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convinced the Jews and that publickly, shewing by the scriptures that Jesus was Christ." Other instances from the Bible might be adduced, but these may suffice. See Eastwood and Wright's 'Bible Word Book.' In 'Bible English' (p. 123), Mr. T. Lewis O. Davies quotes


Bishop Hall, who addressing the Saviour says, 'But even against these (Arians) art Thou justified in the Spirit, speaking in Thy divine Scriptures, whose evident demonstrations do fully convince their calumnies and false suggestion.-' Mystery of Godliness,' sec. 8."

Seeing, then, that convinced refuted, the truth of the couplet

A man convinced against his will
Is of the same opinion still

may not be questioned. People who argue for the sake of victory and not for truth seldom change their opinion; you may convince them completely in one sense of the word, but rarely in another, in that of satisfying their minds by evidence that you are right and they are wrong.


I believe MR. CASS should have written the lines as I have often heard them :

A man convinced against his will Maintains the same opinion still. Though convinced, he doggedly professes to hold an opinion which in reality he is convinced is unten

able. Such men are not rare.


Is not the word "will" constantly and colloquially used in two sense-that of determination (Bovλ) and desire (éλnuá)? A man is "convinced against his will" when he is constrained to believe that true which he strongly desires to find untrue, and which he struggles not to believe as long as he can. That being so, when the pressure is removed, he is very likely to return to the old delusion. Is not this the meaning of the popular version of this couplet? HERMENTRUDE.

Your correspondent has not quite correctly given his quotation from 'Hudibras.' The passage is :He that complies against his Will, Is of his own Opinion still; Which he may adhere to, yet disown, For Reasons to himself best known. Pt. iii. canto iii. ll. 547-550.

In the case of the phrase, “A man convinced against his will," &c., which I have usually heard quoted, “A woman convinced," &c., we must assume, I suppose, that the conviction is only apparent, not real. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY.

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Review for October, 1843, Washington Irving was referred to (p. 472) as the American who absolutely loved Stratford-upon-Avon, and Falstaff's London haunts, and the old-fashioned merriment of Christmas at Brereton Hall." Washington Irving, of course, was then still living, and it will be noted that the Brereton Hall theory was stated as a matter of course. ALFRED F. ROBBINS.

THE MOTHER OF QUEEN ELIZABETH WYDVILLE (8th S. ii. 309, 431).-The following quotation comes very handy :

"A Mother at Fourteen.-A girl named Laming, of Ringswould, near Dover, fourteen years of age, was admitted to the union several weeks ago, and gave birth to

a child which, though strong and healthy, died suddenly

on New Year's Eve."

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"LETTERED EASE" (8th S. ii. 368, 494, 511).— In the third and fifty-second chapters of Waverley,' Scott uses the variants "learned ease " and "lettered indolence." G. J.

FEAST OF ST. MICHAEL (8th S. iii. 209).—The change of style does not affect the days on which saints are celebrated. The sole difference

consists in this: if there had been no change of style in 1752, then the name of Sept. 29 would have been given to a day different from that which now receives it-such, for instance, is the case in Russia. In 1396 Michaelmas day fell on Friday, Sept. 29. For 1396, a leap-year, the Sunday-letters are B and A. Now A marks Oct. 1, which proves the point. WALTER W. SKEAT.

There cannot be a doubt that the feast of St. Michael the Archangel was celebrated in the Middle Ages, as now, on September 29. I have a MS. English calendar of about 1440 where it is entered under that day, so is it also in a calendar now before me, printed at Augsburg by Erhard Ratdolt in 1499. What, however, puts the matter almost beyond question is the statement of Alban Butler, in his 'Lives of the Saints,' that

"this festival has been kept with great solemnity on the 29th of September ever since the fifth age, and was certainly celebrated in Apulia in 493."-Ed. 1836, vol. ii. p. 517.

If your correspondent consults the late Augustus De Morgan's Book of Almanacs' he will, with a little care, be able to ascertain the day of the week on which the feast of St. Michael fell in 1396.


have done so, and make it out to have occurred on a Friday; but on such matters I am very liable to error. He had far better not put faith in me, but work the problem for himself.


The principal feast of St. Michael the Archangel has always been on September 29, and in 1396

that day was a Friday (Sir H. Nicolas's 'Chronology field-mouse). Neither of these two latter animals of History,' p. 64). Probably this is the feast is a true mouse, nor is the water-rat a true rat, intended by A. M. S., but there was anciently (as being in many respects more like the beaver. there is still in the modern Roman calendar) These three animals belong to a genus scientifically another feast of St. Michael on May 8, and with- termed Arvicola. out further particulars it is, therefore, impossible to be absolutely certain.

Longford, Coventry.

C. F. S. WARRen, M.A.

LUCY OF LEINSTER (8th S. iii. 109).-This, perhaps, may be the portrait of a lady who went by the same name as the heroine whom Tickell's muse celebrated in his charming ballad ‘Colin and Lucy':

Of Leinster, fam'd for maidens fair,
Bright Lucy was the grace:
Nor e'er did Liffy's limpid stream
Reflect so fair a face.

This ballad is printed in Percy's 'Reliques of Ancient English Poetry,' published in 1765, and was called by Gray "the prettiest ballad in the world." Tickell died in Ireland, where he had long resided, in 1740. His portrait hangs in the hall of Queen's College, Oxford, where he was JOHN PICKFORD, M.A.


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

"Who was she?" For answer let me refer

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F. C. to Thomas Tickell's ballad Colin and Lucy,'
commencing (see Johnson and Chalmers's "The
Works of the English Poets,' vol. xi. p. 122):—
Of Leinster, famed for maidens fair,
Bright Lucy was the grace;
Nor e'er did Liffy's limpid stream
Reflect so sweet a face.

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D. ANGELO (8th S. iii. 187, 213).-Domenico Angelo Malevolti Tremamondo, of Via di Guardino, Leghorn, born 1717, was the son of one of the principal merchants of that city. He removed to England and married the step-daughter of Capt. Masters, commander of the Chester man-of-war, by whom he had a son Henry Angelo, whose Reminiscences' were published by Hen. Colburn & Richard Bentley in 1830.

WM. JACKSON PIGOTT. Though I cannot answer MR. BUTLER's inquiry, it may possibly assist him to know that the full name of the author of 'L'Ecole des Armes' was Domenico Angelo Malevolti Tremamondo.


VOLE (8th S. iii, 187).— White, in his 'Natural History of Selborne,' gives the water-rat the name of "water-vole," and I have long been accustomed so to call it. There appear to be two other little animals common in England to which the name of "vole" is applicable, the field-vole (the shorttailed field-mouse) and the bank-vole (the red

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Johnson's 'Dictionary' does not give the word "vole," as applied to animals, but it is to be met with in the Imperial Dictionary,' where it is suggested that it comes from "wold" (in Old English "volde "), the meaning of which is, according to Skeat, "a down," "a plain open country."


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As to the two sorts of voles, SIR H. MAXWELL need go no further than Webster's big' Dictionary'

for the information he asks. W. F. WALLER.

This is one name for the short-tailed field-mouse

(Arvicola arvalis), a terribly destructive little animal, really allied to the beaver family, together with the water-rat or water-vole (Arvicola amphibius), and the bank-vole or bank-campagnol (Arvicola glareolus). The first named is the destructor of forests and plantations by barking trees, and also by eating the roots. No bulbs, seeds, or roots are safe from them.

B. FLORENCE SCARLETT. In Annandale's edition of Ogilvie's 'Imperial Dictionary' the following derivation is hazarded:

"Also called vole-mouse, perhaps for wold-mouse, wold, field, plain, so that the name would be equivalent to field-mouse: comp. O. Southern E, volde, field, earth; | Icel. vollr, field."


"ITS" (8th S. iii. 147, 253).—In my ‘Bible Word-Book' (first edition, 1866, second edition, 1884), I have given the earliest instances of its which I have as yet met with. These are to be found in Florio's Worlde of Wordes' (1598), in his translation of Montaigne (1603), and in Sylvester's 'Du Bartas' (1605). There must be earlier examples of the word, for it is hardly likely to have been introduced by a foreigner. In the same volume are collected all the instances of the possessives it and its in Shakespeare.

WILLIAM ALDIS WRIGHT. COFFEE (8th S. iii. 248).-As one of the express purposes of the New English Dictionary' is to give the biography of every word used in English, and so precisely to answer questions like that of

ner from his other neighbour an answer to another
question asked by the player himself. Each then
states aloud the question he was asked and the
answer he received, and the results frequently
afford much amusement. There are probably many
other ways of playing the game.

C. C. B., it is curious that that writer should not have acquainted himself with the facts there so fully communicated. The 'Dictionary' shows that a multitude of English writers had used the word "coffee" before Parkinson, in 1640; it also gives interesting details of the early spellings of the word, which, it says, passed from Turkish into the Western languages of Europe about 1600; also that coffee, or the Arabic gahwah, Turkish kahveh, was the name not of the plant, but the beverage made by its infusion, being originally a name of some kind of wine. The earliest English quotation given in the 'Dictionary' is of 1598, and a quotation of 1601 has already the characteristically English form coffe. Parkinson's account is, of course, only a compilation from earlier sources, one of them being Paludanus, cited in the 'Dic-relief of Cawnpore, and the taking of Lucknow. After tionary' in a translation of 1598.

J. M.

CHILDREN OF THE CHAPEL STRIPT AND WIPT' (8th S. iii. 227).-See Hazlitt's Handbook to the Popular and Dramatic Literature of England,' p. 101; also the same author's Collections and Notes,' 1876, p. 84. A. L. HUMPHREYS.

187, Piccadilly, W.

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STEWART'S ROOMS: LADY CAREY, NÉE MarGARET SMITH (8th S. iii. 8, 75).—The whole-length portrait of this lady by Vandyck, mentioned by LADY RUSSELL as formerly in the Wharton collection, is now at Halswell, Somerset, the seat of Mr. Halswell M. Kemeys-Tynte, it having been purchased by his great-grandfather, who was a coheir to the barony of Wharton, in abeyance. CROSS CROSSLET.

DANIEL LOCK (8th S. ii. 427; iii. 73) was an architect of some eminence; he retired from business with an ample fortune, lived in Surrey Street, and was buried in the chapel of Trinity College, Cambridge. His portrait was painted by Hogarth, and engraved by J. McArdell; date of both uncertain. Tresler, 'Works of Hogarth,' 4to., 1833. W. P. Works in architecture unknown.

"CROSS-PURPOSES" (8th S. iii. 27, 71).—As I have seen no reply to this query, I venture to suggest that the game is the same as cross questions and crooked answers," which I have seen played in the following manner. The players sit in a circle, and each is asked in a whisper a question by one neighbour, and receives in the same man.

CAUSE OF DEATH (8th S. ii. 428, 533; iii. 76, 154). The following is inscribed on an upright stone which stands near the south wall of Lutterworth Churchyard :

"Sacred to the memory of William, son of John and Mary West, of this town, who died September 2nd, 1858, aged 27 years. He was sergeant in the E.I. Company of Sappers and Miners; was at the first battle in the Indian Mutiny at Gardenuzzer; was at the taking of Delhi, the passing unhurt through all the Indian Mutiny he was appointed one of the Inspectors of Public Works at Lucknow, which situation he held till the time of his death.

Whom neither sword nor gun in warr
Could slay, in peace a cough did marr;
'Gainst rebels he, and lust, and sin,
Fought the good fight, died life to win."

Holmby House, Forest Gate.

In Harrow Churchyard stands a stone slab to
66 near this town,'
the memory of one Thomas Port, of Burton-on-
Trent, hat manufacturer, whom,
August 7, 1838, the proverbial state of mind in his
profession brought to a tragic end. A local muse
was thus inspired :-

Bright rose the Morn, and vig'rous rose poor Port;
Gay on the Train he us'd his wonted Sport;
Ere Noon arriv'd, his mangled Frame they bore,
With Pain distorted, and o'erwhelm'd with Gore.
When Evening came to close the fatal Day,
A mutilated corpse the suff'rer lay.

W. F. WALLer.

In my young days the story of Lord Russell's daughter, who died from a prick of a needle, was utilized in the nursery as follows: She died from a prick of a needle because she used it on a Sunday, and her statue was placed in Westminster Abbey, pro bono publico, as a sign and a warning of the judgment to follow the use of a needle on C. A. WHITE. the Sabbatb. So easily does a simple fact become transformed into folk-lore.

A different version of the lines quoted occurs on a tombstone in Mildenhall Churchyard, Wilts, recording the death of two children who died of small-pox :

I. D.
T. D.
In lothsome Boils our body's corrupted lay
Our Eyes was closed we could not see the day.
With wasting pain death found us sore opprest
Pyttid our sighs and kindly gave us rest.

C. S.

'BECKET' AT THE LYCEUM (8th S. iii. 164, 216). I am obliged to DOM. OSWALD for correcting me. After my note had appeared it struck me that the

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HISTORIC HEARTS (8th S. iii. 83, 138, 193).The heart of the great Talbot, the "terrible Talbot," as Fuller calls him, first Earl of Shrewsbury, was buried, according to his desire, under the porch of the parish church of Whitchurch, in Salop; "that as they "-his body guard of Witchurch men -"had fought and strode over his body when living, as he lay wounded on the field of battle, so should they and their posterity for ever pass over and guard it when dead." C. A. WHITE.

REFERENCE IN POPE (8th S. iii. 109, 192).The expression to "while away the time" is used by Quarles, in his 'Emblems,' 1635, bk. iii. 13 :— Nor do I beg this slender inch, to while The time away, or safely to beguile

My thoughts with joy, there's nothing worth a smile.

Tennyson, evidently perceiving that while in the above phrase should be written wile, uses the latter word in 'The Princess,' 1872, p. 160:—

Or thro' the parted silk the tender face
Peep'd, shining in upon the wounded man
With blush and smile, a medicine in themselves
To wile the length from languorous hours, and draw
The sting from pain.

Decipio and fallo are similarly used, cf. :

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Sic tamen absumo, decipioque diem.
Ovid, Tr.,' IV. x. 114.

It has always appeared to me that the word while, when applied to the whiling away of time, was a misspelling of wile. Richardson, it is true, gives To while, to pass away, or spend time in doing something merely to pass it," but it seems more probable that the meaning of the expression to wile away time is to cheat time by doing that which lessens its tediousness to the idle, and so making it appear less long than it would otherwise do. I venture to commend this suggestion to DR. MURRAY, as I am quite unable to substantiate it by a literary reference. JAMES DALLAS.

EDITORS (8th S. iii. 186).—It is very curious to hear that editors of newspapers were in such low estimation as appears from MR. GOSSELIN's note so comparatively lately as 1818. MR. GOSSELIN may like to be reminded of a passage in Waverley,' which throws some light on the estimation in which journalists seem to have been held in the decade 1740-50:

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'My father-my uncle-this paragraph'—he [Waverley] handed the paper to Colonel Talbot.

I wish to Heaven these scoundrels were condemned to be squeezed to death in their own presses,' said Talbot. I am told there are not less than a dozen of their papers now published in town, and no wonder that they are obliged to invent lies to find sale for their journals." "Waverley,' chap. lxvii.

Dickens's portraits of the two provincial editors, Mr. Pott and Mr. Slurk, nearly twenty years later than the date of MR. GOSSELIN's extract, are certainly the reverse of flattering. "Mais nous avons changé tout cela," I hope.


"And now," said Mr. Farquhar, when he and other young men were smoking that fine morning under the garden wall at Dunreddin, "And now, I'm told, the poor devil's redooced to editing a newspaper, or something of that sort." This would be early in the thirties, about the time of the Chartist to-do, and more than half a century after Dodd. The author of 'Singleton Fontenoy,' in which Mr. Farquhar figures, may be trusted to hit off the estimation in which editors were held by the class to which Mr. Farquhar, an Oxford man, belonged. James Hannay's own opinion of an editor-he had a good deal to do with editorsmay have been other, or may not. It should be noted, however, that, in the estimation of his biographer, Dodd descended even lower than newspaper editing: "He attempted to disengage himself from his debts by a commission of bankruptcy, in which he failed." W. F. WALLER.

PENAL LAWS (8th S. iii. 188, 213).-1. Towards the close of the parliamentary session of the year 1778 there was introduced into the House of Commons, by Sir George Savile, a Bill which had for its purpose the removal of a scandal from the statute book of England. The "relief" simply consisted in sweeping away enactments then totally unnecessary, and at all times a disgrace to humanity-statutes of the reign of William III., which forbade a Romish priest officiating or teaching under the pain of treason; gave to the nearest Protestant heir the right of seizing the possessions of his father and brother and other Catholic kinsmen during their lifetime; and prevented Papists from acquiring property in England. "The lowest and basest of mankind" could compel an English magistrate to inflict on priests all the shameful penalties of these "wicked and absurd" Acts, which had originated in the worst days of political

faction, and found a place in our code of laws not from any malice against Catholice, but merely as the outcome of the struggle of political parties. Unhappily, the statutes were not suffered to lie dead. Every person of the Catholic communion was obliged to fly from the face of day, and the clergy skulked in garrets of private houses, or sheltered themselves under the wings of foreign ministers. "The whole body of the Catholics," said Burke, "condemned to beggary and to ignorance in their native land, have been obliged to learn the principles of letters from the charity of their enemies." Every effort was made by the intolerant party to prevent the Catholic Relief Bill becoming law; and what the cause of Protestant intolerance lacked in numbers within the walls of St. Stephen's was made up for by the persistence of Lord George Gordon.

GAELIC (8th S. iii. 47, 113).-Thanks to E. R. for his answer. Bhios, contracted form of bhitheas, fut. subj., good. But I must quote, as I perhaps ought to have done before, from the N.T. (Roman Catholic translation "from Latin," A. King & Co., Aberdeen, 1875). 1. "Is amhuil a bhios" (shall be), Luke xvii. 26. "Fhuaras Philip" (was found), Acts viii. 40. "Chunnacase" (was seen), 1 Cor. xv. 6, 7, 8. Here, certainly, are no subjunctives. Qy., Are the latter two perhaps Irish forms? Cf. concas, seemed, clos, was heard (O'Donovan's 'Irish Grammar,' pp. 225, 226). EZTAKIT.

VACCINATION (8th S. ii. 364).—At a meeting of the Epidemiological Society, held on January 20, 1892, Dr. E. O. Hopwood in the chair, BrigadeSurgeon R. Pringle, M.D., read a paper on 'What is Efficient Vaccination?' in which he quoted a remarkable passage from an ancient Hindu work which showed that true vaccination was known and practised in India centuries before the birth of Jenner. It runs thus:

"The small-pox produced from the udder of the cow will be of the same mild nature as the original disease...... The pock should be of a good colour, filled with a clear be only a slight fever of one, two, or three days, but no liquid, and surrounded by a circle of red...... There will fear need be entertained of small-pox so long as life endures."

"If this statement can be proved, [both] Jenner
[and Jesty]......[were] anticipated" by the Hindoo.
See Lancet, February 20, 1892, for report of Dr.
Pringle's paper.

Wolsingham, co. Durham.

2. At the close of the last century the penal code was ruthlessly severe. At that period there were about two hundred capital felonies on the statute book. During the Lent Assizes of 1785 there were in England alone two hundred and forty-two capital sentences, and of these a hundred and three were executed. In the Report of the House of Commons on the police of the metropolis, 1816, it is stated that in the years 1781-7 as many as twelve, sixteen, or twenty persons were hanged at one execution, and on two occasions forty were hanged at one time. In 1783 twenty were hanged at two consecutive executions. Besides murder, forgery, burglary, coining and coin clipping, stealing from the person, or in a dwelling-house or shop, or on a navigable river to the amount of five shillings was punished with death. Almost LATIN PLAY TEMP. JAC. I. (7th S. viii. 28, 214). In the MS. any member of Parliament, it has been said, who-Let the corrector be corrected. was eager to do his share in legislation could at mentioned by me at the first of the above referthat time create a capital felony. ences, and which was identified through Ruggle's Ignoramus' (ed. Hawkins, 1787) prior to your correspondent's reply, as that of Pedantius, the dramatis persona in question are certainly written "Dromidotus" (not Dromodotus) and Fuscidilla" (not Tuscadilla). When next at Cambridge I will collate the MS. with that in Trinity College Library. The first edition of the comedy (12mo., Lond., 1631) is very scarce; and the curious full-length portrait of its author, Dr. Beard, as "Pedantius," with a birch in his hand, which copies should, but seldom do, contain, is alone valued by Caulfield at two guineas.

3. In 1790 the revolting horrors of the punishment for treason-viz., cutting down alive and disembowelling men and burning women-were removed, and drawing, quartering, and beheading were abolished by an Act of 1870.

Richmond, Surrey.


It was only on July 4, 1870, that drawing and quartering ceased to be the due reward of high treason. On that day the Forfeiture Act, 1870 (33 & 34 Vict., c. 23) received the royal assent. Section 31 of this Act provides as follows:

"From and after the passing of this Act such portions of the Acts of the thirtieth year of George the Third chapter 48, and the fifty-fourth year of George the Third chapter 146, as enacts that the judgment required by law to be awarded against persons adjudged guilty of high treason shall include the drawing of the person on a hurdle to the place of execution, and, after execution, the severing of the head from the body, and the dividing of the body into four quarters, shall be and are hereby repealed."

Q. V.


W. I. R. V.

WILLS ENROLLED IN THE COURT OF HUSTING (7th S. xi. 323, 437).—Under this head some time ago I unhappily evoked the displeasure of your correspondent NOMAD by writing "Alvena " instead of Alveva. Will you suffer me now to make the amende honorable to you and him by confessing that I was in the wrong? The scribe of Henry II.'s Pipe Rolls (peace be to his ashes!) makes a very distinct difference between his n and

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