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fication are at once apparent. There is, of course,

the river Aire ; but then it is difficult to conceive CONTENT 8-No 69.

how any obstruction in the navigation of the Aire NOTES :-Turnbrigg-Parliamentary Polls, 301-Cephisus could have possibly affected in those early days

and the Ilissus--Indian Folk-lore, 303–N. Hone-Wedding and Marriage, 304—Sidney and Shakspeare - Tobacco the interests of the inhabitants of the counties of at Windsor-Annesley—The Russian Language, 305-Low- Nottingham and Derby. A glance, however, at land Scotch-Rev. W. Thompson-New Testament, 306— an old map-Saxton's, for instance—will at once Jacobite not Williamite, 307.

solve the mystery. We find that the Dike, or QUERIES :-Wife of Viscount Bourke–T. G. Wainewright Thornbrigg Dike, to all appearance an artificial

-"The White Christ "-Quotation in Lamb-W. Farren-
Dibdin's Song-General Claye - George Eliot-Jonson's water-course, formed an overflow channel for the
Masques-Abernethy-Waterloo—" Second Sight,” 307— surplus waters of Thorne Mere, and that it had for
Dallom-Lee-Tipping-Long-Sir Geo. Chudleigh_“Cura- | its tributaries the rivers Don and Went, and dis-
tion"-Folk-tale-Source of Quotation-Quadruple Births charged their combined waters into the river Aire
-English Actress in Paris-Sir H. Langford-Anecdote of opposite Eskholme. The bridge complained of by
Queen Victoria, 308 - Belt — Theodor Körner-Erasmus the four counties, or, to speak more correctly, the

Lloyd-Old Book, 309.
REPLIES :- Accurate Language, 309 - Urian - Reeds

one that replaced it, or possibly even a successor of Oldest Trees, 311–Judges' Robes—Turk's Island-Article the latter, is clearly shown over the Dike on the in Periodical— Recorder of Salisbury-Tananarivo-John road from Snaith to Rawcliffe, and its name is still Newton, 312— Folk-lore of Gems, 313–Cene'-Tithe preserved in the name of the hamlet Tunbridge, to Barns-Charles, Lord Sturton-Flowers on Graves, 314 | the east of East Cowick. Thorne Mere bas disMotto for Managers, Tennyson's Crossing the Bar,' 315— " Hospitale Conversorum"-Alice Pitz Alan, 316—" Wig- appeared from the maps ; it formerly occupied the gin" -Lely-Tumblers-Ghost Miners—Children of the site of the “Low Levels" to the south-east of Chapel'-Feast of_St. Michael, 317–Root of Scarcity, Thorne and north-east of Hatfield Turf Moors, Arthur Onslow-Francis, Duke of Leeds — Shakspeare between Sandtoft Grange and Brodholme. Ali and Molière, 318—Kearney, 319.

that now remains of the Dike is the portion lying NOTES ON BOOKS :-Ward's . Vanbrugh's Works'—Robin

son's History of Coffee Houses '-Campbell's • Puritan in between Thorne Quay, at what was formerly an Holland, England, and America'-Barine's · Bernardin de old mouth of the river Don, and New Bridge, at St. Pierre'--Mac Donald's ' Poems,'

what is the present junction of the Don with the Notices to Correspondents.

Dutch River, cut by Sir Cornelius Vermuyden,

which discharges the waters of both rivers directly Notes. into the Ouse by the rising port of Goole.

L. L. K. TURNBRIGG IN YORKSHIRE, M. Jusserand, in his 'English Wayfaring Life in

POLLS AT PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS the Fourteenth Century' (p. 414), quotes in extenso

BEFORE 1832. from the Rolls of Parliament'(vol. v. p. 43) a petition of the Commons of the counties of York, Lin

(Continued from p. 64.) coln, Nottingham, and Derby, in 20 Henry VI.

Hampshire. (A.D. 1442), for the demolition and rebuilding of a 1705 Thomas Jervoise

2298 timber bridge, called Turnbrigg, over a tidal stream,

Richard Chaundler

2088 called the Dike, in the parish of Snaith, in the

Thomas Lewis

1617 county of York. Petitioners alleged that the 1710 George Pitt ...


2590 bridge complained of was too narrow and too low

Sir Simeon Stuart, Bart.

2167 for the “voiding” of flood waters, and in con

Marquis of Winchester
Thomas Jervoise

2137 sequence about twenty miles of the country were 1713 Thomas Lewis

2042 flooded every year. Moreover, the bridge was a Sir Anthony Sturt, Knt.

1947 serious impediment to navigation, as at every time Marquis of Winchester

1879 of “creteyne" (flood) and abundance of water Jobn Wallop

1842 vessels could not pass it, and consequently their 1734 Edward Lisle

2669 cargoes of wool, lead, stone, timbor, victuals, and Lord Harry Powlett

2575 “ fowaille” (fuel), intended “for the cities” of

Sir Simeon Stuart, Bart.

2573 York, Hull, Hedon, Holderness, Beverley, Barton 1779 Vice Sir Simeon Stuart, dead.

Anthony Chute

2491 (-on-Humber), Grimsby, and other places, by the Jervoise Clarke

2105 high sea, the coasts, into London and elsewhere

Sir Richard Worsley, Bart.

1484 were detained at the bridge for half a year or more. Polls in Smith, 1790, 1806, 1807. Neither M. Jusserand nor his learned translator Miss Lucy Toulmin Smith attempts to 1749 Vice Lord Lymington, dead.

Andover, identify either the site of the bridge or the tidal Jobo G. Griffin

17 river, and on consulting a modern map of the Francis B. Delaval...

1 neighbourhood the difficulties of such an identi- Polls in Smith ,1727, 1741, 1768, 1774.


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12 1831,






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1699 Vice Sir B. Newland, dead. 1723 Vice Francis Gwyn, chose to sit for Welle,

Roger Mompesson

215 Edward P. Gwyn

Mitford Crow

33 Joseph Hinman 5 1714 Thomas Lewis

229 Lymington. Ricbard Fleming

210 1710 Paul Burraud

Adam Cardonnell

163 Lord William Powlett

31 1737 Vice Jobn Conduit, dead. John Walter

Thomas L. Dummer

204 William Forbes

Alderman Taunton

183 Newport.

Polls in Smith, 1734, 2741, 1774, 1780, 1790, 1794, 1698 Vice Lord Cutts, chose to sit for Cambridgeshire: 1802, 1806, 1812, 1818, 1820, 1830 (vice Chamberlayne),

Henry Greenbill
Job Acton


Slockbridge. 1768 John Eames

16 1614 Sir Walter Cope, Knt. Hans Sloano...

16 Sir Henry Wallop, Knt. Sir Thomas Worsley

Sir Richard Gifford, Knt.

22 Sir William Oglander

John St. John

21 Poll in Smith, 1784.

The return of Cope and Wallop was declared not good. Newtown.

1689 Vice Oliver St. John, dead. 1727 James Worsley 14 William Montagu

44 Thomas Holmes

William Strode

6 Hon. Charles A. Powlett


This election was declared void,
Sir John Barrington, Bart.
The latter two on petition.

1772 Vice Gen. Worge, resigned.
James Hare...

Ambrose Gilbert

35 1688 Thomas Bilson

48 Robert Mitchell

48 Polls in Smith, 1774, 1775, 1780, 1790, 1796, 1826, 1830. Richard Norton


Whitchurch. This was a double return, Bilson and Mitchell were 1702 Richard Wollaston

46 declared duly elected.

John Shrimpton

41 1726 Vice Edmund Miller, made a Baron of the Ex.

Daniel Parke

40 chequer in Scotland.

1707 Vice Shrimpton, dead. Joseph Taylor

158 Frederick Tilney (with the Mayor) Edmund Miller

141 Charles Whithers (without the Mayor) 32 On petition Taylor was declared elected by the com- On petition Whithers vice Tilney. mittee, but the House disagreed and declared Miller

1708 Frederick Tilaey

44 elected.

Thomas Lewis

42 1734 Sir William Jolliffe, Kot...

204 Ricbard Wollaston
Edward Gibbon, Jun.

George Bridges

35 Norton Powlett


The latter two on petition. Polls in Smith, 1741, 1818, 1820, 1830, 1831.

1722 Thomas Vernon

49 19 Portsmouth.

John Conduit

39 17 1695 Vice Edward Russell, chose to sit for Cambridge- Frederick Tilney

38 shire.

Isaac Wollaston

25 41 Matthew Aylmer

234 John Gibson


The first poll was that taken by the mayor, the second This election was declared void, and Gibson was chosen that by the clerk of the legal freeholders. Vernon and

Conduit were returned, and the others petitioned, but upon a new writ.

the petition was afterwards withdrawn. 1709 Vice Sir Thomas Littleton, Bart., dead. Sir Charles Wager, Kot.

49 1726 Vice Vernon, dead.
Henry Norton

Thomas Farrington


Isaac Wollaston 1710 Sir Charles Wager, Knt.


Sir John Jennings, Kot.

Sir James Wishart, Knt.


Sir William Gifford, Knt. ...

51 | 1689 Frederick Tilney The latter two on petition.

Lord William Powlett 1774 Vice Sir M. Featherstonbaugh, dead.

Charles Morley

35 Peter Taylor 39 1700 George Rodney Bridges

55 Joshua Iremonger

Lord William Bowlett

49 1777 Vice Peter Taylor, dead.

Frederick Tilney
Sir William Gordon, K.B.

23 1729 Vice Lord William Powlett, dead.
Sir H. Featherstonhaugh, Bart....


Norton Powlett Polls in Smith, 1774 (General Election), 1780, 1820.

Powlett St. John

40 Southampton. 1812 Sir Henry Mildmay, Bart.

79 1695 Sir Charles Windbam, Knt.

Richard Meyler

56 Sir Benjamin Nowland, Knt.

H, Baring

33 John Smith ...

174 Polls in Smith, 1747, 1831.




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with which I begin, was told to Mr. Pike by King 1695 Henry Holmes Anthony Morgan

Beaulieu, a French ball-breed, whom he employed

33 John Acton ...


as guide. It may be romarked that Mr. Pike

takes it be “a curious mixture of old tradition, 1714 Henry Holmes

39 Sir Robert Raymond, Knt.


with some details from the Biblical version as Anthony Morgan

20 taught to the Northern Indians on the arrival of Sir Theodore Janssen, Bart.

18 the first priests in the country":The latter two on petition.

“Many years ago, so long ago in fact that as yet no 1768 William Strode

29 man had appeared in the country of the Slave Lake, the Jervoise Clarke

29 animals, birds, and fishes lived in peace and friendship, Thomas Dummer

15 supporting themselves by the abundant produce of the Hon. George Parker

15 soil. But one winter the snow fell far more heavily The latter two on petition,

than usual; perpetual darkness set in, and when the

W. W. BEAN. spring should have come the snow, instead of melting 4, Montague Place, Bedford Square.

away, grow deeper and deeper. This state of affairs lasted

many months, and it became hard for the animals to (To be continued.)

make a living; many died of want, and at last it was

decided in a grand council to send a deputation to THE CEPAISUS AND THE Ilissus. Gautier, in Heaven to inquire into the cause of the strange events,

and in this deputation every kind of animal, bird, and *L'Orient,'chap. v., in speaking of the neighbour-fish was represented. They seem to have had no diffihood of Athens and the Piræus, says: Quant à culty in reaching the sky, and passing through a trapla rigole vaseuse, je suis fâché de dire que c'était door into a land of sunshine and plenty. Guarding the le Céphise, mais, comme Magnus dans les Bur. door stood a deerskin lodge resembling the lodges now in graves, 'la vérité m'y pousse.'

uge among the Yellow Knives; it was the home of the There were three

black bear, an animal then unknown on the earth. The rivers of this name. We must, therefore, hope old bear bad gone to a luke close at hand to spear caribou that the Cephisus to which Wordsworth alludes in from a canoe, but three cubs were left in the lodge to take his beautiful lines in the fourth book of 'The care of some mysterious bundles that were hung up on the Excursion' was either the Cepbisus in Phocis and cross-poles; the cubs refused to say what these bundles Boeotia or the Cephisus in Argolis. To hear that contained, and appeared very anxious for the return of

the old bear. the "running river” to which the votary "pre- “Now the idea of spearing caribou did not ficd favour sented his severed hair," and the crystal lymph" with the deputation from below, and as the canoe was which “refreshed his thirsty lip," is really a seen lying on the shore of the lake the mouse was dig. "rigole vaseuse" and "la boue poire,” is a colder patched to gnaw through the paddle, and as he had douche than to hear that Belted Will, the pic-down in pursuit of a band of caribou that had put off

nearly accomplished this feat the bear came running turesque warrior of Scott's poem, paid

poor-rate from the far shore. When he was close up to his inin the county of Middlesex (see 'N. & Q.,'76 s. tended victims, and was working his best, the paddle viii. 418).

" There's no romance in that !” It suddenly broke, the canoe capsized, and the bear disis no doubt possible that the Attic Cephisus is appeared beneath the water. Then the animals, birds, not always a rigole vaseuse." I think I have that they contained the sun, moon, and stars belonging

and fishes grew bold, and pulling down the bundles found read somewhere that Gray's "cool Ilissus" dis- to the earth ; these they threw down through the trapappears, or nearly so, during the summer months; door to lighten the world and melt the snow, which by and yet the Ilissus has obtained most “honourable this time covered the tops of the tallest pine-trees. mention,” not only in Gray's glorious ode, but in “The descent from Heaven was not made without 'Paradise Regaiped’ (book iv. line 249).

some small accidents. The beaver split his tail and the I see that Dr. Smith, in his ‘Student's Greece,' the present day the beaver's tail is flat and the lynx is

blood splashed over the lyox, so that ever afterwards till ed. 1871, says :

spotted ; the moose flattened his nose, and many other “On the eastern and western sides of the city [Athens) | casualties occurred which account for the peculiarities of there run two small streams which are nearly exhausted various animals, and the little bears came tumbling down before they reach the sea by the heats of summer and by with the rest. the cbannels for artificial irrigation. That on the east “And now the snow began to melt so quickly that the is the Ilissus, which flowed through the southern quarter earth was covered with water, but the fish found for the of the city: that on the west is the Cephieus.”

first time that they could swim, and carried their friends JONATHAN BOUCHIER.

that could not on their backs, while the ducks set to

work to pull up the land from beneath the water. Ropley, Alresford.

“But it was still harder to make a living, so the raven,

then the most beautiful of birds, was sent to see if he YELLOW - KNIFE INDIAN FOLK-LORE.—I have could find any place where dry land was showing; but called a few flowers in the ‘Barren Ground of on coming across the carcase of a caribou be feasted Northern Capada' (London, 1892) by Mr. War- upon it, although the raven had never before eaten anyburton Pike, in the hope that they may be sweet thing but berries and the leaves of the willow. For this to readers of ‘N. & Q. who may not have seen know, and to this day is despised of every living thing;

offence he was transformed into the hideous bird that we them, or who, having seen them, may bave neglected even 'omnivorous man will not eat of the raven's flesh to secure specimens. The story of the Deluge, unless under pressure of starvation. The ptarmigan wag

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then sent out, and returned bearing in his beak a branch and Queries," and as it has elicited no satisfactory of willow as a message of bope; in remembrance of this reply, and appears to me to deserve one, I beg leave begins to fall in the

Barren Ground, and thus warns the to forward it to tbe "mother and mistress “ of all animals that winter is at band.

minor ‘N. & Q.'s.' The result, I hope, will go to " But the old life bad passed away, and the peace that show that the “ old original” still stands facile had reigned among all living things was disturbed. The princeps as the best field in which to plant all fish, as the water subsided, found that they could no such inquiries :longer live on the land, and the birds took to flying long distances. Every animal chose the country that suited “I wish to know, from someone who is more acquainted it best, and gradually the art of conversation was lust. with mediæval English terms than I am, what was the About this time too, in a vague and indefinite manner difference, if any, say from about the year 1100 to 1500, about which tradition says little, the first human being in meaning between wedding and marriage. I ask the appeared on the shore of the Great Slave Lake.”—Pp. 79, question because in the course of my reading our old 80. 81.

romances of chivalry I have come across passages where The North American reindeer :

the words seem to be used in different sepses. In the

Romance of Partenay, or Tale of Melusine,' occurs the “The caribou afford a wide scope for the superstitions following passage :80 ingrained in the Indian nature, and the wildest tales

Honestly was done without the least foundation are firmly believed in.

The mariage and weddying greabilly. One widely-spread fancy is that they will entirely for

LI. 1542-3. sake a country if any one throws a stick of stone at If the two words in question mean exactly the same them, and their disappearance from the neighbourhood of Fort Resolution is accounted for by the fact of a boy thing, why does the poet use them in such close conwho bud no gun joining in the chase when the caribou nexion? Further we have :were passing in big numbers, and clubbing one to death The mariage bad with all the weddying with a stick; this belief holds good also down the

Which endured eight days plenerly, Mackenzie River, as does the idea that these animals on

They had ioustes and tornements myghty. some occasions vanish either into the air or under the

LI. 1930-2. ground. The Indians say that sometimes when follow. Here again the two words are used in combination, ing close on a herd they arrive at a spot where the tracks inclining still more to two different meanings. It is not suddenly cease and the hunter is left to wonder and now simply the marriage and the wedding, but the starve. It is very unlucky to let the dogs eat any part of marriage with the wedding, and not only that, but with the bead, and the remaining bones are always burnt or all the wedding, and the two ideas are linked one to the put up in a tree out of reach, the dogs goin: hungry, other as two separate and distinct things. In the same unless there happens to be some other kind of meat poem the poet, speaking of a certain earl, uses the words: handy. Another rather more sensible superstition, pre

Never after thens went oumably invented by the men, is that no woman must eat

To no place here ne there thys Erle reuerent. the gristle of the nose (a much-esteemed delicacy) or she

As by wifing no by mariage. LI, 6369-71. will infallibly grow a beard.”—Pp. 55, 56.

Where wifing and mariage seem to mean different things. Reverence for the stars, which in Europe As we got our word marriage through the French worė, strengthens the superstition that it is wrong to wbich French word is not derived immediately from the stare at them, is probably latent in the Barren Latin word matrimonium, as many might suppose, but from Ground. Mr. Pike records :

the mediæval Latin marilagium, it might be worth our

wbile to make some research into the bistory and mean“I was awakened by hearing the universal Indian ing of this word. Maritagium, as its form shows, comes chant (Hi, hi, he, Ho, hi, he) and much clapping of from marilus, a husband, and means the dowry given by bands......I looked out to see what was going on, and the bride's parents to the bridegroom. (See Glanville, found everybody sitting in the snow shouting; Saltatba vii. 1.) The word also occurs in this sense in the laws had discovered a single star, and the noise I had heard of Edward the Confessor. Formerly then both in was the applauso supposed to bring out one of the France and England the word mariage referred to the principal constellations, so that we might get an idea of temporal and material part of the ceremony, and was our direction,”-P. 113.

only used vulgarly of the sacramental part, for which

St. SWITHIN. the more respectable word nopces (noces) was used in NATHANIEL HONE, R.A. (1718–1784), PAINTER. vulgairement appellez mariage" ("Cout. Gén.,' ii. 726);

France. We find the following expressions : "Nopces -The register of York Minster records the mar- La dot ou donation pour noces est vulgairement appellé riage, by licence, on Oct. 9, 1742, of Nathaniel mariage' (Laurière)." Marisge divis, c'est la dot ou le Hone, of the city of York, with Mary Earl, of the mariage prefix et distinct et separé du reste des biens parish of St. Michael le Belfrey in the

same city. des pere et mere ' [sic]; As far as I can make out, the He was buried in Hendon Churchyard, co. Mid- of William the Conqueror, namely, the word wedding was

opposite course was followed in England after the time dlesex, on Aug. 20, 1784. This note will serve as used for the material part, the dowry, the joys, the an interesting addition to the account of bim feasting, &c. (note the word wad, root of wedding), and appearing in 'Dict. Nat. Biog.,' vol. xxvii. p. 242. the word marriage was used of the ecclesiastical cere


mony, though the Latin word marilagium was used in 17, Hilldrop Crescent, N.

legal documents in the same sense as it was in France,

In the example quoted above, where both terms occur WEDDING MARRIAGE.

together, marriage comes before wedding, as we should

- The following expect if my notion be correct, wedding including all the query from a learned divine appeared some weeks external acts. My question is this : Did our ancestors, ago in a provincial newspaper's column of "Notes within the period 'stated, attach two different meanings


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