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So far as I am able I will explain the method of production adopted by Miers and other contemporary silhouettistes, as requested by your correspondent. I would mention en avance that David Allan, during his residence in Rome, sent home to Edinburgh his prize picture of the Corinthian Maid depicting her lover, which subject is usually styled “The Origin of Design.” Miers appears to have turned this idea to account by advertising a similar method of producing portraits in the newspapers, as well as by issuing an elaborately engraved card (vide “Watson” bequest, N. P. G., Edin.). The modus operandi was simply this: A sheet of white paper was affixed to the wall, the sitter was placed in a chair parallel, but in close proximity—at a sufficient distance to reveal the shadow of the entire side of the head reflected from a light at a suitable position. The extreme outline of the shadow was then rapidly drawn in with a crayon. I do not agree with the former reference (4° S. iv. 318), stating the outlines to be “life” size. I have seen several in looking for the Burns “shade,” believing it to be in London, and I find that the projection of the shadow displayed a head much larger than life, in proportion to the distance of the light from the sitter. This outline, or “shade,” had now to be reduced to miniature proportions, which was performed by the use of the pantograph (an instrument of very early origin). Scissors were now applied to the reduction on black paper, producing the silhouette or profile. Accepting the point of resemblance with the Nasmyth portrait, viz., the tip-tilted nose (which, by-the-by, no other member of the family possessed), and the queue of the profile, which the poet undoubtedly adopted at this period —where, may I ask, does the head of Burns come in 1 Will EFFIGIEs kindly take the cast of the poet's skull in his hands (there are many available) and view it laterally. The enormous length will probably astonish him. Altogether it is a large skull—larger than the average even of Scotch heads (twenty-two and a quarter inches in circumference). This length is due to the great magnitude of the anterior lobe. If Effigies will make an outline of the anterior view, and lay the Miers profile upon it, he will probably not waste much further thought upon this too minute “snap-shot.”

Edward BARRINgtoN NASH. Chelsea, S.W.

EFFIGIEs may be interested to read the annexed entry in a catalogue of books for the library:— 83. Burns (Robert), Poems, chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, first Edinburgh Edition, fine portrait by Beugo, with dedication to the members of the Caledonian Hunt, and List of Subscribers. 8vo, fine copy, in contemporary # calf, gilt, yellow edges, rare, 31.10s. Edinburgh, In another catalogue for November the followg are very much lower in price:–

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Sophy Daws (7th S. vii. 248, 314, 432; 8” S. ii. 537).-The latest investigation of this interesting story, which undoubtedly played a great part in bringing about the fall of the Orleans family, is to be found in a recently published book, “Marie-Amélie au Palais-Royal.’ It is there stated that “Sophy Dawes” was the daughter of a poor fisherman in the Isle of Wight, was born about 1795, and obtained her influence over the Duc de Bourbon in 1817. In 1818 the duke married her to a man whose honour has never been in doubt, who believed her to be the duke's daughter, and who separated from her very shortly afterwards when he discovered the real facts. Louis Philippe, although his politics and those of the Duc de Bourbon were very different, had always been extremely civil to the duke and to Madame de Feuchères, as well as to the duke's wife, his aunt, who was separated from her husband. Oddly enough, Louis Philippe became, directly or indirectly, the heir of both duke and duchess, so curiously does wealth go to wealth. The date of the will of the last of the princes of Condé, in favour of Louis Philippe's son and of Madame de Feuchères, was 1829. Louis Philippe spent with the Duc de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, the day of the signature by Charles XI. of the famous ordinances, but Marie-Amélie went with him, which, as Madame de Feuchères was the hostess, was an act with which the future queen was much reproached. The very palace at which the Orleans family were received in July, 1830, by the Duc de Bourbon had been left, as they were aware, to Madame de Feuchères by the will mainly in favour of the young Duc d'Aumale, made in the previous year. A letter of September, 1829, from the duke to Marie-Amélie, shows that there was no possibility of concealment of the fact that the will had been obtained through the influence of Madame de Feuchères. The division of the fortune between the Duc d'Aumale and Madame de Feuchères is computed to have given about five millions sterling to the former and about half a million sterling to the latter. Immediately after Louis Philippe had come to the throne by revolutionary means, the last of the Condés tried to fly the country, concealing his departure from Madame de Feuchères, and was strangled in the night. S. D. S. is not quite right in saying that the great trial had been in 1832, as Hennequin's speeches were made December 9, 1831, and January 13, 1832. Madame de Feuchères won her case, and was received at the palace by the king and queen for the remainder of her life, although the latest historian points out that Dupin (the first), the brother of her advocate, would not himself receive her. T. L. I.

Busby (8° S. ii. 468,491)—Although it is the thing, and not the word, about which MR. Goss asks for information, it may be presumed that he would not have written his query without previous reference to the “N. E. D.” for information on both, and that he is dissatisfied with what he finds. . This may well be, as it is only as an example of the use of the word that the ‘N. E. D.’ quotes the ‘Imperial Dictionary’ to the effect that the bag appears to be a relic of a Hungarian head-dress from which a long padded bag hung over, and was attached to the right shoulder as a defence against sword-cuts. The only alternative I can offer to MR. Goss is that many years ago, “when I first put this uniform on,” I received the impression that the busby originated in the red cotton night-cap, the top of which, of different material and subject to variations of colour, still hangs down outside the furcap, while the fur-cap itself was in the first place only a roll of fur to keep the head warm in cold weather—a fact much impressed upon my head as I rode one warm August from London to Leeds.

One does not obtain much guidance in the matter from the circumstances attending the first equipment with fur-caps of regiments in the British service, particularly as the term fur-cap seems not only to have been in general use from their introduction in about 1807 to their abolition in 1822, but to have been used again on their resumption by the same regiments in 1841.

British Hussar troops had existed in the last century. But it was only on April 14, 1811, that a warrant sanctioned the equipment of four regiments of our Light Dragoons as Hussars. These regiments, which received fur-caps as part of their equipment, were the 7th, 10th, 15th, and 18th Light Dragoons, the last of which was disbanded in 1821, and resuscitated in 1858. In 1822 British fight Dragoons equipped as Hussars received

shakos. In 1824 Lady Londonderry appeared in a busby, as if in protest, at a review of the 10th Light Dragoons (Hussars) by her husband. (See Liddell’s “Memoirs of the 10th Hussars.") But neither the 10th nor the 8th, who were equipped as Hussars on return from India in 1824, nor the other regiments of like equipment, received furcaps for some years. In 1840 the 11th Light Dragoons were not only equipped as Hussars, but received their absolute title as such, other regiments still retaining the title Light Dragoons, with the explanatory (Hussars) in parentheses. In 1841 Her Majesty was “pleased to approve of the 10th or Prince of Wales's Own Royal Regiment of Dragoons (Hussars) resuming the fur hussar cap formerly worn by that regiment.” (See Liddell's “Memoirs.') In 1846, however, the head-dress is described in the Dress Regulations as a busby. In Malet's “History of the 18th Hussars,' where December 25, 1807, is given as the date of the regiment's receiving permission to be clothed as Hussars, the words “busby-bag blue” occur. Though the words are not given as a quotation, the ‘N. E. D.' accepts this as an early use of the word busby. As it seems exceptionally early, it would be interesting to know if the words are those of a warrant or those of the author recording the fact. As for the history of the word, MR. Goss is doubtless aware that DR. MURRAY, while preparing his letter B, applied, like a wise lexicographer, to ‘N. & Q.” for further information, dissatisfied, apparently, with the suggestions already made in its pages. These were two. The first (6* S. ii. 455) was that it originated in the Hungarian word wasföveg: turning the v's, and f into b's we get something very like busbybag. But what is the use of this if vassoveg does not mean the thing in question?—and it is not pretended that it does. The second (6th S. iii. 95) was that it came from a firm of hatters, Busby & Walker having sold hats in the Strand till 1812, and Busby & Son in Bond Street in 1831. This was an ingenious suggestion, notwithstanding the want of practical acquaintance with the subject shown by the suggestor in presuming that the term was never officially used. There are now many Busbies trading in London, and some farming in Warwickshire; but I find none connected with the hatting interest. However, DR. MURRAY's query elicited no further information, and the word appears in the ‘N. E. D.’ without a pedigree. KILLIGREw.

A most atrocious etymology of “busby" from Magyar föveg was published many years ago in ‘N. & Q.” The ‘N. E. D." is more cautious, of course, and states that its derivation is unknown. According to the same authority, Busby is the name (1) of a place, (2) of a family, (3) of a wig, and (4) of the well-known military head-gear.


Busbies of the exact shape worn in our days by occasionally to hear him preach, and being much Eoglish regulars and volunteers were worn by the struck with his fine commanding appearance and Hungarian body-guard of Maria Theresia at her massive head, indicating intellect of the highest coronation in 1741, as shown on a contemporary order. At that time Alderman Gibbs, concerning engraving in the Pozsony town museum. The whom so much was said and at whose expense Punch prototype of the busby-i. e., a cloth bag or cap, I was facetious, was church warden of St. Stephen's, trimmed with fur more or less deep-was worn by land in that year (1844) he was elected Lord Mayor. Hungarian soldiers as far back as the times of the A fine and life-like bust, in marble, was executed Emperor Maximilian I, at least, and is shown on of Dr. Croly, representing him in cassock, gown, Burgkmair's 'Triumphzug Kaiser Maximilian I.' and bands, and this was engraved on a reduced It is probably much older than the fifteenth cen- scale in the Illustrated News, about 1845, accomtury, and is common to the whole East, where panied by a memoir. He died in 1860. winters are cold and furred animals common.

John PICKFORD, M. A. If we are to believe your correspondent D., | Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. the only people who wear busbies in Hungary are the three common” ministers for foreign affairs,

I have a strong impression that my parents used joint finance, and war, and their subordinates,

18, to speak of him as sometime curate of St. Paul,

Covent Garden. The period would agree viz., because these are the only people who happen

prior to 1835.

DOSSETOR. to be Austro-Hungarian officials." May 1, there

Tunbridge Wells. fore, inform him that the busby forms part of the national (not “local") Hungarian dress, and may "TO BONE” (8tb S. ii. 190, 312, 456).-There be worn by anybody ?

cannot be a doubt that MR. ADAMS is correct in This head-dress has its origin ag the national, his interpretation of this expression. In my new hat of the Hungarians. From 1806, the year in

in edition of "Phrase and Fable,' which I am prewhich the first English Light Dragoon Regiment

paring, I explain the word thus :was clothed as Hussars, and certainly up to 1821,

"Shakespeare (*2 Hen. VI.,' Act I. sc. iii.) calls the the only term by which their head-dress was

ten fingers, the ten bones: ‘By these ten bones, my lord';

......and Hamlet (III. ii.) calls them pickers and known was the “fur-cap." I should be glad to

stealers.'” know how and when the name busby originated. For the last few years I have heard this name of that "to bone" is to finger, that is, to pick and

ginated. Putting the two together, there can be po doubt busby given to the Fusilier cap, though bearing steal.

E. COBAAM BREWER. no resemblance to the Hussar busby.

Harold Malet, Col. 1 POEMS IN THE GREEK ANTHOLOGY (8th S. ii. See the 'New English Dictionary,' s. r., where 149, 337). The original of “Dead, my first-born," it is stated “ derivation unknown." W. Ć. B. will be found in ' Appendix Epigrammatum,' 278,

vol. iii. of the Tauchnitz (1829) edition of the The origin of the Hussar or Artillery cap being Anthology.

P. J. F. GANTILLON. called a busby has often been the subject of an inquiry in ‘N. & Q.,' but at present without any | BALE (8th S. ii. 389).- Mr. Charles Sackville satisfactory reply being received. See 'N. & Q.;' Bale, a distinguished and very wealthy collector of 2nd S. iii. 508; X. 429; 5th S. viji. 49; 6th S. ii.

works of art and antiquity, a liberal lender of his 247, 454; iii. 94; iv. 98; 7th S. iv. 27, 334.

acquisitions for public enjoyment, a man of conEVERARD HOME COLEMAN. siderable accomplishment and a fine and curious 71, Brecknock Road.

taste, died on November 28, 1880, aged eighty. Rev. GEORGE CROLY, LL.D. (8th S. ii. 446). —

nine years, and his collections were sold at Allibone's 'Dictionary' gives the date of the birth

Christie's on May 13, 1881, and, in six portions, of this divine and great writer as 1780, the 'Im

during eighteen days following. They comprise, perial Dictionary of Universal Biography'as 1785.

besides pictures, Italian medals, drawings, No mention is made of him in Jerdan's Men I

engravings of all sorts, and minor items. All Have Known' (not “ Jordan," as spelt on p. 447),

these things were of first-rate quality, the sale so one cannot suppose him to have been a very

called together half the amateurs and dealers of intimate friend, por should I say that Jerdan ever

Europe, and it realized nearly 71,0001. The Girtin had sufficient influence to obtain a Crown living

W. C. W. refers to was probably 'A Mountain for Croly or for any one else. In 1835 Croly was

Landscape,' 'The River Exe,''Hereford Cathedral, appointed by the Lord Chancellor to the benefice of

'Durham,' or ' Morpeth Bridge.'

0. St. Benet Sherebog with St. Stephen's Walbrook, I personally knew a Mr. Charles Sackville Bale, a church close to the Mansion House. Sir Johna tal, fine, elderly gentleman, of about seventy to Vanbrugh is buried in it.

seventy-five years of age. He was living about the I can remember when a boy, in 1844, going year 1880 at No. 71, Cambridge Terrace, Hyde

Park, London, and had a fine and valuable collection of coins, medals, Indian curiosities, &c., which I think after his death were sold and dispersed. He probably was a descendant of the Bale family for whom your correspondent is *:::: . GoLDING.


BUCKETING (8th S. ii. 365).-Burton, in his “Anatomy of Melancholy,” says (part ii. sec. ii. mem. 2):—

“Aretaeus (c. 7) commends allome baths above the nest; and Mercurialis (consil. 88) those of Luca in that hypochondriacall passion. He would have his patient tarry there 15 days together, and drink the water of ion" to be bucketed, or have the water poured on his


Legend of St. FFRAID (8th S. ii. 465).-The account given of St. Ffraid's fishes is almost as marvellous as the legend of their origin. Sparlings (eperlans) are none other than what we eat as smelts, with a smell and taste of cucumber or rushes. Fancy a smelt between the size of a salmon and herring ! Smelts are called sparlings in Lancashire, and I fancy in other parts of England. J. C. J.

THE WERB “To WARP” (8th S. ii. 446, 492).— # think the intention of the word “warping” in the line quoted from “Paradise Lost’— Of locusts warping on the Eastern wind—

is to show that locusts, like vessels steering against a head wind, flew crossly, i. e., warped (see Richardson's ‘English Dictionary’), or tacked, as ships would, to reach their destination. G. T. P.

A pitchy cloud

Of locusts warping on the Eastern wind.

I should say “expanding” is the precise intentional *quivalent, in this locust passage, for warping.

Robert LouTHEAN.


CHALKs: LoNG CHALKs (8* S. ii. 469).-It is probable that the word “chalks,” or the phrase “long chalks,” comes from the playing of a game which thirty to forty years ago was common among boys and grown men alike in Derbyshire, and no doubt in other counties in the Midlands. The game was known as “long chalks,” and was played thus: A chalk mark was made on the ground, not less than two feet long. The players —and any number could join in the game—held a piece of chalk in the right hand, and, toeing the mark, bent the body as low as they liked, and, passing the right hand with the lump of chalk round the back of the right leg, reached forward-or “wramed,” as they called it—as far as possible, and made a mark on the ground with the piece of chalk held in the hand. Some, of

course, could reach further than others, and the longest reach won by “a long chalk,” as compared with the shortest chalk. Any attempt at cheating or over-reaching brought prompt retribution, as the player lost his balance and tumbled forward. Boys played the game for buttons or marbles, and men for halfpence or pence, the “long chalk” taking the pool. It may be as well to say, perhaps, that the landlord's ale-score in chalk behind the door of his bar against certain customers was also very often “a long chalk,” and was known as such. THos. RATCLIFFE. Worksop.

Dr. Brewer, in his “Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, p. 154, states, with reference to the phrase, “I beat him by long chalks’: Thoroughly, in allusion to the old custom of making the merit marks with chalk, before lead pencils were so common.”

I do not think the word long, here used, can refer to the length of the chalk, or of the mark made by the chalk, but is used in a qualifying sense“most thoroughly.” Davies has this idea also in his “Supp. English Glossary, p. 112, where he states: “By long chalks=by many degrees”; and quotes ‘Ingoldsby Legends’ (‘St. Romwold'):– They whipp'd and they spurr'd, and they after her

press'd, But Sir Alured's eteed was by long chalks the best. De Quincey, ‘System of the Heavens’: “As regards the body of water discharged...... the Indus

ranks foremost by a long chalk.” W. B. GERISH.

In my schoolboy days “long chalks” were notes of admiration in playing leap-frog, marbles, or jumping; they being chalk marks placed to record the progress of the game and the distances achieved. A. H.

YATEs FAMILY (8th S. ii. 467).-‘Manchester Faces and Places,’ vol. i., November 11, 1889, in a notice of Mr. Joseph Maghull Yates, gives the annexed details relating to his family:

“Mr. Yates, whose portrait appears in this number, has had the honour to be appointed First Recorder of Salford, having received his appointment from the Home Secretary on the 19th September, 1889. Mr. Yates is not only a barrister of high standing, and a popular member of the northern circuit, but he is the most recent Judge in a family which has been notable for producing lawyers of eminence. His father was the late Joseph St. John Yates, County Court Judge for the Macclesfield and Congleton District of Cheshire, and whose judgments, particularly as affecting the trades and customs of the district, are regarded as valuable precedents. One ancestor of the present Recorder was Sir Joseph Yates, Knt., one af the Justices of the Court of Queen's Bench, and afterwards of the Court of Common Pleas. He died June 7th, 1770, and was buried in the chancel of Cheam Church, Surrey. His widow married Dr. John Thomas, Bishop of Rochester and Dean of Westminster. The earlier branches of the family of Yates of Stanley House and Peel Hall, from which the Recorder is descended, were

connected by marriage with local families of note. Joseph Yates, the grandfather of Sir Joseph, obtained a decree in 1683, on behalf of the inhabitants of Manchester, against Edward Bootle (his father-in-law), Oswald Mosley, and other trustees of Clarke's Charity; he, was buried in the Library (Jesus chantry) of the Collegiate Church, Manchester. A sister of this Joseph Yates was married at Blackburn (Jan. 24th, 1670/71) to Oswald Mosley, of Ancoats, and had, with other issue, Oswald Mosley, of Ancoats, created a baronet by George I. on the 18th June, 1720. Another sister married Ralph Leycester, of the family of Toft, in the county of Chester. A brother of Sir Joseph Yates married Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Humphrey Trafford, of Trafford, by his wife Anne, daughter of Sir Ralph Assheton, Bart. The father of this gentleman was lessee, with Dr. Dawson, of the School Mills, Manchester.” Mr. Yates will be most likely to supply more particular investigations relating to it if H. W. Y. writes to him. FREDERICK LAwRENce TAvARá. 30, Rusholme Grove, Rusholme, Manchester.

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FATHERs of THE House of CoMMons (8° S. ii. 327).-Here are two to add to the list : (1) Lord George Cavendish, who was M.P. for Weymouth and Melcombe Regis from 1751 to 1754, and for Derbyshire from 1754 to 1780, and from 1781 until his death on May 2, 1794. (2) The Right Hon. Charles Watkin Williams Wynn, M.P. for Old Sarum from 1797 to 1799, and for Montgomeryshire from 1799 until his death on Sept. 2, 1850. I rather think that the Hon. George Cecil Weld Forester, who represented Wenlock from 1828 until October, 1874, when he succeeded as third Baron Forester, was another father.

G. F. R. B.

Sir Charles Merrik Burrell was elected member, in the Tory interest, for New Shoreham, Sussex, in 1806, and continued to represent that constituency in conjunction with Bramber through fourteen consecutive parliaments (fifty-six years), and died in 1862, the father of the House of Commons.

There is an excellent portrait of him by Dighton, in knee-breeches and drab gaiters, when he was eighty-two years of age. See Horsfield's ‘History of Sussex, vol. ii. pp. 53–6 in Appendix. JAs. B. MoRRIS. Eastbourne.

It is as well to be accurate in ‘N. & Q.,' even in a quotation. The Weekly Dispatch is certainly in error in stating that Mr. T. W. Coke sat in Parliament down to 1837. He was not in the House of Commons later than 1831 or 1832. E. WALFord, M.A.


Col. CHARTERs (8° S. ii. 428).-In addition to the matter concerning Col. Charters (or Charteris), of Hamisfield, co. Haddington, which SEBAsTIAN has noticed in Warton’s “Pope’ and Walford’s ‘Tales of Great Families,’ he will find in the Trustees’ “Catalogue of Satirical Prints in the British Museum,’ vol. iii. part i. 2031, an account of the colonel, who is conspicuous in Hogarth's ‘A Harlot's Progress,’ Plate 1, where he appears as an old man leering at the maid fresh from the country, who was destined to an evil fate, and, as the painter indicated, by his means. See, in the same Catalogue, Nos. 1840 and 1841. It appears from the Grub Street Journal, No. 3 and No. 9, that he lived in George Street, Hanover Square, and died Feb. 24, 1732, not long before the publication of the prints of ‘A Harlot's Progress,” and was reputed to be worth 200,000l. Janet, his only daughter and heiress, was married in 1720 to the fourth Earl of Wemyss, who died in 1756. The colonel was, justly or unjustly, the subject of many satires and amplitude of blame. See ‘Don Francisco's Descent to the Infernal Regions: an Interlude,' London, 1732. (B. M. Library, 840, h. 9/4.) F. G. S.

SEBAstiAN can find what he requires by reference to (1) Anderson's ‘Scottish Nation,’ p. 635, and (2) “Biog. Britt.” (Kippis ed.), vol. i. p. 240. The surname has been spelt Charters, Charteris, and Charterhous. LEo CULLEToN.

A.M. AND P.M. (8° S., ii. 483).--Is it too much to hope that Dr. CHANCE's timely note may lead to some reform of our clumsy way of indicating the hours, particularly those between midnight and midday ? A little obscurity is caused by the fact of Dr. CHANCE's friend having lunched, and, without having lunched too well, he might not immediately realize the meaning of a notice about “12.30 A.M." confronting him in the middle of the day. But supposing that he realized that it referred to the middle of the night, was he wrong The time intended to be signified was 12 hr. 30 min. after midday, and only thirty minutes after midnight. The porter's ingenious explanation is not workable till “l A.M.,” which

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