« EelmineJätka »
flowers was not known, and Mr. Baring-Gould's thesaurus Shakespeare's own works, where almost opinion that in our own country it is “a modern every conceivable thought and experience in human practice " caused me, when I read it, no small history has found expression. amazement. A better instance from Shakspeare
W. A. HENDERSON. than the one quoted by your correspondent is that
Dublin. in 'Cymbeline ':With fairest flowers,
TENNYSON'S CROSSING THE BAR' (gib S. ü. While summer laste, and I live here, Fidele, 446 ; iii. 137, 178).—I was much surprised to I'll sweeten thy sad grave.
read MR. BLOUNDELLE-BURTON'S remarks on the For the rest, and to refer to one writer only out similarity of the Charge of the Light Brigade 'to of many, Mr. Friend quotes references to the Michael Drayton's Battle of Agipcourt, as I custom from Baxter, Gay, Herrick, and other thought the similarity was as well known to English writers, known and unknown, besides students of Tennyson's poems as the source whence those from whom he quotes references to the the late Laureate derived the metre of 'In Memoallied custom of carrying flowers at funerals. riam,' to wit, Lord Herbert of Cherbury's 'Ode
C. C. B. upon a Question moved whether Love should
continue for Ever.' I remember that the similarity The custom of placing flowers on graves dates a little earlier than Shakespeare's day. Mr. W. E. Mulling, in Simple Poems, “English
was pointed out at least so early as 1874 by Mr. DAVIES might have quoted Virgil, ‘Æo., v. 885 :
School Classics,” Rivingtons.
F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY.
It does not seem to have occurred to the admirers E, WALFORD, M.A. of the late Laureate's charming poem that his Ventnor.
reference to the Pilot,
I hope to see my Pilot face to face A MOTTO FOR THEATRICAL MANAGERS (8th
When I have crossed the bar, S. iü. 106).–MR. W. Wright is, I think, rather is a metaphor sufficiently clouded to justify the unfortunate in citing Dr. Johnson's sentence. differences of opinion which it has challenged. First, the passage, through careless construction, Sir Edwin Arnold, for instance, interprets the does not express what its author intended. “ The idea thus :stream of Time...... passes without injury by the Death's soft wing all thy gallant canvas lifting, adamant of Shakspere." How a stream could be And Christ thy Pilot to the Peace to be. injured I fail to understand ; if it was a pellucid
Some time back a writer, who signed himself rivalet its waters might run drumlie from the c., observed in a contemporary, " The allusion is to falling débris of the “dissoluble fabrics"; but what the son who had preceded him (Lord Tennysonligt had it to fear from the polished adamant of Shake the undiscovered country three years previously. speare ? For alliterative effect. MR. WRIGHT in. Surely this cannot be so! Does not. C. controduces three words which I fail to find pertinent found the Pilot (man) with the pilot (fish), which to the paragraph. Poetic: whatever were the is always in advance of its huge friend the shark ? literary gifts and the conversational powers of the A pilot is one who takes charge of a ship, to congreat lexicographer, he certainly was not endowed duct it through perilous waters into safe soundings. with the genius of poetry; and the spectacle of this When the bar is crossed, the open ocean is, persweeping streamcleansing and crumbling its haps, reached certainly this is the idea intended riparian structures is not poetic. Pathetic: the in Tennyson's metaphor and then, the pilot, having solitary mass of adamant, forlorn and unskaken done his work, would take his leave, and return to amidst the tumble of a thousand edifices, proudly the shore. Consequently, not to meet your pilot cognizant of hurting the stream beneath, but until the bar is crossed is actually to invert the magnanimously refraining, may be pathos. Then truth. prophetic: what is there vaticinal in the passage ? It foretells nothing—it was not hard to prophesy fine story, 'A Sea Queen' (ed. 1889, p. 50), in the
This same metaphor is found in Clark Russell's on such a theme. With infinitely less ground to following touching passage :work on Mr. Baxter has told wonderful things. But why should a theatrical manager require such whom I had not met before, a short, square, brown-faced
"When young Joe Patten died,' said one of the captains, a motto? Shakespeare has unluckily spelt ruin to
man with bright, intelligent eyes, 'that Joe Patten, I many a dramatic caterer, and I am afraid the parade mean, whose father owned the old Venus; William of Dr. Johnson's cumbrous and verbose paragraph Morris, who was a bit of a poet in his way, says to me, would scarcely help him. If he needs must have a "Well, poor young Joe's gone. He took five days dying: quotation, a thousand simpler and more beautiful and he said to me the day afore his death, William, may be culled from the works of our greatest poets the coast 's hove-up
and 's as plain in sight as a spiritual
says he, 'when a man drawg near the other world-wben and prose writers, or, better still, from that golden shadow can be, my belief is that God A’mighty sends an
angel aboard him to pilot him in. That's just the fancy Now we of our special grace ratifying the aforesaid I bave,' he says. “There's a strong hand steering me, grant......Witness myself at Westminster, on the thir. William, and although I know no more than that I'm teenth day of June in the first year of our reign.” (Pat. bound for a new life, yet I feel to be so well handled; 1 Hen. V. m. 34 translated.) all's so calm and steady within me, mate, that, so far The letters recited of 14 Hen. IV. are not on the from being afraid. I wouldn't take twenty years more of roll of that year. In Exch. 2 B. Ancient Miscell
. life in exchange for the happiness that's now in me.' William Morris,' continued the skipper, may have in. Dom. Conv., an. 1, 2 Hen. V., the letters patents vented this, or it may be young Joe Patten's very words. are recited as the authority for the fragment in the I think it's true; and I'll tell’ee why. The hardest account. part of death is being alone. Friends may be crying round ye, and holding your hands, but still yo 're alone.
King Edward III., in the fifty-first year of his But my notion ie, th' A'mighty 's' too good to let a man reign, annexed the Domus Conversorum to the drift out of this world like a derelict, no one aboard. office of the Master of the Rolls, which then And so, as we can't ship human friends for the last became known as the Rolls House. The House voyage, what more natural than that th' A'mighty should was rebuilt in 1717.
ED. MARSHALL. put an angel aboard us, as young Joe Patten said, a sort of pilot to keep us company and cheer up up, and navigate Will Mrs. BogeR kindly supply a reference to us truly? If nothing of that kind takes place, how do the place where Dugdale uses the words “ converye account for men dying smiling, as if they' been having a pleasant talk with a shipmate up to the last sorum et puerorum” in reference to the foundamoment ?""
tion of St. Thomas's Hospital? I can find no such This is a sailor's, and a sailor writer's, rendering words in Dugdale's account either of St. Thomas's of an image which, I would submit, is so obscured Hospital, Southwark, or that of St. Thomas of in Lord Tennyson's poem as to be difficult of inter
Acons-now the Mercers' Chapel-in Cheapside. pretation.
The chapel of the “Domus Conversorum
Chancery Lane (now the Rolls Chapel), founded “ HOSPITALE CONVERSORUM ET PUERORUM " by Henry III. in 1233 as a house for the reception (866 S. iii. 209).- The ' Diocesan History of Oxon.' of converts from the Jewish faith, was dedicated (S.P.C.K.) has (p. 42):
to St. Mary. On the banishment of the Jews from “Henry III. had already built a house for the con
England in 1290, its “occupation being gone," verts from Judaism in London, in which they might the building was addexed by Edward III. in 1377 live together under rule, and might be maintained for the to the newly created office of “Custos Rotulorum” remainder of their lives without the necessity of prac. or “ Master of the Rolls." tising usury, as they had done before. And he now pro
EDMUND VENABLES. ceeded to found a similar institution in Oxford, with an especial regard to the wants of those who were either
It is usual for this word conversorum to mean strangers or infirm. This is the more worthy of notice Jews who adopted the Christian faith, as in the in a history of the diocese as, besides the one mentioned Domus Conversorum of Henry III. in Chancery as existing in London, and another at Bermondsey, no Lane in London (if I am not forgetting) or in the other place of refuge of a similar kind is known to have Domus Conrersorum in Oxford, which was near been established. t" The accounts of the Domus Conversorum are
the Guildhall. There is some interesting informa
tion in Wood's 'City of Oxford,' vol. i. p. 153 preserved in the Record Office. From these I ex. tracted the following:
(Oxford Historical Society, 1889).
0. W. TANCOCK. “ To all to whom, &c. We have inspected the letters
Little Waltham. patent of our most dear lord and father, Henry, late King of England, to this intent: Henry by the grace of God, King of England, of France, and lord of Ireland, to all
ALICE FITZ ALAN (8th S. ii. 248, 314, 457, 496 ; to whom, &c., ' Know yo that of our special grace we iii. 74).—MR. A. Hall evidently thinks that there have granted' to our said adopted son, Henry Wodestok, was but one Alice Fitz Alan (nat. circ. 1370), the and to his sons Martin and Peter, Jews lately converted daughter of Richard, the tenth Earl of Arundel, to the Catholic faith, that is to say, to all of them one penny and one halfpenny a day, to bo received at the and that she was first contracted to Cardinal BeauHospital of the Converts by the hands of the clerk of the fort (before his ordination, of course), taken from rolls for the time being for the term of their lives, in him and married to John Chorlton, Lord Powis, the manner in which they were formerly wont to receive and after the latter's death married to Thomas
In testimony whereof we have made these our letters Holland, Earl of Kent, who died in 1397. For patents. Witness myself at Westminster on the tenth, all of this he quotes Burke, but gives neither book day of November, in the fourteenth year of our reign.'
nor page. I find, according to Burke ('Extinct “ Mat. Par., p. 393, ad A.D. 1233, Lon., 1640 ; Wood, and Dormant Peerages,' ed. 1883, p. 201), that * Hist. et Ant. Univ. Oxon.,' tom. i. p. 132, 0x., 1668. A there were two Alice Fitz Alans. The first, daughter print of the Domus Conversorum, as the house was to Richard, ninth Earl of Arundel, married named, is given in W. H. Turner's ' Records of Oxford,' Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent; the second, p. 436, Ox., 1880.”
t" Milman, who cites Wikes, Chron.,' ad A.D. 1244, daughter of Richard, tenth Earl of Arundel, married rin. Hist. of the Jews,' book xxv., vol. iii. p. 255, Lond. Jobo Cherlton (ob. s.p.), Lord Powis. From 1866."
this it seems most likely that it was the second
Alice who was probably affianced to Beaufort, and and examine their work, he shall find them to be but pot Lady Kent, the pedigree asserting the contrary Spirits in Minerals and that with all this labour and stir
there is nothing done." being at fault by confounding the two Alices.
St. SWITHIN. 0. “WIGGIN” (8th S. iii. 28, 153). —If no one has name of the mineral cobalt is derived from
Under this head it may be mentioned that the traced this word by this time, perhaps DR.
kobold," and is due to the belief in these subPALMER may like to know that a South Devon
C. C. B. servant used the expression "sour as a wiggin ” _“I had to throw away the junket; he was gone There is one thing wbich makes the distinction 80 sour as a wiggin"; but she did not know what between ghosts and goblins difficult. The goblins wiggin" was.
J. F. W. and the kobolds have been known as household Plymouth.
fairies, and these household fairies are sometimes
identified with ghosts. The brownie called “the A propos of wiggin=sea-dog, in a 'Narrative of a Voyage to the South Seas,' by C. M. Goodridge, of a dead servant. In like manner the Roman
cauld lad of Hilton was supposed to be the spirit of Paignton, Dovon, 1837 (p: 51 of the fifth edition), lares were the souls of dead persons converted occurs, "The dog seals are named by South seamen into tutelary household deities. There is also the wigs and the female seals are called clap-matches.” The same word and sense, I have been told, is superstition that the ghosts of wicked men become
E. YARDLEY. found half a century earlier ; and during a visit of some American friends, a year or more ago, it CAILDREN THE CHAPEL STRIPT came up in conversation that an old seaman near Waipt'(8. S. iii. 227, 275).—MR. HUMPHREYS'S Providence, R.I., speaks of his sealing expeditions. " reply" does not answer my question. I am, of as going after whige.”
course, aware that Hazlitt speaks of this publicaLELY FAMILY (8th $. iii. 48). — The pedigree to tion, both in bis ' Handbook' and bis edition of which your correspondent refers was undoubtedly Tanner's books in the Bodleian Library, but, on
Warton. It was once entered as among Bishop that of a Lincolnshire family, One of the Lely going to Oxford to see it, I could not trace it. I family is, to my certain knowledge, a member of hoped that some other copy might be accessible, the Middle Temple. That gentleman belonged, I and wrote to inquire where I might see a copy. believe, to Grantham. P.J. F. GANTILLON.
CHARLOTTE CARMICHAEL STOPES. TUMBLERS (8th S. iii. 168, 233).- If“ tumblers" FEAST OF ST. MICHAEL (8th S. iii. 209, 273). — or "tumbling glasses,” which it was necessary to The “ festum dedicationis St. Michaelis Archempty at a draugbt, were novelties in 1803, they angeli” was institued by Pope Gelasius I. in 493. were only a revival of a form of drinking cup which As far as history knows, it has always been held was in use in England many centuries before. on September 29, which in the year 1396 fell on a Many of the glass cups found in Anglo-Saxon Friday. The day is more often than not called barrows are of a tall, conical form, with a spreading only « festum St. Michaelis Archangeli," but is brim and a pointed bottom, incapable of standing more correctly described as “festum s. Mychaelis uprigbt alone. Examples of this form of cup were Arch. de Septembri" (in a deed of the year 1288), in the Mayer Collection at Liverpool.
festum b. Mychaelis in autumpno" (in a deed E. VENABLES. of the year 1339), in order to distinguish it from
the Ghost MINERS (8th S. iii. 205, 258).—The
“festum apparitionis (or adventas) beati frontispiece to the Golden Remains of the Ever which is celebrated on May 8, and fell on a Mon
Michaelis Archangeli" (in deeds of the year 1308) Memorable Mr. John Hales, of Eaton.Colledge, day in 1396.
L. L. K. &c.' (London, 1688), represents some of the spiritminers at work, or rather at play, for the text The May feast of St. Michael, mentioned by assures us (p. 45) tbat
MR. C. F. S. WARREN, commemorates a wonderful “G. Agricola, writing. ' De Animantibus Subterraneis,' appearance or vision of the Archangel, which took reports of a certain kind of Spirits that converse in place upon Mount Gargano, in Apulia, when Minerals and much infest those that work in them; and Gelasius I. was Pope. Some time after this was the manner of them when they come is, to seem to busie instituted the feast held on Sept. 29, commonly themselves according to all the custom of Workmen;
“ The dedication of the they will dig, and cleanse, and melt and sever Metals ; called Michaelmas Day. yet when they are gone, tho Workmen do not find that famous Church of St. Michael on Mount Gargauo there is anything done. So fare it with a great part of (May 8), gave occasion to the institution of this the multitude, who thrust themselves into the Contro- feast (Sept. 29),” says Alban Butler. The mass versies of the Times ; they write Books, move Questions, and office are pretty much the same for both feasts, frame Distinctions, give Solutions, and seem sedulously to do whatever the nature of the business requires; yet the collect being that of Michaelmas Day, as given, if any skilful Work-man in the Lord's Mines sball come in its English drees, in the Book of Common
Prayer. There is another feast of the Guardian original or in a translation," can hardly be allowed Angels on October 2. Hence, in Catholic phra- to pass. It is possibly correct so far as the original seology, October is sometimes called the “month is concerned ; but he was well acquainted with of the angels," as May is "the month of Mary," or Chapman's translation of the 'Iliad' so far as it November “the month of the dead."
had been published. The characters of Achilles,
GEORGE ANGUS. of Ajax, of Ulysses, and of Menelaus are, as I have St. Andrews, N.B.
pointed out in my paper in the Transactions of the
Royal Society of Literature (vol. xv. pt. i.), in The Root of SCARCITY (8th S. iii. 268).—The exact accordance with Chapman's conception of plant referred to is the mangel-worzel, as appears them. Even the shocking climax of Achilles's from the pamphlet entitled “ An Account of the crimes, the cowardly murder of the unarmed Culture and Use of the Mangel Worzel, or Root of Hector, although not literally true to Homer, is Scarcity. Translated from the French of the Abbé amply justified, so far as character is concerned, de Commerell.” In the preface (Aug. 1, 1787), by the account of the equally cowardly murder of John Coakley Lettsom states, “In the midsummer the unarmed Lycaon recorded in the twenty-first of 1786 a few seeds were given me, said to be book of the Iliad' (11. 35-136 of Chapman's those of a dietetic vegetable, known in France version). The quotation of Aristotle by Hector under the name of the Racine de Disette.” He is only one of those anachronisms with which tells of his experiments with seeds of this plant, Shakespeare's plays abound, and has no bearing apparently till then unknown in England. The on the question of his classical knowledge. The pamphlet is illustrated with a coloured print of Fool in King Lear quotes Merlin, and Richard III. the root Beta hybrida. Ogilvie's Dictionary' appears in Henry VI.,' pt. ii., when be was gives derivation of mangel - worzel from Ger. actually not born ; yet no one would accuse Shakemangel=want, and worzel=root.
speare on this account of not having studied the
I. C. GOULD. chronicles of his own country. Loughton.
J. FOSTER PALMER, [Many replies to the same effect are acknowledged.]
I see that it is Hermia, not Theseus, who refers ARTHUR ONSLOW (1691-1768), SPEAKER OF
to Dido:THE HOUSE of Commons (866 S. iii. 167, 258).—
And by that fire that burned the Carthage queen, Mr. Speaker Onslow is to be reckoned amongst
When the false Trojan under sail was seen. distinguished Wykebamists. He was a Commoner But my oversight is of no importance, since the at Winchester College during the years 1706-7, anachronism is the same in the mouth of Hermia under the head mastership of Dr. Thomas Cheyney! as it would have been in that of Theseus. In
C. W. HOLGATE.
Troilus and Cressida'the Greek chiefs make no
reference whatever to their own previous exploits FRANCIS, Fifth DUKE OF LEEDS (8th S. iii.
or their families. The Shakspearian Nestor men267).—Two comedies written by this nobleman tions Boreas, Perseus, and such well- known will be found among the MSS. in the British mythical personages, but he never refers to the Museum (Add. M$., 27,917). One, in five acts, adventures of his youth, as the Homeric Nestor is entitled Don't be too sure, the other has no does. Shakspeare was in the habit of using all title, and is in two acts only.
J. J. C.
his knowledge, and he sometimes goes much out SHAKESPEARE AND MOLIÈRE (8th S. ii. 42, 190,
of his way to introduce a very small amount of
erudition. 294, 332, 389, 469 ; iii. 9, 70, 169). —Your corre
In Timon of Athens,' Timon thus spondent on this subject did not note one point
expresses hiniself :in MR. HENDERSON's letters.
They say, my lords, that ira furor brevis est,
But yon man's ever angry. position on the authority of the preface to the 1609 edition of " Troilus and Cressida,' that "you of Latin quoted, and put into the mouth of a
Readers must smile when they see this trite bit have here a new play never staled with the stage, Greek who lived long before the author of the never clapperclawed with the palms of the vulgar;” phrase was born. In 'Love's Labour's Lost,' To contradict this statement (which was afterwards there is an attempt to make the schoolmaster and withdrawn) we find in the Stationers' Registers,' his companions appear learned. But Moth says of Feb. 7, 1603," that Master Roberts entred for his them : * They have been at a great feast of lancopy in full court holden this day to print when and stolen the scraps.
guages he hath gotten sufficient authority for yt, The nothing but the scraps. It is clear
Certainly they got
that knowledge was slight; and his knowledge of
Latin literature was limited. Of the Greek lanMR. YARDLEY's statement as to Shakespeare's guage and literature he seems to have known next “absolute ignorance of Homer, whether in the to nothing.
He bases a pro
KEARNEY (8th S. iii. 188, 292).- Nomad wants Collier controversy.. We know no play of the epoch to know the precise point of my query, and states more hopelessly cynical and outspoken than "The Rethat one work says that a Kearney was Secretary lapse, or Virtue in Danger, and others of his works
come little behind this in indelicacy. The question then of State to James II., and that bis grandson was arises how far wit and characterization
are to be allowed created a Count. The statement to which I called to compensate for the absence of decency. On this and attention was that a certain “ Countess" of the other subjects different opinions will always be enter
In the days when the Parliament and the created for the “Secretary of State's” son had Huguenots, much of the highest thought of the age put Dame, in an interview, explained that a title tained.
Sorbonne were busy destroying by fire or sword the been recently “rovived." Nomad implies that on an " antic disposition," and bid gems of highest value this title, presumably a French title, was“ revived” in the filth of the cloaca. In periods such as those by the Pope ; but he refers to Burke's Peerage ' of the Restoration, of the Regency of Orleans, and of
the outbreak of the French Revolution men reflected in and says that the title was revived' by letters
ribald writings the tone of those in power. Priceless to patent, 1868.” Under" Foreign Titles of Nobility”
the bistorian, the moralist, and other students are these in Barke's 'Peerage' I find a Roman Count of the productions, and the world has decided that they shall name of Kearney, and the statement that John be preserved. Attempts to suppress Cervantes, Rabelais, Kearney was Secretary of State to James II., and other writers bave been no more successful than which is precisely the first point of my query: the dramas, then, we are grateful that they should come
others to bowdlerize Sbakspeare. While we are to have I asked what was known of this Secretaryship of in a guise 50 attractive as that of all the publications of State, paming another person who I thought held Messrs. Lawrence & Bullen and under editorial superthe office. As far as I make out the pedigree in vision so competent as that of Mr. Ward, whose preBurke's 'Peerage,' the present Papal count is not faces, annotations, and explanations are worthy of highest descended from the French count, son of the praise. Secretary of State, but from his brother ; nor is The Early History of Coffee Houses in England. By the present Papal count the eldest representative Edward Forbes Robinson, B.A. (Kegan Paul & Co.) of the family of the Secretary of State. It is diffi- MR. ROBINSON has hit upon an antiquarian subject of calt, therefore, to see why the title should have great fresbness and interest. Histories of cabarets and
taverns we have, but the coffee house bas hitherto met been revived in favour of one who, although a with little recognition. Yet in the coffee house was the descendant, is not the representative of the family; foundation of the club, one of the most interesting and Is the bearing in this country of Papal titles usual ? potent of our social developments. The tbeme bas, This was the second point of my query. Mr. indeed. as is shown, bistoric value. The introduction WALFORD as well as Nomad take me to task for of coffee into various countries, the difficulties that
attended its spread, and the theological prejudices it Daming another case, which was the only one awoke form the subject of some curious chapters; and which occurred to me at the moment, and MR. there are at the close a bibliography of books on Coffee WALFORD adds that the Countess Tasker was not and an appendix of coffee-house tokens. Reproducthe keeper of a Roman Catholic school at Brook tions of old engravings, broadsides, &c.,
add greatly to Green. I may, of course, have been wrong, but to attractions of a brightly written and delightful I had before me an old letter in which the writer stated that she had been at Miss Tasker's school at The Puritan in Holland, England, and America : an
Introduction to American History. By Douglas CampBrook Green, from which I, perbaps too hastily, drew the conclusion that Countess Tasker who MR. CAMPBELL is evidertly a discursive reader, who bas
bell. 2 vols. (Osgood, Mcllvaine & Co.) lived at Brook Green was the keeper of the school. pondered on the very miecellaneous stores of facts
A. I. K. which he has collected in his note-books. His book is
pleasant reading, and as we follow bis steps we cannot
help accumulating much new knowledge. The fault of Miscellaneous
the book is that its author bas aimed at far too much,
and that he has not successfully distinguished between NOTES ON BOOKS, &c.
the value of the authorities he has used. The Works of Sir John Vanbrugh. Edited by W.C. The history of Puritanism bas a large literature, which Ward. 2 vols. (Lawrence & Bullen.)
is still growing rapidly, but a really good history of that The appearance of a handsome library edition of Van. movement which may be said to have sprung from the brugh's comedies is a gratifying circumstance to the left wing of the Reformation and to have attained its student of the drama, who has had hitherto to peruse zenith, so far as this country is concerned, by the battle them in Moxon's somewhat cumbrous edition of the of Naseby, has yet to be written. Political and religious Restoration dramatists, or in last century. duodecimos, Puritanism are constantly treated of as if they were wretched in paper and type and not too easily accessible. identical. This is a mistake which has led to great conIt is true that the perusal of these works is amusing fusion. Political Puritanism died with the fall of the rather than edifying. Very far are we from commenda Commonwealth, for the Protestant revolt which placed ing them to general reading. A lady would soon close King William III. on the English throne bad hardly anyvolumes that are one long and savage libel on her sex, thing in common with that movement which brought and men, even, who have what Macaulay kays is requisite, Laud and Charles I. upon the scaffold. a robust and not a valetudinarian virtue, find difficult Unequal as Mr. Campbell's book is, we are grateful to sometimes the task of repressing indignation or disgust. him for baving produced it. The parts wbich relate to Vanbrugh is as great an offender as any of his 1880- the Netherlands and America are, in our opinion, by far ciates, and came in for a damaging assault in the famous the most successful portions of the work.