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the poetry of Horace or Virgil or the prose of purity as to have given rise to a well-known proverb Cicero. This was the function of men like Petrarch, connoting the perfection of style, and everywhere who collected, copied, or restored the ancient in Italy the peasant will lend an intelligent ear to manuscripts, and but for whose loving care some the music of Tasso's or Ariosto's verse. Contrastof the most precious models of antiquity would ing these examples with our loose mode of speakbave been lost. Indeed, Petrarch became so en- ing English, we pay a high price for a little Latin amoured of the Latin tongue that he censured and Greek, which a boy is apt to forget as soon as Dante for having written his great poem in the he leaves school. Of course the public schools send vernacular language of Italy, and lamented that up every year successful classical scholars to the unihis own Italian poems should be degraded by versities ; but this comparatively small minority being sung in the streets, a degradation which a does not justify the attempt to teach all boys alike. modern poet would welcome as a true mark of For, as the author of The Mill on the Floss well appreciation of his muse. Many of Petrarch’s remarks : “For getting a fair flourishing growth poems and an unfinished epic on Africa are in of stupidity, there is nothing liko pouring out on Latin, and are read by nobody, while his exquisite the mind a good amount of subjects in which it Italian sonnets and canzoni take rank among the feels po interest.” If boys left school with a taste most highly prized examples of modern literature. for their native literature, or, indeed, for any
But while this literature was slowly growing literature, school education would be a great into form and substance, Latin was the language success, since such an amount of culture would be of intercommunication between the learned of to a great extent a means of resisting many temptadifferent countries. Not only epistolary corre- tiods to which young people are exposed. spondence, but scientific and other memoirs, and
Some laudable endeavours have been made of even ponderous volumes were written in Latin, late years to introduce science into the courses of and Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam, was so satisfied study in our public schools, and also better methods that the English language could not endure the of teaching the modern languages. But, somehow wear and tear of ages, that he left instructions for or other, the English boy does not take kindly to translating into Latin such of his works as were the languages of the Continent, either because he not already in that tongue. And this was at the inherits some of the prejudices of his ancestors of time when Sbakspere, Spenser, Ben Jonson, the time of Nelson, when they sang so glibly, Sydney, and others were erecting the marvellous
We scorned the Gallic yoke, pile of English literature on the foundation that
Our slips were hearts of oak, had been already laid by Chaucer and others.
And hearts of oak our men; When our grammar schools were founded it was or because he regards modern languages as not for the teaching of Latin, not English, grammar; being a gentlemanly basis of education, which, and it was held that a boy who had been well according to him or his tutor, can only be supplied drilled in Latin would be sure to speak English by the classics. But the result is that the English correctly, if, indeed, it mattered whether he did so boy, being shy of expressing himself in a foreign
At the university the path to profit and tongue, acquires only an imperfect knowledge of honour lay through the classics, and the man who the same, not sufficient to give him an interest in could write good Latin prose was bighly esteemed its literature or its people, and he soon forgets, and rewarded, while the man who wrote the Eng- after he has left school, the little that he knew; lish that still continues to instruct and delight us whereas the German boy will acquire a practical had to depend on the smiles of a patron who was knowledge of three or four languages, and will often the subject of a fulsome dedication. Al come to England and occupy a post which, in the though since the time of Dr. Johnson literature nature of things, ought to be filled by one of our has been more or less free from the yoke of patron- own people. The fact is, the English boy's age, the classical yoke still continues to a great sympathies are not in the schoolroom, but in the extent to impede the course of education. Hence playground ; and here he is really in earnest, and it seems to me that, owing to our public schools developed into the man of action and practical and universities having so long neglected the culti-intelligence, whose influence is felt in our army vation of the English language, it has not become and navy, in colonial life, and in various kinds of a subject of interest to the masses, and hence the adventure. slovenly mode in which it is spoken, and often
I must apologize for the length of this note, and written and read. In this reepect our practice defer some further illustrative remarks. differs from that of the French of both sexes, who
C. Tomlinson, F.R.S. take an affectionate pride in their language. The
Highgate, N. Germans also speak their language well, and the It may amuse your readers (apart from any peasant leaves the primary school with a correct religious considerations) to hear that, when I was appreciation of his mother tongue. The Tuscan eighteen or thereabouts, I was gently reproved by peasant speaks his or her native Italian with such a High Churchman for saying that some one was
"in the Church.” My friend said, “I am in the says that it was due to treachery, and refers for an Church," which, knowing him to be a layman, con- account of it to Jones (* Relics,' vol. i. p. 19). siderably astonished me. I thought he meant that
O. O. B. he had been ordained, but had “jeté son froc aux The name Urien bas this notice in Mitford's orties " (not that I know this phrase in those days).
Gray's 'Poems':He then said, “You are in the Church"; when I think I gathered his meaning. I believe I ought his Dissertatio de Bardis,' p. 78, among
those bards of
"Cadwallo and Urien are mentioned by Dr. Evans in to bave said “So and so is in orders," or "has taken whom no works remain. See account of Urien's death orders." Horace speaks of
in Jones, ‘Relics,' i. p. 19. He is celebrated in the
Triads as one of the three bulls of war.' Taliessin Quem penes arbitrium est et jus et norma loquendi. dedicated to him upwards of twelve poems, and wrote an “This ilkë text" my friend evidently held
elegy on his death; he was slain by treachery in the year
560. “not worth an oistre,” in this instance, at any
ED. MARSHALL. rate. The good man has long since entered a world wbere party phrases are not scorned, because they
“Urian=a husbandmad," from the Danish are not known, so there is no fear of my hurting
J. F. MANSERGH. his feelings. JONATHAN BOUCHIER.
REEDS (8th S. ii. 327, 433, 517 ; iii. 52, 116).URIAN (8th S. iii. 169).—The name of Urian in Allow me to refer your readers who are interested Cheshire would probably come from the St. Pierre in this subject to an excellent and exhaustive family, in which it was a favourite name. Urian article in Dr. W. Smith's ' Dictionary of the Bible, de St. Pierre, who died in 23 Edward I., was suc- entitled “ Writing,” by W. A. W. (Dr. William ceeded by a grandson of the same name; he died Aldis Wright). In this it is said :two years after. A daughter of John de St. Pierre, “For parchmont or skins a reed was used (3 John 13; perhaps sister of the later Urian (whose father was 3 Macc. iv. 20), and according to some the Law was to be John), married Sir Philip de Malpas, whose written with nothing else (Wachner, $ 334).” daughter and ultimate heiress married Sir William The modern scribes Brereton. Her brother is called Philip Egerton in " have an apparatus consisting of a metal or ebony tube the Brereton pedigree, and is said to have died s.p. for their reed pens, with a cup or bulb of the same In the Egerton stemmata David de Egerton, who material attached to the upper end for the ink. This would be probably cousin of Philip de Malpas, has the trust through the girdle
, and carry with them
all times."-Thomson, The Land and the Book,' p. 131. a son Urgan Egerton, doubtless Urian. Whence the name came into the St. Pierre family I know the pen for the formation of the Hebrew characters,
Perhaps the reed may be more adapted than not. The Urien of Gray could be no other than and I have heard that & Jew, before tracing the Urien Rheged, the friend and lieutenant of King great name Jehovah hin', translated in the SepArthur, the hero Owain killed the great Saxon chief Ida, and who tuagint Kúpros and in the Vulgate by Dominus, was himself killed at Aberllew, near Dumbarton, article in the same book and by the same author
wipes out his reed. There is another excellent assassinated by Llovan Llawdino says a Triad. The tribe of Urien is still of some fame in Pem: on this name. John PicKFORD, M. A.
Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. brokeshire; one of his descendants was Sir Rhys ap Thomas, who did so much to seat Henry VII. These are always used in writing by natives in on the throne. One of the offences which made up India. When I was taught to read and write the treason of his grandson and cost him his head Hindustani at Benares in 1860-61 the munshi was calling himself Fitzurien. Gray puts the grave (teacher) supplied me with reed-pens. of Urien in North Wales, perbaps because his
GEORGE ANGUS. cousin, the great chief Llywarcb, lies there.
St. Andrews, N.B.
I am obliged to MR. EDWARD PEACOCK for his Under " Urania” (the heavenly) Miss Yodge note. Will he further favour me by saying how he says (' Hist. of Christian Names,' 1884, p. 72): – obtained the reeds he used ? C. A. WARD. “Uranius was not uncommon among the later Greeks,
Chingford Hatch, E. especially in Christian names; a Gaulish author was so called, and it was left by the Romans as a legacy to the
OLDEST TREES IN THE WORLD (8th S. iii. 207). British. It makes its appearance among the Welsh as — Trees Remarkable for heir Age' formed the Urien."
subject of twenty-three communications to‘N. &Q.,' Lady Charlotte Guest, in the 'Mabinogion' and will be found in 1" S. iv. v. vi. vii. xii., also (notes to "Taliesin'), gives incidentally some infor- four articles in 2nd S. vi. vii. The Sunderland mation respecting Vrien Rheged, Taliesin's patron, Times of Oct. 19 and 26, 1877, contained two but says nothing of his death ; of which, however, chapters on this subject, including the Bo Tree of a note to 'The Bard' in the Aldine edition of Gray Ceylon, the Cypress of Soma, Mammoth Trees
of Calaveras, the Dragon Tree of Orotava, the Father was such an interfusion of blood that no class or of the Maori Forest, the Largest Pine in Polynesia, order could claim to be independent of any other the Cedars of Lebanon, the Chestnut of Mount class or order." Is it of any interest to mention Etna, and many other aged trees. The Standard that in Charles Lever's Life' (Ward & Lock, for Sept. 28, 1889, gave a leading article on the p. 28) there is some notice “ of three distinct growth of trees, which was followed by six letters Celtic races intermixed with the representatives from correspondents on the same subject, which of the successive conquerors of Ireland” ? may be of interest to M. J. T.
Civis. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 71, Brecknock Road,
RECORDER OF SALISBURY IN 1642 (8th S. iii. 68).
-Robert Hyde, serjeant-at-law, beld this office in The Soma Cypress of Lombardy is, I believe, 1642. He was the second son of Sir Lawrence the oldest tree of which there is any authentic Hyde ; educated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford ; called record. It is known to have been in existence in to the Bar at the Middle Temple, 1617; appointed 42 B.C.
There are, however, many trees for which Recorder of Salisbury, June 26, 1635 ; removed a vastly greater antiquity is claimed. The Senegal from the office, May 11, 1646 ; and afterwards Baobabs—some of them-are said to be five thou- replaced in it by mandamus, June 14, 1660. . His sand
years old. The Bo Tree of Anuradhapura, in removal was due to Puritan influenca, he being a Ceylon, is perhaps the oldest specimen of another zealous Royalist and Churchman. He was first very long-lived species ; it is held sacred upon the cousin to Sir Edward Hyde and nine years bis ground that it sprang from a branch of the iden- senior in age. The Chancellor had not, so far as tical tree under which Buddha reclined for seven I am aware, any official connexion with Salisbury. years whilst undergoing his apotheosis. The oak For further particulars as to Robert Hyde's conis well known to be a long liver, and there are nexion with Salisbury consult Benson and Hatcher's specimens still standing in Palestine of which the 'History of Salisbury,' 1843, pages 390-93, &c. tradition goes that they grew out of Cain's staff.
C. W. HOLGATE. The hawthorn, again, sometimes lives to be very The Palace, Salisbnry. old; there is said to be one inside Cawdor Castle immemorial age.
The cedars of Lebanon TANANARIVO (8th S. ii. 527; iii. 77).—This may also be mentioned, and there are, according to question was incorrectly answered at the last Dean Stanley, still eight of the olives of Gethsemane reference. Antananarivo, the name of the capital standing, "whose goarled trunks and scanty of Madagascar, means literally " at the town of a foliage will always be regarded as the most affect thousand." The prefix an, which becomes am ing of the sacred memorials in or about Jerusalem.” before certain consonants, forms the first syllable For further information on the subject your corre- of an immense number of Malagasy names. It is spondent should consult Mr. Folkard's Plant a proposition, meaning "at," and gives a localizing Lore,' from which most of the above is taken. sense to the word it precedes, a usage found in
O. O. B. many Anglo-Saxon names, such as Yetminster, JUDGES' ROBES : COUNSELS' Gowns (8th S. iii. Dorset, which means " at the minster,” or Ockford, 127, 193). I have read with much interest the element, tana, signifies a town, as An-tana-malågs,
Dorset, meaning "at the ford.” The second article by MR. TEMPANY on judges' robes, &c.,
"at the famous town"; and the third element is pp. 193-4. Can any of your readers give me any arivo, " a thousand,”
which we have in Nozi-arivo, information on the subject of potaries' robes ? Is the thousand isles," or the hill called Tsipjo-arivo, bave a rubbing, taken several years ago from a brass in one of the Ipswich churches, showiog a called either because it contained a thousand
"overlooking a thousand.” Antapaaarivo is so notary in his robes, with ink-born and pen-case houses, or, according to the popular belief, attached to his girdle, but there is no date on the because it includes within its circuit a thousand rubbing. Also, if your readers could direct me to
ISAAC TAYLOR. any books in English on the subject of notaries in bygone ages I shall feel obliged.
John NEWTON (8th S. iii. 125, 250).-Cowper's
J. T. ATKINSON, Selby.
'Negro's Complaint,' 'Pity for Poor Africans,"
and Morning Dream' were publisbed in bis TURK's ISLAND (8th S. ii, 110).—Turk's Island, in Poems' of 1803. See Aldine edition of Cowper's the Bahamas, is said to have obtained its name from Works' (the reissue), i. 246. Cowper's own a local species of cactus, known from its shape as estimate of the comparative merits of the three the Turk's head.
ISAAC TAYLOR. slave poems, as expressed in bis letter on the sub
ject to General Cowper, is apposite and interesting. ARTICLE IN PERIODICAL SOUGHT (8th S. ï. It is curious to find that tbe immediately preceding 149).-E. P. B. asks where be could have read letter, in Southey's 'Cowper's Works,' iv. 7, adthat “through the ramification of families there dressed to Lady Hesketh, and dated from The
Lodge, March 12, 1788, opens with two para- he points out its fearful political and moral evils—its. graphs on the slave trade. The second refers to injury alike to the slaves and those who traffic in them. Wilberforce, and begins thus:
• If,' he says,' my testimony should not be necessary or
serviceable, yet, perhaps, I am bound in conscience to “Mr. Wilberforce's little book (if he was the author of take shame to myself by a public confession, wbich, howit) has also charmed me. It must, I should imagine, ever sincere, comes too late to provent or repair the engage the notice of those to whom it is addressed. In misery and mischief to which I have formerly been that case one may say to them, Either answer it or be accessory. I hope it will always be a subject of humiset down by it! They will do neither. They will liating reflection to me that I was once an active instruapprove, condemn, and forget it. Such has been the fate ment in a business at which my heart now shudders."" of all exhortations to reform, whether in verse or prose, and however closely pressed upon the conscience in all
In the light of the above quotation one would ages."
hardly venture to accuse Newton of having exhiWhat "little book” of Wilberforce's may have bited“ no signs whatever of compunction on the. furnished the occasion for this despondent view of subject.”
JOAN T. PAGE. the reception given to reformers? It is not in
Holmby House, Forest Gate. Lowndes.
THOMAS BAYNE. Helensburgh, N.B.
MR. BOUCHIER may like to be referred to what
Sir James Stephen wrote upon this subject in his This question will be best answered by Newton delightful Essays in Ecclesiastical Biography, himself. In his autobiography, written in 1764, pp. 409–12, edition 1883.
EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. During the time I was engaged in the slave-trade, I
Hastings. never had the least scruple as to its lawfulness. I was, upon the whole, satisfied with it, as the appointment FOLK-LORE OF Gems (8th S. iii. 229).—ThereProvidence had marked out for me, yet it was, in many is a good deal of what is really nothing but old respects, far from eligible. It is indeed, accounted a folk.lore on this subject in Albertus Magnus. I genteel employment......However, I considered myself as a sort of gaoler or turnkey; and I was sometimes have a French version, 'Les Admirables Secrets shocked with an employment that was perpetually con- d'Albert le Grand ʼ(Cologne, 1707). The second versant with chains, bolts, and shackles."
chapter of livre ii. is entirely devoted to precious Preaching twenty years later, he says:
stones. A paragraph will show the character of “I should be inexcusable, considering the share I have
the whole :formerly had in that unhappy business, if upon this “ Pour mettre la paix entre quelqu'un, on prendra la occasion (a public fast] I should omit to mention the pierre de Saphir,
qui se trouve dans les Indes Orientales, African slave trade. I do not rank this amongst our la jaune qui n'est pas si luisante est la meilleure. Cette national sing, because I hope and believe a very great pierre portée sur soi, donne la paix et
la concorde, rend majority of the nation earnestly long for its suppression; devot et pioux, inspire le bien, et modere le feu, et. but hitherto, petty and partial interests prevail against l'ardeur des passions interieures."—P. 110. the voice of justice, humanity, and truth.
C. O. B. Nearly four years afterwards, on a similar occasion, he speaks thus :
King's 'Precious Stones and Gems' gives much
interesting folk-lore. CONSTANCE RUSSELL. “I have more than once confessed with sbame in this Swallowfield Park, Reading. pulpit the concern I bad too long in the African slave. trade......I fear the African slave-trade is a national sin, Your correspondent should consult History for the enormities which accompany it are now generally and Mystery of Precious Stones,' by William known." —Newton's Works, ed. Rev. R. Cecil, Edin- Jones, wherein the romance and poetry and superburgh Univ. Press, 1831, pp. 30, 860, 869.
stitions are treated on; also The Mirror of It is evident that Newton was slow to perceive Stopes,' by Camillus Leonardus, physician at. the evil and wrong of slavery, but that he did see Pesaro, dedicated to Cæsar Borgia, London, 1750. them in the end. That Cowper, the spectator,
EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. should have perceived this far more quickly, and 71, Brecknock Road. more warmly denounced it, than Newton, who bad been engaged in the trade and had been brought
See introduction to 'Magyar Folk-Tales' (ed. up to regard it as
a genteel employment,” will Kropf and Turner), p. lxiv, from which I take the least surprise those who have most studied haman following, all that there is on the subject of nature.
“Superstitions about Stones”:MR. BOUCHIER'S "impression that Newton felt thousands of snakes in caves, who bury them in the sand.
“The diamond is blown, like glass, by thousands and great sorrow in after life for his connexion with The carbuncle glows in the dark. The garnet : while the slave trade" is, I think, quite correct. From the person who wears these stones is healthy the garnet the Rev. Josiah Ball's 'John Newton of Olney is of a beautiful red colour; when the wearer ails the : and St. Mary Woolnoth' (London, 1868), I quote stones turu pale. The opal is an unlucky stone." the following paragraph :
The following is from the St. Louis Republic, "Mr. Newton, about the same time , published March 18, part ii. p. 16, c. 2. It may be of somehis. Thoughts upon the African Slave Trade,' in which service to your correspondent :
“ The girl born in January should wear a garnet, for vol. i. of the First Series of Mr. Walford's 'Tales that will win friends for her wherever she goes. The of Great Families.' The name of his victim was girl born in February must have an amethyst, because
MUS IN URBE. that will make her siucere, protect her from poison, and Hartgill, not Argile. from slanderous tongues. The girl born in March must
In the Wiltshire Archæological and Natural bave a bloodstone, because that will make her wise, and give her patience to bear all trouble.
The girl born in History Magazine, vol. viii. pp. 242 to 336, is a April must have a diamond, because that will keep her paper by the Rev. Canon Jackson, M.A., on innocent and pure, happy and generous. The girl born Charles, Lord Stourton, and the Murder of the in May must have an emerald, for that will make her a Hartgills.'
ALFRED T. EVERITT. happy and a healthy wife. The girl born in June must
High Street, Portsmouth. have a topaz, for that will make her truthful, and protect her from fairies and ghosts. The girl born in July FLOWERS ON Graves (8th S. iii. 165).-Spenser, must have a ruby, because they will make her get great in ‘A Pastorall Aeglogue upon the Death of Sir love, and keep ber free from jealousy. The girl born in August must have a sardonyx, because that will make Phillip Sidney, Knight, &c.,' alludes to the custom her a happy mother. The girl born in September must of laying flowers on graves :have a sapphire, for then she will never quarrel with her Behold these flowres which on thy grave we strow; sweetheart. The girl born in October must have a car- Which faded, shew the givers faded state, buncle, for that will make her love her home. The girl (Though else they shew their fervent zeale and pure) born in November must have an opal, for that will bring Whose onely comfort on thy welfare grew. her luck in money matters and in love. The girl born Whose praiers importune sball the heav'ns for ay, in December must have a turquoise, for that will bring That to thy ashes rest they may assure : her friends, health, happiness and riches. Every word That learnedet shepherds honor may thy name of it is true, every word of it; and my belief in it is With yearly praises, and the Nymphs alway proved from the fact that, having been born in Septem- Tby tomb may deck with fresh and sweetest flowers. ber, a band of eapphires encircles the hand of BAB.”
Phineas Fletcher, in 'The Purple Island,' has PAUL BIERLEY.
the following reference to the practice :“A BOOK CALLED 'Cene'" (81b S. iii. 228).— And when the dead by cruel tyrant's spite, La Cène, French, the Lord's Supper, and Faire
Lie out to rav'nous birds and beasts expos’d, la Cène, the ceremony of serving the poor after His yearning heart pitying that wretched sight,
In decent graves their weary flesh enclos'd, washing their feet on Holy Thursday.
And strew'd with fragrant flowers the lowly hearse. CONSTANCE RUSSELL,
Canto ix, st. 46. Swallowfield Park, Reading.
Then there is the famous passage in Milton's Probably the book called Cene' was a collection Lycidas,' beginning “Ye valleys low," and endof Italian tales, similar to Boccaccio’s ‘Decameron' ing : At that date authors were fond of titles such as
Bid amarantus all his beauty shed,
And daffadillies fill their cups with tears, Days, Nights, Suppers (Cene), &c. The date given,
To strew the laureat berge where Lycid lies. 1398-9, is, however, too early for it to refer to the
F. B. BIRKBECK TERRY. Cepe' of Il Lasca. A. COLLINGWOOD LEE. Waltham Abbey, Essex.
There seems to be an allusion to the practice of
strewing graves with flowers, and perhaps to the TITHE-Barns (gib S. ii. 246, 330, 397, 475 ; iii. custom of lining them with moss, in the following 16).— I have not seen the splendid old tithe-barn beautiful passage in Sbakspeare :of St. Lawrence, Dear Beaulieu, in Hampshire, Arv.
With fairest flowers, mentioned by any correspondent. It is in good Whilst summer lasts, and I live here, Fidele, preservation, and is a remarkably picturesque old
'll sweeten thy sad grave; thou shalt not lack
The flower that's like thy face, pale primrose ; nor building. Local tradition calls it the largest barn
The azur'd hare-bell, like thy veins ; no, nor in England.
The leaf of eglantine, whom not to slander, There is half (or thereabouts) of an old tithe
Out-sweeten'd not thy breath : the ruddock would,
With charitable bill–O bill sore-shaming barn at Horbury, near Wakefield, the other part Those rich-left heirs that let their fathers lie having been converted into cottages some years Without a monument !--bring thee all this; ago.
M. H. P. Yea, and furr’d moss besides, when flowers are nono,
To winter-ground tby corse. Cymbeline,' IV. ii. There is a large tithe-barn at Bredon, on the
An appended pote in 'Sbakspeare' (vol. ii. Warwickshire Avon, described and sketched (" with a chamber over its doorway, doubtless P: 748), edited by Howard Staunton, adds: "Mr. for the accountant”) in Harper's Magazine, &c., but to winter-ground appears to have been a
Collier's annotator would read To winter guard,' vol. xxii. p. 271, 1891.
R. HUDSON. Lapworth.
technical term for protecting a plant from the frost,
by laying straw or moss over it." CHARLES, LORD STURTON (8th S. iii. 188). —
Joan PICKFORD, M.A. MR. G. J. GRAY will find a full account of this It is impossible, I should imagine, to refer back Lord Sturton, or more correctly “ Stourton, in to a time when the custom of decking graves with