarterly Review for 1820, p. 365 et seq. A copy of Agricola's ' De Re Metallica' is in the Mining Library here, printed at Basel, in 1561. The woodcuts in it are very quaint. I would point out an error in a foot-note in MR. BLACK's notice, where the date 1854 should read,

I imagine, 1584.

Public Library, Wigan.


WE question whether Mr. Worsley's volume does not

AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED (8th S. i. overpass the line which disqualifies books for notice in 515; ii. 99):

L'homme qui se bat et qui conseille. When I pointed out a reference to this saying in Kenilworth' I did not remember that it is also quoted at more length in 'Waverley,' chap. xiv. Perhaps this will give EZTAKIT as much information as to its origin as he requires: "He [the Baron] used to have a perverse pleasure in boasting that the barony of Bradwardine was a male fief. the first charter having been given at that early period when women were not deemed capable to hold a feudal grant, because, according to Les coustusmes de Normandie, c'est l'homme ki se bast et ki conseille.'" JONATHAN BOUCHIER,

(8th S. iii. 140.)

our pages. History is our province. With theology we may not intermeddle. The volume before us, though dealing with historical facts, does so almost entirely from the standing-ground of controversial theology. The writer is an ardent Protestant, and consequently an admirer of some persons and things which others at the opposite pole of thought are wont to treat with little


We are sorry when the events of the sixteenth century are approached in a controversial spirit. That, however, there is a call for literature of this kind we are aware. It is, therefore, well that it should be produced by scholarlike persons of the stamp of Mr. Worsley rather than by those whose sole idea of writing a history of the Reformation period is to copy Foxe and Burnet. The highest praise we can give 'The Dawn of the English Reformation' is to say, what is certainly

I suppose the words asked for by HOLLY are a vague true that it does for this country what D'Aubigné's remembrance of Charles Lamb's sonnet in

Southey's album on Christian names :

In Christian world Mary the garland wears:
Rebecca sweetens on a Hebrew's ears:

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Yet by my faith in numbers I profess
These all than Saxon Edith please me less.

'Histoire de la Reformation' accomplished for the Con-

The Works of Heinrich Heine, Translated by C. G.
Leland. Vols. VII. and VIII. (Heinemann.)

THE two volumes now issued in Mr. Leland's scholarly
and careful_translation are occupied with the contribu-
tions from Paris to German newspapers, and especially

to the Augsburger Zeitung. As such they are but mode-
rately interesting to Englishmen, whose feelings Heine
never spares. His worst venom is, indeed, always chosen
when he mentions things English, and he even ventures to
impugn the English character for bravery. This he did,
however, to please his French hosts rather than his Ger-
man readers, and he always affects great indignation at
English patronage of things German, Among the con-
tents one finds his excuse when the sack of the
Tuileries in 1848 proved him to have been in receipt of
a pension from Louis Philippe, whom he always praised.
It is impossible for Heine to write anything which does
not contain flashes of brilliancy. In the present case
one is most impressed with the accuracy of view and the
insight-almost prophetic-he displayed in dealing with
things French. Mr. Leland's introduction and notes
remain very readable and often very pungent. He is at
no great pains to spare Heine, on whose transgressions
in regard to taste he is, indeed, very severe. Mr. Leland
also talks with obvious pride of having taken part in
erecting and defending barricades in the Paris streets in
1848. We will not ask him, in the words of Molière, "que
diable allait-il faire dans cette galère." He had, perhaps,
some reasons for taking part in a quarrel with which he
was unconcerned. To tell about the matter is, however,
we venture to think, more than indiscreet.

The London and Middlesex Note-Book. A Garner of
Local History and Antiquities. Edited by W. P. W.
Phillimore. (Stock.)

THIS handsome volume contains some important papers, especially those on the Lord Mayors and Sheriffs of London of the time of James I. The facts recorded must have taken years in accumulating. We trust that some day or other the compiler of these notices, or some one else treading in his footsteps, will give us an annotated catalogue of the Lord Mayors and Sheriffs from their beginning down to the present time. Foreigners not infrequently make grotesque blunders regarding the office and rank of the Lord Mayor, but, on the other hand, we sometimes find our own countrymen showing equal ignorance, though they commonly err in the opposite direction. The schoolboy's diary of the London sights which he enjoyed in 1843 is amusing. Among other objects of interest which he visited was the gallery containing Miss Mary Linwood's copies of paintings in needlework, an exhibition which has long been discontinued. The short paper on the hundreds of Middlesex is useful. The writer points out that these ancient "divisions of the country seem in danger of becoming totally extinct." We fear this is the case. Ordinary works of reference seldom notice them. Before it is too late we wish some antiquary would compile a list of the hundreds, wapentakes, and rapes for the entire kingdom. They are in many cases even older land divisions than the counties of which they form parts, and the names in some instances carry us back to the earliest recorded Teutonic settlement, if, indeed, they do not in some cases go back even further. Gloucestershire antiquaries will be glad to find here the inscriptions to the memory of the Berkeleys, of Berkeley Castle, who are buried in Cranford Church.

VOLS. IV. and V. of the "Aldine" Wordsworth, edited by Prof. Dowden, have been issued by Messrs. G. Bell & Son. Vol. iv. contains, among other things, "Poems of Sentiment and Reflection," including The Character of the Happy Warrior,' Fidelity,' and other pieces, to which every Wordsworth lover is glad to turn. It has also The White Doe of Rylstone' and the Ecclesiastical Sonnets. In the fifth volume appear the miscellaneous poems, Epitaphs and Elegiac Pieces,' the modernizations of Chaucer, &c., and, best of all, the Ode on the

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Intimations of Immortality,' one of the noblest poems of the century. Two more volumes complete the edition. WITH a capable and interesting in troduction by Mowbray Morris appears (Macmillan & Co.) the "Globe edition of Boswell's Life of Johnson. To the owners of few books these trustworthy and attractive "Globe" editions appeal. Thousands read Shakspeare in the "Globe" edition, and thousands more will turn to the "Globe" Boswell. Among its many recommendations is a fine index.

WE have received Broad Norfolk (Norwich, Norfolk News Co.). It is a reprint of an interesting correspondence which has appeared in the Eastern Daily Press. As the work appeared originally in the form of letters, it has not been possible to arrange the material in alphabetical order; but the difficulty has been obviated by an excellent index. Mr. CozensHardy, the editor, says that it is remarkable accumulation of provincialisms ever colperhaps the most lected in any county in the kingdom." wishing to disparage Broad Norfolk, we cannot help Without our mind recurring to Miss Baker's Northamptonshire Glossary,' Miss Jackson's 'Shropshire Word-Book,' Mr. Atkinson's 'Cleveland Dialect,' and several of the English Dialect Society's issues which we need not name, the little book before us. Notwithstanding this overevery one of which contains far more information than estimate, we willingly admit that the various writers information which will be of great service to the comhave enabled the editor to garner a mass of curious pilers of the Dialect Dictionary' which has been promised for some years. Some of the words registered here are new to us. Corder, for example, the meaning of which does not seem clear. Rockstaff, in the before heard of. It is, of course, a survival from the sense of a tale, "an old woman's rockstaff," we never days of the spinning wheel. Wind-jammer is, it seems, Puritan hatred for the "kist of whistles"? an organist. Is it a modern invention, or a relic of the

Notices to Correspondents.

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We cannot undertake to answer queries privately. To secure insertion of communications correspondents must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested to head the second communication "Duplicate."

Contributors will oblige by addressing proofs to Mr. Slate, Athenæum Press, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C.

W. J. GRUBBE.-Received; will appear.

ERRATUM.-P. 209, col. 2, 1. 16, for "Paul Burley read Paul Bierley.


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The Editor of 'Notes and Queries ""-Advertisements and Business Letters to "The Publisher"-at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C.

We beg leave to state that we decline to return communications which, for any reason, we do not print; and to this rule we can make no exception.

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This Day's ATHENÆUM contains Articles on




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The ATHENEUM for March 25 contains Articles on



NEW NOVELS-A Mere Cipher; Between Two Opinions; A Secret of
the Past; From One Generation to Another; The Tragedy of Ida
Noble; A Wild Wooing; A Tale that is Told; Ships that pass in the
Night; That Hated Saxon; Dollars are Trumps; The Private Life
of an Eminent Politician; Le Secret du Précepteur.





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The ATHENEUM for March 11 contains Articles on





NEW NOVELS-The Sorceress; Rujub the Juggler; The Story of
John Trevennick; Life's Tapestry, or Homes and Hearths; Lady
Verner's Flight; A Study in Temptations; Keith Deramore;
Morris Julian's Wife; Babette Vivian; Sœurs.





SCIENCE-Entomological Literature; The Spring Publishing Season;
Societies; Meetings; Gossip.

FINE ARTS-Coins of the Moghul Emperors; A Cabal Portrait;
Minor Exhibitions; Gossip.

MUSIC-The Week; Concerts and Oratorios; Gossip; Performances
Next Week.

DRAMA-The Week; Gossip.

JOHN C. FRANCIS, Athenæum Office, Bream's-buildings, Chancery-lane, E.C.;

Or of all Newsagents.

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