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to the name of Jarndyce. It is currently believed Mr. Parker's 'History of Wycombe' that this that Charles Dickens took his idea of 'Bleak weighing business was continued up to the passing House' from a deserted mansion at Acton, in of the Municipal Corporations Act :Suffolk, the former residence of an eccentric miser After partaking of luncheon, the Mayor and Council named Jennens, who died intestate in 1798, when attended at the Bar Iron Warehouse in White Hart his vast estate “fell into Chancery," and has Street, when each member of the Council was weighed, originated several law suits.

and his weight was duly recorded. Such was the order This gentleman, William Jennens, however, did back the practice thus described originated it would be

of proceedings, during the past generations, but how far make an inadequate testament, constituting his difficult to determine ; however we may assume that it wife (who, however, predeceased him) life tenant of was of remote antiquity." all his estates ; but he appointed no executors, no

R. J. FYNMORE. reversionary heir to his wife's life interest, nor did

THE AGE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT.If he dispose of one farthing of his vast personalty. Alexander's dates are 356–323 B.C., as stated by This virtual intestacy was solved by two of his his biographers, then he was only thirty-three at oldest surviving relatives, called “cousins german bis death. In Tristram and Iseult, part iii., once removed," and next of kin, who administered; Matthew Arnold, with a poet's freedom of touch, he had no child, nephew, niece, brother, sister, gives the age as thirty-five :uncle, or aunt surviving, having, at the great age

Prince Alexander, Philip's peerless son, of ninety-seven, outlived all immediate relatives.

Who carried the great war from Macedon His property was thus divided or appropriated Into the Soudan's realm, and thundered on strictly according to statute ; the heir-at-law was To die at thirty-five in Babylon. found to be the first Earl Howe, great-great-grand

THOMAS BAYNE. son of Charles Jennens, of Gopsal, eldest uncle of Helensburgb, N.B. the deceased, who thus took the real estate. The personalty was divided among the descendants of 'Simple Simon.'— In my childhood I learnt Lady Fisher and Mrs. Hanmer, two aunts of the the nursery rhyme of “Simple Simon,' but it had deceased. It is said that this cause, last disposed been long out of my mind until a few days ago, of on March 5, 1878, is about to be revived; when I was reading one of Francesco Sansovino's hence this note.

A. Hall. · Novelle' (ix. 8), written about the middle of the

sixteenth century. A gentleman, Messer Simon TRANSLATORS=COBBLERS. - Some years ago, della Pigna, loving neither wisely nor well, is translator " was a cant name for one who “trans- beguiled by the object of his unwelcome attentions Jated” two or more old shoes into one new. In into a sack, and there treated by the lady's husband, this connexion it is curious to find 'Mercurius who has planned the affair with her, as Scapin Pragmaticus' (No. 27, March 14-21, 1647/8) treats Géronte in the · Fourberies,' but far more saying :

vigorously as well as for a different end. Pre“ These (the General Aseembly) are the vile Cobblers viously to this, Simon questions the lady about of Controversy, the dull a-la-mode Reformers, or Trans- something which awakens suspicion in his mind, lators of Antiquity, that have pull'd the Church all to and is answered with a gross falsehood ; wherepeeces, and know not how to patch it up againe.”

H. H. S.

upon the novelist observes : “Messer Simon, who

might well be called Simpleton (Scempione), be"Johnnies.”—This word was used in a figura- lieving what the lady told him to be true, made tive sense seventy years ago, even as now it is ; himself easy." Simon, then, has been a simpleton though now the fasbionable sense is other. Writing (scempione means a gross simpleton) for nearly one of those last letters from Missoloagbi, on 350 years, on the evidence of the above story. Feb. 23, 1824, Byron tells Murray they had bad Why?

F. ADAMS. a smart shock of earthquake, which had caused 105, Albany Road, Camberwell, S.E. rather a stampede. “If," he adds, "you had but seen the English Johnnies, who had never been

GELERT IN INDIA.-A writer in the Pioneer out of a cockney workshop before......!"

Mail of Allahabad (Aug. 3, 1892) gives the followW. F. WALLER, ing

analogue of the folk-story best known to us in

its Welsh form of. Beddgelert' ("Gellert's Grave'): ELECTION OF MAYOR AT Higa WYCOMBE.An ancient Wycombe custom was revived after believe, a Banjara dog which gave rise to the Bethgelert

“ The Banjaras occasionally keep dogs, and it was, we the election of mayor this year. Nearly all the legend of India. The story comes from at least half a members of the municipal body proceeded to the dozen different parts of India, the substance being weights and measures office, in Paul's Row, and identical though the localities differ. This is how it were severally weighed with all formalities by the

“Once upon a time a poor man owed a large sum of inspector, Superintendent Sparling. Thus far

money to a Baniya; and as he could pay nothing the from a local paper of the month of November, 1892, Baniya came to seize his property, but found all that he but we are further informed by an extract from bad was a dog. Well,' said the Baniya, ' since you have

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nothing else, I will take the dog; he will help to watch dealing with them : (1) by leaving them as they my bouse.' So the poor man took a tender farewell of his four-footed friend, with many

injunctions to serve his are, with the risk of further damage ; (2) by tak new master faithfully, and never to attempt to run home. ing up the slab as it is, and putting it upright Some time after the dog got to his new home, thieves against the chancel wall; (3) by embedding the broke into the house and took all they could find. brasses in a new slab of stone or marble. I am Though the dog barked as loudly as he could, yet the told, on good authority, that the third alternative Baniya enored on peacefully, and so, seeing the thieves dis- will be an act of vandalism. There are other appearing with their booty, he followed them and saw them biding their treasure in boles dug in the dry bed of brasses in the chancel, but they are, fortunately, a wala. He then ran home and never stopped barking nearly covered by carpets, and, besides, are not on until his master woke up. The Baniya was frantic with the north side of the table. Perhaps some of your grief on discovering his loss, and was about to wreak his readers would say what ought to be done. vengeance on the dog, but, attracted by his strange behaviour, he determined to watch bim instead. The dog at once led the way to the pala, and began scratching FIRST THEATRE ROYAL IN THE PROVINCES. at the hole, and very soon the stolen wealth was again Writes Mr. Belville S. Penley, at p. 35 of his in possession of its lawful owner. The Baniya's delight on recovering his property was so great that he wrote recently published work on 'The Bath Stage': on a paper, 'Your dog has paid your debt,' and fastening "Another and more important step taken by Palmer this to the dog's collar he bade him return to his old master, to defeat opposition was to petition Parliament for an and the faithful dog, full of joy, trotted off as hard as he act to enable the King to grant him a patent. The could go. His old master, as it happened, just about only patent houses in existence at that time were Drury this time began to long for a sight of his dog, and deter: Lane and Covent Garden, and no new letters patent mined to go and see how he was getting on. When halt could be granted by the King without the sanction of way on his journey, he saw the dog running towards bim. Parliament. To the younger Palmer was entrusted the He drew his sword and awaited bis approach, and as the task of securing the necessary Act, which was warmly dog, with a little whimper of joy, sprang forward to caress supported by the Mayor and Corporation of the city. him, he cut off his head with the sword, crying out, Surmounting the many difficulties which lay in the way * Thou disobedient dog! Pay the penalty of deserting of his undertaking, he succeeded in getting it passed, and thy post.' Then too late he saw the note attached to his in 1768 bis Majesty George III. granted letters patent, dead friend's neck, and was seized with such remorse under which the Bath Theatre obtained the title of that he fell upon his sword and died. The man and dog Theatre Royal.' This was the first Act ever passed in are buried in one grave, and any one travelling to this country for the protection of theatrical property, Haidarabad may still see the grave by the roadside." and the Bath Theatre was the first Theatre Royal of the

It is interesting to note the varied forms which provinces.” this story has taken. WILLIAM E. A. Axon, Precise and circumstantial as all this reads, the Manchester.

premier distinction claimed for Bath seems to

me, as the Scotch say, “not proven.” Mr. J. C. CHURCH BRASSES.—I have read with much in Dibdin has already shown us, in 'The Annals of terest the remarks by Mr. T. W. King, Rouge the Edinburgh Stage' (p. 147), that a company Dragon, in the part of the Essex Archæological acted 'The Earl of Essex' under a royal patent at Transactions just issued. He very properly ob- the old theatre in the Caledonian capital on jects to the wholesale destruction of brasses in December 9, 1767. This was the first legally perchurches which has taken place in recent years, formed play in Scotland. In all fairness, it must and he also objects, but whether with equal pro- be conceded Mr. Penley that the first temple of priety may be a question, to the custom of remov- Thespis north of the Tweed honoured with the ing brasses with the slabs in which they are em- title of “Theatre Royal" did not open its doors bedded from the floors of churches and placing to the public until exactly two years after the date them upright against the walls. Now, I happen mentioned. But the fact that the Edinburgh to be the patron and lay rector of a small parish in patent was in existence 80 early as the year Surrey. In the chancel within the communion 1767-unless bis data be incorrectly marshalledrails are very fine brasses (late fifteenth century) to my mind puts the Bath annalist out of court. of a man and woman and several children. The

W. J. LAWRENCE. slab in which they are embedded is much worn Comber. and decayed, and the brasses are in places at least one-eighth of an inch above the slab, and parts of BERKSHIRE VILLAGES IN KENILWORTH.'the figures of the children have already been When 'Kenilworth' comes out with notes, some broken off. Every time the vicar goes to the remarks are due upon the villages mentioned in communion-table (the brasses are on the north course of talk in Giles Gosling's hostelry. Sir side) be treads on them, and there is a danger of Walter has collected the Berkshire village names breaking off more pieces. I am willing to put with great care. Were they supplied to him by a the chancel of the church in such a state of repair, local correspondent ? Wootton, Bessesley (now ornamental and otherwise, as may befit the sacred known as Besselsleigh), Padworth, and Drysandcharacter of the place, and also the architecture of ford (more properly written Dry Sandford, and so the church. But there are only three ways of named in distinction from Sandford on Thames,

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on the opposite shore) are all familiar names. But subsequently discovered. However this may be, “Prance of Padworth " should not have been the above-named four are all that are at present hanged at Oxford Castle. His offence, if com. kpowd.

W. T. Lynn. mitted at home, would have been expiated at

Blackheath,
Reading. EDWARD 8. MARSHALL, M.A.
Hastings. CvPron

Queries,
HAYDN'S' DICTIONARY OF DATES' AND ASTRO. We must request correspondents desiring information
NOMY.—Whilst willingly bearing my testimony

on family matters of only privato interest to affix their

names and addresses to their queries, in order that the to the general care with wbich astronomical in

answers may be addressed to thêm direct. formation is brought up to date in the new (twentieth) edition of this valuable and well-known work

CROSS-PURPOSES."-On Boxing Day, 1666, -even the discovery of Jupiter's fifth satellite, in says Mr. Pepys, "mighty merry we were, and September last, being mentioned, I should like to danced; and so till twelve at night, and to supper; point out two errors, that the readers of N. & Q.’ and then to cross-purposes, mighty merry; and may follow Captain Cattle's advice, and “make a then to bed." There are many references to this note ” of each of them in their copies.

parlour game or amusement from Mr. Pepys 1. At p. 860, under “Saturn," we are told that onward, but I do not find any clear account of it. the ring surrounding that planet was discovered

I shall be obliged to any reader of 'N. & Q.' who to be iwofold by Messrs. Ball, Oct. 13, 1665." can refer me to one, or, better still, send it. This statement was formerly made in many astro

J. A. 8. MURRAY. nomical books, apparently for the first time in one Oxford. on telescopes by William Kitchiner, in 1825. Doubt was first thrown upon it by myself in 1880, “BROUETTE.”—Théophile Gautier, in the “Verin a letter to the Observatory, in which I pointed sailles” chapter, section iv. of his "Tableaux de out that it was founded upon a remark in the Siége,' says :Philosophical Transactions for 1666, with refer- “Le frontispice d'un petit livre du temps, que nous ence to an omitted drawing which it was desirable consultons pour faire cet article, nous fournit un curieux to find that the true meaning of the suggestion détail de moeurs : Une jeune dame franchit la grille du (for it was no more) might be understood. This...... L'usage de la brouette était d'ailleurs fréquent sous

Labyrinthe, traînée en brouette par un vigoureux porteur. led to search, and a few copies of the Transactions Louis XIV. et la cour se promenait dans le jardin voiturée were at last found containing the engraving, which fort commodément de la sorte.” had been suppressed in the greater number. I do not clearly understand what is meant by Afterwards the late Prof. Adams discovered in brouette here. The primary meaning of brouette is the archives of the Royal Society the actual draw. wheelbarrow; but it also means a Bath-chair" ing, or rather paper cutting, made by William Ball (Gasc and Spiers), and a “ sort of sedan-chair in 1665, which led Sir Robert Moray, who wrote (Roubaud). I can scarcely suppose that the magthe notice respecting it in the Philosophical Trans-nificent courtiers of Louis Quatorze were in the actions, to suspect that the ring was double. This habit of “taking the air” in the immortal conconjectured duplicity, however, was of a totally veyance in which Mr. Pickwick went to the shooting different kind from a division in the breadth of party. “A female markis," as Sam Weller says, the ring (which was first discovered by Cassini with ber falbalas and vertugadin, trundling about ten years later), and has no real existence, the the grounds of Versailles in a wheelbarrow would appearance being, due either to an indistinct view have been a sight for gods and men ! On the of the planet, or (as Prof. Adams suggested) to the other hand, if the brouette in which the "jeune folding of the paper with which the cutting was dame” voiturée was either a sedan-chair made.

or what we call a Bath-chair, so ordinary a circum2. At p. 1029, under “Uranus,” we are told stance would hardly be worth mentioning, and would that that planet is attended by eight moons or not be "un curieux détail de moeurs," as Gautier satellites, six of which were discovered by Sir calls it. Gautier uses the word traînée, which favours William Herschel. The whole number really the “Bath.chair” meaning; a wheelbarrow would, I known amounts to only four, two of which (after- suppose, be poussée. Sedan-chairs must bave been wards named Titania and Oberon) were discovered common enough at that period. See the scene of by Herschel in 1787, and two (called Ariel and Mascarille and the chairmen in ‘Les Précieuses Umbriel) by Lassell and 0. Struve respectively in Ridicules.' A sedan-cbair, however, would be 1847. Herschel was mistaken in supposing that he neither traînée nor poussée, but portée. Were had discovered four more, the objects seen having what we call Bath-chairs known in either France been probably very faint stars seen near the planet, or England in the seventeenth century? though unsuccessful attempts have been made to Are not wheelbarrows used at the present day identify one or other of them with the satellites as a means of personal conveyance in China ? I

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do not mean the “cany waggons light” which discover its origin or exact meaning, I venture to “Chineses drive with sails and wind,” described hope one of your readers may be able to help me. by Milton in Paradise Lost,' but actual wheel. See chapter lii. : “You must bave a great deal of barrows like our own.

JONATHAN BOUCHIER. Shillam eidri, nevertheless you startled me when Ropley, Alresford.

you asked," &c.

J. PLATT, Jun. MONTGOMERY FAMILY.-Hugh Montgomery of

RICHARD SMITH.-I am desirous of obtaining Derrybrosk (Derrybrusk), in county Fermanagh, ancestor of Montgomery of Blessingbourne, and of any, information about this person, who is the Archdale of Castle Archdale, was a member of

author of the following book, published by Robert

Dexter (4to., 1691):— the Braidstane branch of the family of Montgomerie of Eglinton, in Scotland. (See Hill's 'Montgomery who should be Judge betwene the Reformed Churches

“ The Trial of Truetb, a Treatise wherein is declared MSS.,' pp. 99 and 389; Burke's 'Hist. of the and the Romish, in which is showed that neither Pope Commoners,' vol. ii. p. 108; Lodge's 'Peerage of nor Councils nor Fathers nor Traditions nor Succession Ireland,' 1754, vol. ii., note to article on Earl of nor Consent nor Antiquitie of Costumes but the only Mount Alexander, &c.). According to Paterson's written Worde of God ought to determine the ConHistory of the County of Ayr' (ed. 1847, vol. i. troversies of Religion.”

T. CANN HUGHES, M.A. p. 280), this Hugh Montgomery was the son of the

The Groves, Chester, fourth son (Dame unknown) of Adam John Montgomery, Laird of Braidstane, grandfather of Sir PAGANINI'S PHYSIC : LEROY.—Mr. Haweis, in Hugh Montgomery, first Viscount Montgomery of his interesting account of Paganini (“My Musical Ards. Can the name of this fourth son of Adam Life,' second edition, 1888, p. 292), says : John Montgomery be ascertained ; or was Hugh

“ Paganini seldom consulted doctors, but his credulity of Derry brusk himself Adam John Montgomery's was worse than his scepticism. He dosed himself imson, and not his grandson ? I may mention that moderately with some stuff called “Leroy'; he believed in the Montgomery pedigree, printed in Mr. J. H. that this could cure anything. It usually produced a Montgomery's book (Philadelphia, 1863), and in powerful agitation in his nervous system, and generally the history by General George S. Montgomery, it seems to have deprived him of the power of speech.” C.S.I., Derry brosk is misprinted Donnybrook.

Is it known what this stuff was ?
H. DE F. MONTGOMERY.
Blessingbourne, Fivemiletown.

JAMES HOOPER.

Norwich.
CHARLES LAMB AS A RITUALIST.-Charles
Lamb, in his essay on some of the Old Actors,'

" WIGgin." - Is this word known in East referring to Dodd, who had been chorister in Sť. Anglia ? I cannot find it in any of the publisbed Paul's Cathedral, speaks of “a surplice—bis white glossaries ; but I have a note, made some twelve stole and albe," as if such garments might have years ago, from the report of a lady whom I met, been worn by him in that capacity. In the twenty- that a Yarmouth boatman once remarked to hor, first century perhaps some historian of the post

“Your father, the admiral, was a regular old Tractarian movement called Ritualism might be wiggin" (? =“sea-dog” or “salt ”). led into antedating it, if he trusted to Lamb as

A. SMYTHE PALMER, D.D.

Woodford. qualified to speak on the subject as an accurate observer of things ecclesiastical. Has this error

ALDINE 'Swift,' 1833.-In a copy of this book been pointed out anywhere ? PALAMEDES.

I saw in Watt's shop at Hastings recently, vol. ii. Paris,

pp. 128-134, are not numbered. Was this deHERALDIC.- To whom does the following coat fective pagination subsequently put right? If so, of arms belong ?—Gules, a fess argent engrailed here is another “first” first edition. between three estoiles of the second.

W. F. WALLER. FLORENCE PEACOCK.

"Pailazer."-Iu Calendar of State Papers,' Joun TREWORGIE, Commissioner of Newfound- 1660, I came across this : “Office of Philazer in land during the Commonwealth, owned a factory the Court of Common Pleas for the County and in Saco, Me., U.S. Is there any reference to him City of Lincolo.” . What is meant by “Philažer”? in West Country histories ?

WM. STONARDE. G. R. FARRAR PROWSE. Sowerby Bridge.

“DE MORTUIS NIL NISI BONUM."- Is the author

of this trite expression known? Perbaps the Rev. "SAILLAM EIDRI.”—The Bible in Spain,' by E. Marshall, with bis usual erudition, will be able George Borrow, contains the above expression, to give the authorship, which all books of quotations apparently Hebrew, as it is placed in the mouth consulted by me have failed to supply, Ray, in of a Jew, who applies it to the author in a com- bis Collection of English Proverbs,' sub “Speak plimentary sense ; but as I have been unable to well of the dead," has: "Mortuis non conviciandum,

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et de mortuis nil nisi bonum. Namque cum mortui appointment of “adjutant general” to the Duke of non mordent, iniquum est ut mordeantur.". The Lorraine. The authority for these statements is the expressions Mortuis non conviciandum" and 'Compleat History of Europe' (1707, p. 455), Mortui non mordent” are given in 'Erasmi which I have not seen. Is this book in the British Adagia,' but I cannot find "de mortuis, &c. Museum ; and if it is, can some kind reader supply therein. The phrase_ occurs in the margin of the press-mark ?

L. L. K. · Maronides' by John Phillips, 1673, bk. vi. p. 24. F. O. BIRKBECK TERRY.

“ TRISSINO TYPE.”—G. G. Trissino's "GraniCLAYPOOLE.—Can any of your readers inform earliest attempts at an Italian grammar, for it was

matichetta '(sm. 4to., Vicenza, 1529)-one of the me whether Wingfield, Gravely, and Benjamin preceded only by Fortunio's - Regole Grammaticali Claypoole (brothers of Lord Job Claypoole, who della Volgar Lingua'(Ancona, 1516), and Flaminio's married Elizabeth, daughter of Oliver Cromwell, Compendio della Volgar Gramatica' (Bologna, Protector), married and left issue ? If so, how can 1521)—is printed, like the other Italian works of I get their names, &c. ? I would like copies of this poet and humanist, with so-called "Trissino family records of all Claypoole, Claypole, Cleypole, type." The main distinction of this type, I notice,

I or Claypool descendants, with items of history, &c., is its constant use of the Greek letter w instead of that would interest the present and future genera- o, whenever it denotes a long vowel. It would be tions of the family. Will all members of the interesting to ascertain whether

alteration of family or descendants now living please write me?

one character was adopted by other Italian writers, Edw. A. CLAYPOOL.

or whether it is peculiar to Trissino's works. 112, E. Randolph Street, Chicago, III., U.S.

H. KREBS. St. Thomas's Day Custom.- What is the

Oxford. explanation of an old custom of distributing little Joaves of bread to children on St. Thomas's Day?

Beplies. This is done in a village near Birmingham by some old ladies.

M. E. G.

PORTRAITS OF ROBERT BURNS. APPLES AND ST. CLEMENT's Day.- Why on

(8th S. ii. 428.) St. Clement’s Day should children go round to

That the poet Burns visited Miers for the purthe houses singing about apples and beer, and pose of having his “profile" cut, there is abunreceive presents of apples at the different doors ?

dant proof in the fact that he forwarded one to M. E. G.

Mr. William Tytler, of Woodhouslee, with an ad

dress commencing, Revered defender of beauANNE Vaux.-She is said in Burke's 'Landed teous Stuart” (an allusion to Mr. Tytler's book, Gentry 'to have been fifth in descent from John 'An Inquiry into the Evidence against Mary of Gaunt. I could never find out how. She Queen of Scots'). The ode continues :married Sir Thos. L'Estrange, and was daughter of

I send you a trifle, a head of a bard, Thomas (? Nicholas), Lord Vaux. C. Moor.

A trifle scarce worthy your care; Barton-on-Humber,

But accept it, good sir, as a mark of regard,

Sincere as a saint's dying prayer. “ KODAK.”—What is the derivation of this new In a letter to Robert Ainslie, dated Mauchline, word; and when did it first appear ?

JAMES D. BUTLER.

June 23, 1788, asking his friend to sit for his Madison, Wis.

profile, the poet says: "The time is short. When

I sat to Mr. Miers I am sure he did not exceed John Cutts. He is said to have “greatly two minutes.” In the course of three years' patient distinguished himself at the siege and capture of and persistent research anent the portraiture of Buda [in 1686), being the first to plant the flag Robert Burns, I have never seen any contemupon the walls." (Cf. Mr. C. R. B. Barrett's porary copy, duplicate, or replica of the Miers • Essex,' p. 124.) I should be glad to have the silhouette ; and I think the descendants of Mr. anthority for this statement. Jacob Richards, the Wm. Tytler should be appealed to, in order to English engineer, who was serving in the be- ascertain if the original profile is still in their leaguering army, does not even mention Cutts in possession. bis diary (Harley MS., 4989). Hammer men- The earliest engraved reproduction of the Miers tions a “Cuts” among the “lords anglais" who profile I have seen is that appearing in Cunningfell on the fatal July 13. According to the

‘Dict. ham's octavo edition, published by James Cochof Nat. Biog.? Cutts was among the English rane & Co., Waterloo Place, London, 1834–5. voluoteers serving under Charles, Duke of Lor- Should there be no earlier engraved transcript, raine, against the Turks in Hungary, and greatly the question arises, What was it engraved from ? distinguished himself by his heroism at the siege Had they access to the original “shade," or outand capture of Buda, for which he received the line ?

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