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as a pair of the regiment's old colours are in the to obtain any further information respecting this possession of my family.

D. K. T. Henry de Albini, or of his sister Julia, who

appears to have married into the Bonham family. PORTRAIT OF GEORGE III.-Can any of your

ALFRED T. EVERITT. readers kindly identify the above from the follow- High Street, Portsmouth. ing description; as to who the artist was, or, if a

SKIRT.-In section 15 of the Commons Act, replica, where the original can be found ?' A'fulllength life-size, as a middle-aged man, in Hussar 1876, (39 & 40 Vict. c. 56), provision is made uniform, blue with scarlet facings, the dolman of for the enactment of by- laws for a regulated scarlet, both jacket and dolman richly laced, blue pasture by " the majority in value of the owners pantaloons heavily laced on either thigh, crimson of skirts or rights of pasturo" therein. Is not leather hessians, a broad light blue ribbon across is the derivation and exact meaning of the word ?

a misprint for stints ? and, if not, what the breast, the busby, with scarlet "jelly bag black and white feather, in left hand resting upon left thigh. The figure is standing on a bank, the THE DRAMA AND THE ARCHANGEL GABRIEL. face slightly inclined to the right. A coloured - Mr. Barry, in his 'Studies in Corsica : Sylvan person in crimson livery, after Eastern fashion, is and Social, 1893, mentions that the theatre at holding the charger in the bottom of right-hand Ajaccio “is dedicated to the Archangel Gabriel.”

Is not this kind of dedication somewhat unusual ? The light blue ribbon would point to the Hano

WILLIAM GEORGE BLACK, verian Guelphic order. The uniform might also Glasgow. be Hanoverian, as at that date there were no Hussars in the English army.


Joan GODDARD.—John Goddard, of Brodforth, 1, Queen Street, Colchester,

Wimborne Minster, will proved October, 1564 ;

children, John, Walter, Richard, Edmond, Alice, POWELL OF CAER - HOWELL. — In a memoir and Jane; brothers, Edmond and Richard. Any written by the Hon. Wm. Dummer-Powell, Chief information respecting this family, but particularly Justice of Upper Canada, born 1755, he mentions as to the ancestry of John Goddard, and his conthe above place, near Montgomery, as the ancestral pexion, if any, with the Goddards of Poole, will seat of his family, and states that his grandfather, be gratefully received. Please reply direct.

H. S. CRAYTON. John Powell, who married the heiress of the

Oxford Union Club. Dummers, was a younger son of a good Salopian family which_had formerly possessed this estate. THE ROOT OF SCARCITY. - In Belsham's Mr. Justice Powell bore “Per fesse or and ar., a'Chronology of the Reigns of George III. and lion rampt. gu."; crest, a sun rising from the IV.,' under the year 1787 it is stated that in clouds ; motto, Aude." Is anything now known December of that year the “root of scarcity" was of such a family ? L. MURRAY OGILVY.

introduced by Dr. Lettsom. In the ordinary bio

graphical notices of Dr. Lettsom I can find no COL. RICHARD TOWNESEND.—Carte, the bio- mention of this root. What was it? grapher of the Duke of Ormonde, is spoken of by

JAMES HOOPER. Mr. Richard and Miss Dorothea Townshend, in Norwich. their interesting' Account of the Life and Times of Colonel Richard Townegend,' as

THE COMMONPLACE-BOOK OF JOSEPH HINDE. and a Jacobite," p. 78. That he was a Jacobite .- A manuscript of 458 pages is in my possession, is well known; but is there any evidence of his inscribed on the first Ay - leaf " Leiber Josephí being a member of the Roman Catholic Church ? Hinde. July, 1706.” The work is a commonIf such exists it has escaped our notice.

place-book, in which some English clergyman N. M. & A. copied in a beautiful hand extracts from whatever

authors be bad read with interest. Most excerpts DE ALBINIACO : ALBINI FAMILY.—There is to are English, but those in Latin and even Greek be found in the Record Office, London, an Inquisi- are numerous. Nor are original observations by tion post mortem, taken at Southampton in the Mr. Hinde himself lacking. This commonplacesixth year of Edward I., on the death of Henricus book is arranged according to what Joha Locke de Albiniaco ; his sister, Claricia de Albiniaco, calls" a new method,” which he had translated with Mauritius de Bonham, “ blius filii Juliana out of the French in 1686, twenty years before de Albiniaco sororis ejusdem Henrici,” were found Mr. Hipde's book was penned. Will some reader to be his heirs. Amongst his possessions were of 'N. & Q.' tell me through its columns someHale Manor, in co. Southampton, Wishford thing about Joseph Hinde,-at what university Manor, and lands in Berwick, Maddington, and he studied, when born and died, where he Orcheston St. George, in the county of Wilts. I preached, &c. ?

JAMES D. BUTLER. shall be glad if any of your readers can help me Madison, Wis., U.S.

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THE SOLAR ECLIPSE OF AUGUST 14, B.C. 394. The great value, as a work of chronological refer

Beplies. ence, of 'L'Art de Vérifier les Dates' makes it

SILVER IN BELLS. desirable to point out some errors therein à propos of the above eclipse, which it says took place au

(8th S. iii. 105, 175.) tems que Conon vainquit les Perses dans un combat The account of the experiments carried out on naval, près de Gnide, ville de l'ile de Chypre.” bells more than fifty years ago, mentioned by Cnidus, off which the battle was fought, was not E. L. G., would astonish modern metallurgists. It in Cyprus, but a peninsula in Caria. Conon was is well known among the members of the craft how fighting not against the Persians, but in alliance dangerous it is to draw conclusions as to the influence with them against the Lacedæmonians. And the of a certain metal on the properties of alloys from eclipse occurred not at the time of the battle, data derived from experiments made on the pure which was probably in July, but when A gesilaus metal itself, or even from results obtained with heard of it, about a month afterwards, the news alloys containing a different proportion of the reaching him just as he was entering Bæotia, and same metal. It is an established fact that beinducing him to force on the battle of Coroneia tween certain well-defined limits carbon, wolfram, before his opponents had heard of the naval engage- manganese, and chrome will improve the quality of ment off Cnidus.


steel, for instance; but no one would have ever

dreamed to experiment on charcoal, &c., pure and LINES BY TENNYSON. - Where in Tennyson simple, to prove the point one way or another. If, shall I find the following ?

therefore, the experimenters in question have And the laughing of the jay.

arrived at the truth, they have done so more by But earth's dark forehead flings across the heavens,

sheer luck than good management. Her shadow, crowned with stars.

The "superstition" of trying to improve the

J. D. sound of bells by adding silver to the alloy is CORNELIUS JANSSEN.-I am anxious to ascer- more than a thousand years old. It is mentioned tain the whereabouts of this portrait-painter in by the anonymous monk of St. Gallen who wrote A.D. 1622-3-4. He was practising in London in the life of Charlemagne. He relates how a col1618, dwelling in Blackfriars. In 1636 he re

league of his, Tanco or Danco by name, having sided with Sir Arnold Braems, a Dutch merchant, cast a bell the tone of which pleased Charlemagne at Bridge, near Canterbury. I have som pencil very much, a certain opifex, well versed in the miniatures attributed to him, dating from 1622 to making of all kinds of works in glass or metal, 1624; and as the little volume containing them approached the emperor and asked him :includes also a sketch of the Market Place, Maid

“ Domine Imperator, jube mibi cuprum multum afferri, stone, in 1622, the portraits may be those of some ut excoquam illud ad purum, et in vice stagni fac mihi, of the nobility residing in the vicinity at that time. et fundo tibi tale campanum, ut istud in ejus compara

quantum opus est, de argento dari, saltim centum libras,

F. JAMES. tione sit mutum." Maidstone.

The emperor gave orders that the requisite BASQUE PROVINCES. - Will any reader be so weight of copper and hundred pounds of silver kind as to let me know where to procure a pam- should be handed over to the opifex. But the phlet on the Basque Provinces by Col. Hill- wily artificer appropriated the silver to his own James? I saw the pamphlet on the library table use, and consequently, when the bell was hung in of a club, and read a notice appended thereto that the belfry and one priest after another attempted the proceeds of the sale were to be devoted to a to ring it, it would not utter & sound. So the charity. But I do not know who published the wily bellfounder was called upon to try his hand ; pamphlet.

W. R. LLUELLYN. but no sooner had he touched the rope than the

clapper dropped out of the bell, and, striking him AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED. — on the head, went clean through his body, carryI'll call down fairies from the moon,

ing sundry parts of his anatomy with it, and killing To please her with their gambols. H, W.

the embezzler on the spot. The silver was found, "We shall not know the Winter from the Summer and by the emperor's order distributed "inter in. except by the green leaves."


digentes palatinos.” The miracle is fully described Winter is nurse to May, And Life is the daughter of Death.

in the Ms. chronicle, “ Monachi Sangallensis de

Gestis Karoli [Magni] Imperatoris Libri Duo,"
God is in heaven, and all is well. A. C.
Out of the window she leaned and laughed,

published by Pertz, in his ‘Monumenta Germaniæ,' A girl's laugb, idle and foolish and sweet;

div. “Scriptores," vol. ii. p. 744. According to the Foolish and idle it dropped like a call

learned editor, internal evidence shows that the Into the crowded noisy street. CAROLUS C.

chronicle was compiled between the years 884 and Trouble deaf Heaven with your bootless prayer.

887. J, D. Anxious to know the truth about the effect of

silver on the qualities of bell metal, I followed With regard to the presence of the precious metal MR. ED. MARSHALL's advice and dipped into Mr. in old bells, I must admit that in most cases Beckett Denison's 'Lectures on Church Building' where old bell - metal has been analyzed, the (second edition, 1856), expecting to find the pro- analysis has failed to discover traces of any silver. mised further particulars ; but could only discover (Cf. Otte's 'Glockenkunde,' second edition, 1884). (on p. 284) the bare ex cathedra statement that of the famous old bell called Rouvelle (it is said the common notion of the old bells having silver from rouoier=tbe purring of cats), in Rouen belfry, in them is a mere vulgar error. There is not the the bell dating from the thirteenth or fourteenth slightest attempt to prove the point. I expected century, local tradition always held that it was very to find an array of bistorical facts and numerous rich in silver until a chemist, Girardin, obtained instances of old bells having been analyzed and no permission in 1830 to take off filings in sufficient silver having been found in their composition, but quantity for an analysis, and found the alloy to was grievously disappointed. So I turned to the contain the following percentages of metals : Copseventh edition of the same author's (thea Sir per, 71; tin, 26 ; zinc, 18; and iron, 1•2. An Edmund Beckett), 'Clocks, Watches, and Bells' analysis of the sister bell, Cache-ribaud, gave in (published in 1883), and found a paragraph headed 1849 a similar negative result as regards silver. "Silver” (on p. 364), half of which is about "anti- But still the ancient custom of throwing silver mony." The learned author still maintains that coins as votive offerings into the molten metal is an the old " inveterate popular delusion" about old established historical fact. Reinwarth and Viollet. bells having silver in them has "not the slightest le-Duc both mention it, and the former says that foundation. Nevertheless"-continues the author- it is referred to in ancient chronicles, but unfortu. " we had some experiments made for the purpose of nately he gives no references. Both authors tax being quite sure that silver was of no use, either with the old bellfounders with purloining the votive reference to sound or strength of metal ; several different offerings, and

Reinwarth even explains how the trick proportions were tried, beginning with sixpence in a bell was done. He states that the furnaces were built of nearly a pound weight, and it was clear that the silver rather did harm than good in both respecte."

on the reverberatory principle, and consequently

all coine, silver and gold, thrown into the hole of If the experiments really did prove these two the furnace, fell on the fire-grate, where they were poists, there still remains for Lord Grimthorpe to melted in due time, and whence they dropped adduce evidence in support of his statement that into the ashes without ever reaching the molten the old bells did not contain silver. But I further metal intended for casting the bell, but finding question whether his lordship has given us an their way, via the ash-bole, into the bellfounders unbiassed account of those experimente. Oo re- pockets. (Cf. his article on bells, &c., in Ersch ferring to p. 18 of vol. xix. of the Minutes of and Gruber's ‘Encyclopædia,' div. i. pt. 70, p. 96.) Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Eogineers,' But, on the other hand, there must have been I fiod that during the discussion following a bellfounders less deceitful, as silver has been found lecture on The Raising and Hanging the Bells in in old bell-metal. Thus J. Dan. Blavignac gives the New Palace, Westminster,' the author of the an instance in his book, ‘La Cloche' (Genève, paper made the following statement :

1877), of a bell weighing 238 Swiss pounds, in ." He [Mr. Jabez James) was present on one occasion, Carouge, Dear Geneva, contaioing

« 18 onces with Mr. Denison, at the foundry of Messrs. Mears, when d'argent à 993 millièmes." The composition of an experiment was made upon three small belle of this bell was about 78 parts of copper to 22 of tin. different alloy. The first, which contained no silver, We know also that many of the French bells were broke into many pieces from a smart blow of a kuife. broken up during the great Revolution and made pence, broke after a certain number of blows; but the into coins. Some of these bave been analyzed, and third, which contained a shilling, withstood the greatest it is about these that Viollet-le-Duc remarks (cf. number of blows, although it also eventually broke. his 'Dict. de l'Architecture,' tom. iii. p. 282) :He then suggested to Mr. Denison the propriety of making some alteration in the alloy of the great bell à la fin du dernier siècle, avec les débris de ces instru

“ ......nos sous, dits de métal de cloches, et façonnés, (Big Ben). He would add, that he thought the addition of silver to the alloy did not improve the sound

of the ments, ne contiennent qu'une très faible partie d'argent ; bell [Did it spoil it ?], but it gave greater toughness to

cependant il s'y en trouve." the metal."

There is very little silver in them; but still This statement was made on Nov. 8, 1859. As there is some. The italics are mine. Lord Grimthorpe, in 1883, still maintains that

L. L. K. silver is useless for bells, we may assume that he There having been a settlement of the scientific did not accept Mr. James's suggestion about the question, let me mention that the Man of Ross, alteration in the alloy, and hence it reste with his on the renovation of his churcb, presented a great lordship to prove that the two great bells, the bell, which was cast in his presence at Gloucester, present Big Ben and its predecessor, would not when he threw into the crucible bis own large have cracked if they had had a little silver in them. silver tankard.


MR. LAWRENCE HAMILTON will find the word

“Oasts” (geh S. iii. 107, 134, 173). — An Act of carried, or vented by any person or persons whatsoever, Henry IV., in his fifth year (1403-4),

cap. 9, forth or out of the haven or river of Tyne, belonging ta appoints "hosts” to receive foreign merchants in realm, and not transported beyond the seas, the several England :

sum of 12d. of lawful money of England," &c. " And also it is ordained and stablished, that in every

The monopoly of the "hostmen" of Newcastle citie, Towne, and port

of the sea in England, where the in the sale and exportation of coal formed the subrepairing, sufficie't hostes sbalbe assigned to ye same ject of innumerable petitions, remonstrances, and marchauntes by the Maire Shyrifes or Bailifes of the inquiries during the reigos of the Stuarts. In said cities, Townes, and portes of the sea. And that the modern times the term “boastman" has been sayed marchaunts aliens and straungers shall dwell in superseded by that of "fitter" (i.e., coal-fitter), none other place, but wyth their sayd hostes so to be “ fitters" being the representatives of collieries in sball take for their trauaile in ye manner as was accus- the ports of shipment who sell the produce, and tomed in old tyme. An. 5 H. 4, ca. 9." - Rastall's arrange for the loading of it on board exporting Statutes,' 1579, p. 312.


RICHARD WELFORD. By a transposition, the origin of which is not

Newcastle-on-Tyne. very clear, the merchant stranger who came to Newcastle - upon - Type to buy coals was deno- explained and exemplified at pp. xliv, xlv, of the minated the "hoast," "host," or "oast," and the notes to the illustrations of the new edition of local vendor of coals, to whom he came, was called Green's 'Short History.' The note is contained the “hoastman" or " hostman.” A fraternity of in parts xvii. and xviii. of the monthy issue. “hoastmen” existed in that town, as a branch of

Q. V. the Mercbants' Company, in the early part of the

"TAE LAST PEPPERCORN BREAKS THE CAMEL'S reign of Henry VIII., and has continued in a more BACK” (gen S. iii. 48, 118, 232).—

I have jast met or less flourishing condition ever since. Its seal with the following variant of this proverbia! represents a “hoastman” grasping the hand of expression in Sir Walter Scott's “Redgauntlet,' foreign mercbant, and greeting him with “ Welcome, mine oaste !” Queen Elizabeth, in 1600,

chap. xxi.;-. granting to the burgesses of Newcastle a now borne, in its day of various procedure—but it's the

"By my word, it is a gude case, and muckle has it charter, specially incorporated the “boastmen” in barley-pickle breaks the naig's back, and wi' my consent the following terms :

it shall not hao ony mair burden laid upon it." “And whereas the town is an ancient town, and the

F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. Mayor and burgesses, time out of mind, have had a certain guild or fraternity commonly called the Hoastmen,

ARABELLA FERMOR (8th S. iii. 128, 212).-I for the loading and better disposing of sea-coals and pit" think I can give MR. LYNN some clue as to Ara. coals, grindstones, rubstones, and whetstones, in and upon bella Fermor. In the year 1853, when I was the river and port of Tyne, which guild or fraternity is not reading with the then rector of Ufton Nervet, Mayor and burgesses have humbly eupplicated the Queen Berkshire, a peerage lawyer came to examine that, in supply of the said defects, she would vouchsafe the church registers. I remember showing him the to create the said guild into a body corporate and politic. entry be sought, which was, I think, the burial of ......The Queen therefore ordains, appoints, and grants Arabella Parkys (the “Belinda” of Pope), that (names of members follow ) shall be a body corporate wife of Francis. Parkyns, of Ufton Court. She ......and shall have and enjoy all such liberties, privi. leges.......concerning the loading and unloading of stone was by birth & Fermor. On my return to coala, pit-coals, grindstones, rubstones, and whetstones, my home at Deerhurst, in Gloucestershire, I and the loading and unloading in or out of any ships, noticed the name Fermor on a slab in the keels, or vessels, pit coals and stones within the river and chancel, and wrote to the lawyer about it. He harbour of Tyne, between Newcastle

and the Sparhawk, requested me to send him a rubbing, as it was as the fraternity have at any time used," &c.

important. This I did. The inscription is now For this charter the Hoastmon gave her Majesty printed in Batterworth's · Account of Deerhurst': a duty of 12d. a chaldron (fifty-three hundred-Here lyeth the body of Peter Fermor second weight) upon all coal exported coastwise :- sonne of Henry Fermore, Esquire, of Tusmore, in

* In regard of these gracious and most princely favours Oxfordshire: he dyed on the 16th Day of Decem. and benignities, being desirous to our uttermost powers A.D. 1691." Peter Fermor's first wife was Elizato show ourselves thankful for the same, and not being beth, daughter

of John Carrill, of Tangly, Surrey ; charge which ber Highness hath of late sustained, and she died 1677. His second wife was Mary, likely to be at, in and for the

defence of this realm, and daughter and heiress of Sir Anthony Morgan, her Highness's poor subjects, against the malice and Knt. Mr. Fermor's daughter (oame not given) force of the enemies of this realm, do in all humility sold his estate in Deerhurst. I think that the give and grant

unto her Most Excellent Majesty....for search at Ufton was undertaken to find evidence each and every chaldron of sea.coal, stone-coal or pit in the De Scales peerage case (see Barke's at any time or times hereafter sball be sold, shipped, Baronetage,' voce "Tempest"), and reference to

the printed proceedings might throw some light lady's appearance in trowsers,” so that he falls on Arabella Parkyns, or Fermor, who probably under his own lash. There is an account of her in belonged to the Tusmore family. Mr. Crisp has Chambers's 'Encyclopædia,' 1861. W. C. B. printed the 'Catholic Register of Ufton Court. At P. 4 we find that “Mrs. Perkins, alias Arrabella

TENNYSON'S CAMBRIDGE CONTEMPORARIES (8th Fermer, died Feb 1965 1736.” John, styled “the S. ii. 441 ; iii. 52, 171).- A reference to the last of the family," being her youngest son, died Dictionary of National Biography,'. article Dec. 30, 1769. A history of Ufton Parish “William Bodbam Donne,” may remove all doubts and Court bas lately been printed, which may as to his university, explain why he took no contain some information I have not yet seen it.

academical degree, and will supply other particuSince writing the above I have found in Baker's lars as to his life and career. Northamptonshire,' vol. i. p. 599, and in the

M. A. M. JESSOPP. Gentleman's Magazine, 1827, p. 580, pedigrees of MISTAKE IN READING PRAYERS (8th S. iii. 209). the Fermors of Tusmore, in which it is shown that -This potion exists in Worcestershire, teste Arabella, daughter of Henry Fermor, of Tusmore, meipso. But I think the death is supposed to married 1734 Francis Perkins. This settles the follow after three mistakes, and not after a single matter. A. W. OORNELIUS HALLEN.

slip. Absit! What a mortality there should BARTON (8th S. iii. 228).—William Andrew man who always said mumpsimus! W. C. B.

have been among the parishioners of the dear old Barton is one of those mythological persons with whom the readers of Sir Bernard Burke's works SCHOLA VERLUCIANA (8th S. ii. 148). - Your are familiar. The Bartons of Deanwater were not correspondent's query is tantalizingly brief. Where related to the Bartons of Smithells. If W. G. and in what context did he meet with the name? will write to me, care of the Editor of N. & Q.,' For aught a dunce like myself can say, Verluciana I shall be happy to give him any information he may be a whimsical latinization of “Spring Grove," wishes about the Lancashire Bartons.

Isleworth, where there was a school called “The G. W. M.

London International College,” which was transFrom OXFORD TO ROME' (8th S. iii, 207).-

ferred to the British and Foreign School Society Whatever mystery there may have been about the on Sept. 25, 1889, and occupied by the Borough authorship of this book, it has long since been given if, however, Verluciana be formed from Verlucio;

Road Training College in the following spring. up. In the 'Handbook of Fictitious Names,' p. 4, “F. C. H.” is quoted as authority, and un

a name mentioned in the 'Itinerarium Antonini,' doubtedly a good one too. See N. & Q., 3rd S. it ought to mean Warminster, in Wiltshire, which vii. 369. Miss Harris died in 1862.

still has its endowed grammar school.


105, Albany Road, Camberwell, S.E. ANGELICA CATALANI (8th S. ii. 485 ; iii. 113, 211).—The note of MR. EDGCUMBE on this great

“ SALZBERY" AND "SOMBRESET IN 1502 (8th cantatrice is most interesting, and most probably S. iii

. 101, 197). - The two persons thus referred to ho is correct in mentioning the Catupo Sante at are plainly the Dean of Salisbury and Somerset Pisa as the place of her burial. My authority for Herald. Dugdale tells us, quoting Holinshed, mentioning Paris as the place of her death was

that Jean de Foix, son of Gaston Captal de Buch, Chambers's “Encyclopædia, s.v. “Catalani." There married Margaret de la Pole, niece of William, is also a memoir of her, occupying more than a

Duke of Suffolk. I know of no confirmatory column and a half, in the Imperial Dictionary of evidence of this relationship; but the duke had Universal Biography,' in which it is stated that several younger brothers, one of whom might have she died at Florence in 1849. This was written by

been her father. “Richard, Duke of Suffolk,” is G. A, M., i. e., George A. Macfarren, composer of

certainly a blunder.

HERMENTRUDE. •King Charles II.' and 'May Day,' one in every

ORIGIN AND EXPLANATION OF PHRASE SOUGAT Way qualified for the work. There is no date on the title-pages, but most likely the book was pub- but may I be permitted to say, by way of "

(8th S. iii. 168).—The "origin" I leave to others; lished about 1865. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

planation," that, etymologically, to convince in.

volves the meaning of to conquer, to overcome, Byron, in his ‘English Bards and Scotch Re- and that it was used by, writers aforetime as we viewers' (1. 597), satirizes “the nobles of our should now use con- or re- fute? We have an present race," who "worship Catalani's panta- example of this in the heading of St. Luke xx.: loons." She is dismissed in a note as an amusing “ He convinceth the Sadducees that denied the vagabond, principally memorable on account of her resurrection"; in tbat of St. Mark iii.: “Consalary, the author adding that he is "still black vinceth the blasphemy of casting out devils by and blue from the squeeze on the first night of the Beelzebub"; in Acts xviii. 28: “For he mightily


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