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tured in Aberdeen. Round the staff is inscribed "Walterus McEvie fecit anno 1650." On the top, under the crown and emblems of royalty, are the arms, Quarterly, of Scotland, England, Ireland, and Scotland (again), within the garter; above, the Scotch motto, "In defence"; under, "God save the King." On the sides are the arms of Elphinstone-a chevron between three boars' heads-and the cognizance of the university, the pot of lilies (the emblem of the Virgin), but without the three fishes. The royal arms, with the date 1650, suggest that it must have been provided to do honour to the visit which Charles II. made to Aberdeen July 7, 1650, or on Feb. 25 following, while he was still king in Scotland (Fasti Aberdonenses,' Spalding Club, lxiii., Cosmo Innes).

It is certain that the College of Edinburgh possessed a mace of its own in 1640. On the night betwixt the 29th and 30th of October, 1787, the door of the library was broken open by thieves, and the mace stolen from the press where it was usually kept. Mr. Creech, the college bailie, presented a new silver mace, decorated with the royal ensigns of King James VI., the founder of the college, and with the arms of the city and university beautifully enchased, and having the following inscription engraved on one of the compartments under the crown: "Nova Hac Clava Argentea Academiam Suam Donavit Senatus Edinburgensis Consule Tho. Elder Prætore Academico Gul. Creech A.D. 1789." The shaft of the first mace was attributed to the notorious Deacon Brodie, who was executed on Aug. 29, 1788, for robbing the Excise Office (The Story of the University of Edinburgh,' by Principal Sir Alex. Grant., vol. i. p. 250). J. F. S. GORDON.

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SHAKSPEARE AND GREEN (8th S. iii. 227).-It seems that Chetwood was a regular gaol-bird, and if, as suggested, his books really were compiled while in "durance vile," he might, under stress for material, draw largely upon a teacherous memory supplemented by pure imagination.

1. The 'Two Maids of More-Clack' was written by Robert Armin, acted in 1609, and the printed version fails to support Chetwood's statements; the author was a pupil of Tarlton, himself a famous clown and included in the patent conferred by James I. in 1603; he was living till 1611, and the date of his death is not recorded.

2. Thomas Green, or Greene, the hero of Chetwood's spurious anecdote, was also a clown, famous for his impersonation of Bubble in the City Gallant'; this play, written by John Cooke, is printed as "Green's Tu Quoque"; author and actor were both dead before 1614, the date of the first known edition. The name of Thomas Green does not appear in the Dictionary of National Biography.'

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3. Chetwood's quotation sounds genuine, whatever may be its origin. It is said that his anecdotes were green room traditions, derived through Downes from Joseph Taylor, who survived till 1652; and it seems probable that some actor may have personated Green upon the stage and introduced the lines as a gag, but after his identity was lost. The term "Swan of Avon " can hardly be older than the date of Ben Jonson's verses, prefixed to the folio of 1623. There was another Thomas Green, Town Clerk of Stratford, a reputed cousin of Shakspere's, his companion in early boyhood; he survived the clown, and thus endorses the bathing in "Avon's Streams"; while, as Green the clown wrote 'A Poet's Vision and a Prince's Glory,' 1603, he may have "prattled Poesie" from an early date; but this compound does not make a valid whole. A. HALL.

SCHOLA VERLUCIANA (8th S. iii. 148, 272).I made my query brief in order to save the valuable space of 'N. & Q.'; but I hope I have not given any unnecessary trouble. I am much obliged to MR. ADAMS. His alternative, Warminster, may be the right rendering. I was anxious to fix the whereabouts of Thomas Martin, B.A., formerly scholar of Balliol, 66 nunc Scholæ Verlucianæ magister," who edited 'Theocritus' in 1760. The book is dedicated to Thomas (Thynne), Viscount Weymouth, patron of the school, to whose family Martin expresses himself indebted for "quicquid habeo......victum......vestitum...... tectum." There is a list of subscribers, mostly of the West country. In the few books I have at hand, Verlucio is identified not only with Warminster, but also with Devizes, Westbury, Leckham,_and_Highfield. W. C. B.

THE LETTERS OF JUNIUS (8th S. ii. 481; iii. 49, 111, 189).-With great force DR. DRAKE unfolds his conviction that none other than the Great Commoner was the writer of Junius, and he also contrives to invest his note with considerable interest. But of evidence capable of being poised in the judicial scales there is not a scintilla, save the coincidence of a single piece of phrasing, which may be found among all authors and in all ages. Moreover, he does not tell us whether the letter in which it occurs succeeded the speech, or the speech the letter. In the former case it would seem to be an additional piece of evidence in favour of Francis, who, reporting in the House

of Lords, would be likely to jot down a happy phrase, and might accidentally, or purposely, reproduce it in one of his letters. Some writers on this subject appear to forget that there has been collected in support of Francis (and of no one else) a great mass of presumptive evidencea masterly analysis of which, by Mr. Leslie Stephen, may be found in his life in the 'Dict. Nat. Biog.,' which is about as convincing as the nature of the case permits. His position can never be undermined by the hearsay evidence of a steward upon the contents of a paper which, if it existed, had never been opened, or, if opened, had never been revealed; nor by the suggestion of motives, which are often inscrutable, and which our courts of law are wisely careful to leave alone. As well may the wedding present of a copy of Junius by Francis be considered valuable evidence, or the bequest of a copy of 'Junius Identified' to his wife conclusive. Nor, to my mind, is the mere statement of a person, however distinguished, that he knew who Junius was, of any value, unless the evidence is disclosed upon which the statement is based. Other people, of more or less note, have made similar statements; but having unwisely revealed their nominee, their statements have been put to the proof and negatived.

As I pointed out in a previous note, it is not necessary to go beyond the threshold of the letters to disestablish the claims put forward on behalf of Chatham. The first of the miscellaneous letters (written, be it noted, when Chatham was perfectly prostrate) is so thoroughly characteristic of Junius, both in style and matter, that I should be surprised to find any one venturing to deny the writer's identity. If he does so, then he creates a second Junius, for the letter is inferior to none in the Junius series, and we are in a worse plight than ever. But, assuming the identity, Chatham's claims are entirely extinguished. For what man in his senses would write a letter to a public paper maligning himself with a mercilessness of which only a Junius is capable, in order to conceal his identity on account of a danger which he had not yet created and could not possibly have foretold? The simile of the retiring cuttlefish is very pretty, but it fails when applied to this letter; for even a cuttlefish does not interpose his inky veil two years before he has discovered the necessity of keeping out of sight.

I purposely leave untouched all the manifest improbabilities that surround DR. DRAKE's ingenious theory, and the mass of evidence which may be cited against it. It is not necessary for the defendant's counsel to address the court unless the plaintiff has made out a case to answer. Conjecture, however temptingly put, is not evidence; and at present what evidence on the subject exists is almost all confined to a support of the claims of Sir Philip Francis. HOLCOMBE INGLEBY.

WEDDING WREATHS (8th S. iii. 229).-Edward Wood, in his 'Wedding Day in all Ages and Countries,' says that the custom of crowning the parties at marriages with garlands descended from the Jews and the pagans of Greece and Rome to the first Christians, and from them to the AngloSaxons. There was a particular service on the occasion of crowning, and in the ceremonial the marriage of Cana was mentioned several times. Probably on this account, all the early paintings of that marriage represent the parties crowned. Among the Anglo-Saxons, after the marriage and benediction, both the bride and the bridegroom were adorned with a chaplet of flowers or a crown of myrtle, which was kept in the church for the purpose.

The following extract from the Daily News, of the marriage in the Russian Greek Church of the Duke of Edinburgh and the Grand Duchess Marie, in January, 1874, is a recent instance of the use of crowns in the marriage ceremony:—

number of prayers are said; then two crowns are brought "The benediction is followed by the Ectinia, and a on a tray, and the priest takes one, and, making the sign of the cross with it over the head of the bridegroom, says, 'The servant of God, A- B-, is crowned for the handmaid of God, Y-Z-, in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.' It is kissed by the bridegroom, and is then placed on his head, or is held over him during the ceremony. The same takes place with the bride and the other crown. These crowns have no relation to the rank of the couple, but are used at the the crown of the bridegroom there is the figure of Christ, marriage of a peasant as well as that of a prince. On and on that of the bride is the Virgin. A benediction is given-O Lord our God! Crown them in like manner with glory and honour'; and then follows the Prokimenon'-'Thou hast put crowns of precious stones upon them a long life; for Thou shalt give them the blessing their heads; they asked life of Thee, and Thou gavest of eternal life; Thou shalt make them glad with the joy of Thy countenance.' Then comes the Epistle of the Office,' Eph. v. 20, 33, and the Gospel, which is the second chapter of St. John, relating the marriage in Cana, ending with the eleventh verse.

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After the anthem and the drinking of wine from the "Common Cup," and further prayers, and, as the two are now one-inseparably bound in the ties of holy matrimony-the priest takes off the bridegroom's crown, saying, "Be thou exalted, O bridegroom, like unto Abraham, and blessed like unto Isaac, and multiplied like unto Jacob. Walk in peace, and do all according to the commandments of God." Taking the bride's crown, he says, " And thou, O bride, be thou exalted like unto Sarah, and rejoice like unto Rebeeca, and multiply like unto Rachel; rejoice with thy husband, and keep the ways of the law; and the blessing of God be with thee."

The Liverpool Mercury of November 3, 1873, contains a report of a marriage in the Greek Church, Princes Road, when the ceremony of crowning with two crowns which had been previously blessed was

performed-one being placed on the head of the bridegroom and the other appropriated in a similar manner to the bride. Each then takes in hand a glass of common wine, during which certain prayers are repeated, and a sponsor or witness to the union then comes forward. The rings and the crowns worn by the bride and bridegroom are then interchanged, after which hymns are sung by the officiating priest.

71, Brecknock Road,

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The Catholic Dictionary' says, "In the Greek Church the marriage service is known as ȧkoλovOía Tôv σTepavúμatos, the office of crowning...... The priest puts a crown on the head of each, with the words,The servant of God N. crowns the servant of God N. in the name, &c." With regard to the West, the same authority says, Two striking ceremonies mentioned by [Pope] Nicholas I. in his answer to the Bulgarians, and both older than Christianity itself, are now unknown among us [Catholics]. These are the solemn veiling of the bride and the wearing of crowns by the married couple."

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The following lines by Keble, in his 'Hymn on Holy Matrimony,' in his Miscellaneous Poems, may be of interest to Avis, where the idea of crowning the bridal pair occurs :—

O spread Thy pure wing o'er them,
Let no ill power find place,

When onward to Thine altar

The hallowed path they trace,

To cast their crowns before Thee
In perfect sacrifice,

Till to the home of gladness

With Christ's own Bride they rise.


"It seems to me, of all his poems, the most tho. roughly adapted as an absolute hymn for a part of worship, ranking with the old hymns of the Christian Church, whose chime it has fully caught in the Invocation of each Person of the most holy Trinity, and the fical allusion to the custom of crowning the married pair, universal, except in our Church, and there only alluded to by the bridal wreath."

From 'Musings over the Christian Year and Lyra Innocentium,' by C. M. Yonge.


SEDAN-CHAIR (8th S. ii. 142, 511; iii. 54, 214). -It may be worth while to give the following quotation relative to sedan-chairs :

"There is in Bahia [Brazil] another means of locomotion which I have never seen elsewhere. Nothing less than the good old-fashioned sedan-chair of Queen Anne's day, carried by two stout negroes. The model is exactly that of the queer box in which our great-grandmothers were wont to be carried to rout and ball."E. F. Knight, Cruise of the Falcon,' fourth edition, 1887, p. 36.

When I read this it brought to my mind a thing

long forgotten, namely, that some forty years ago the late Mr. Healey, of Ashby Decoy, a place about eight miles west of Brigg, had an old and much dilapidated sedan-chair near the duck-pool. It was used as a hiding-place for the decoy-man while watching the wild ducks. So far as I remember it was just like the sedan-chairs which appear in old prints. I think, but am not certain, that Mr. Healey procured it at York. EDWARD PEACOCK.

Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. The writer of an article on "this particular instrument of locomotion " in the Daily Telegraph of April 8-who, if I recognize his fine Roman hand, has speculated on its mysterious etymology before now in other columns, and who has recently had an opportunity of making inquiries on the spot-seems to have gone very near plucking the mystery's heart out. An English "nobleman or scholar who had made the grand tour," and who was familiar with the Italian" sedentina," brought the word home with him; and so the "sedentina" he found in London became sedan by corruption.

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I am much obliged to MR. ADAMs for his reference in this matter to Ménage. Larousse does not introduced. If, as would now appear to be the case, state the place from which the chaise-à-porteurs was they were brought into France from this country, the origin of the term "sedan-chair" seems more

recondite than ever.


Some years ago you added a note to a communication upon this subject that you were overwhelmed with matter relating to sedan-chairs; but I hope you will be able to find room for this one. I have recently been endeavouring to find out when sedan-chairs were first called by that name. In the signet bill in connexion with Sir Saunders Duncombe's patent of 1634, mentioned by a correspondent in N. & Q.,' 3rd S. ix. 138, they are called "covered chairs," and the same expression is used in the enrolment of the patent (Patent Rolls, 10 Chas. I., pt. ix. No. 2), and also in the Docquet Book. But in the MS. index to the Patent Rolls at the Public Record Office the words "called sedans" are added after "covered chairs."

The question arises, Where did the clerk who made the index, which is of contemporary date, get the word from? I referred the matter to one of the officials, but he could give no explanation. Can any of your readers supply an earlier instance of the use of the word?

Since writing the above I have come across a letter dated May 20, 1626, written by one Gabriel Browne, living in London, to a priest in Spain, which contains the following:

the multitude here that being sickely he [the Duke of "You can hardlie beleeve how bitterly it has disgusted Buckingham] suffered himself to be carried in a covered chaire upon his servants' shoulders through the streets

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The document is preserved amongst the State Papers at the Public Record Office (Domestic, Chas. I., 1626, vol. xxvii. No. 36), and is endorsed, 66 Copie of a letter written by a Papist in England to a priest in Spaine, intercepted at the Ports." R. B. P.

SIR TREVOR CORRY (8th S. iii. 167).-Trevor Corry, third son of Isaac Corry, Esq. (ob. 1752), of Newry, co. Down, by his wife Mrs. Cazarea Montgomery, widow, the daughter of Edward Smyth, Esq., of Newry, was for many years Commissary and British Consul to the Republic of Dantzig. He was created Baron of the Kingdom of Poland by Stanislaus Augustus in 1773, and knighted by King George III. on May 29, 1776. Sir Trevor was the first who suggested the necessity for a new church in his native town, towards which purpose he bequeathed 1,000l. He also left 3,000l. to the poor of Newry. He married shortly before his death Lucy Sutherland, but died without issue at Pirytz, in Pomerania, on Sept. 1, 1781. The Corry Monument," in Sandys Street, Newry, was dedicated to the memory of Trevor Corry, who died July 22, 1838, by the inhabitants of Newry and the neighbourhood. It may be added that the name of Trevor Corry is of frequent occurrence in the account of Corry, of Newry, appearing in Burke's 'Landed Gentry,' 1886, vol. i. p. 412.


17, Hilldrop Crescent, N.


Loors (8th S. iii. 227).-Loops were in general use among country people in Sussex in my younger days, for fastening their leather spats or spatterdashes, instead of buttons. The loops commenced at the bottom, passing through a hole in the spats, the next loop passing through the previous one, the last being fastened to a button on the upper part of the breeches. Spats thus treated were easier to fasten than with the round leather buttons which came into use later on. JAS. B. MORRIS.

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ii. 335, though he does not gives the lady's name in full, as the worthy vicar (who was naturally surprised at the use of coarse expressions by one whom he believed to be moving in high life) tells us that he loved to do.

That the word really is a modification of the Basque for "God" seems by far the most probable, especially in view of the epithet "living" usually joined to it; but as to how or when it was introduced into this country it is difficult even to form a probable conjecture. Your learned correspondent MR. PEACOCK gives, in 'N. & Q.,' 6th S. iii. 78, a quotation from a book by John Eachard (published first in 1670) which contains the expression "High Jingo," the writer apparently thinking, if we may judge by the rest of the sentence, that the word "jingo" had some connexion with "jingle."



"By Jingo occurs once, and "By Gingo" twice, in a comedy by Colley Cibber, entitled The Double Gallant, or the Sick Lady's Cure,' published in 1754. Curiously enough, the "mild oath," as Dr. Annandale terms it, is in this play twice directed against a certain bullying captain, not, however, by another big bully, but by a "Sir Solomon," a man of peace. In 1824, it may be worth stating, according to a paragraph in John Bull for May 2 for that year, there were actually a Mr. and Mrs. Jingo living in Demerara. They were negroes, and had been, unhappily, separated. "It appeared they were both in fault, and after an hour's talking they were remarried by Mr. W.," a


West Herrington.

N. E. R.

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a reference to contemporary French literature would best settle the point. W. SYKES, F.S.A.

As influenza is to catarrh in medicine, so is Latin fluo (influentia) to Greek kaтappoos Both mean a serious (Kará+péw); so rheo=fluo. discharge of rheum (that which flows), and comlittle of influenza, but treats catarrh with all plications arise. Scientific medicine knows but respect. No doubt the study of bacteriology may produce a difference in future text-books; but, again, the scare of bacteria may die out. I hold that we all have them about us, innocent in themselves, but rendered noxious under complications.

for at least one hundred and fifty years. In 1758
was published "Observations on the Air and Epi-
demical Diseases by John Huxham. Translated
from the Latin." Writing of what was undoubtedly
an epidemic of influenza in 1743, after describing
all its well-known symptoms, he continues, "This
fever seemed to have been exactly the same with
that which in the Spring was rife all over Europe,
termed the Influenza."" That this year, 1743,
was the earliest date of the common use of the
word in England (not of the introduction of the
disease) is rendered probable by a letter from W.
Watson, M.D., to John Huxham, M.D., dated
London, December 9, 1762 (quoted in Thompson's
'Annals of Influenza,' Syd. Soc., edit. 1852, from
which nearly the whole of this information is
derived). The writer says: "It [i. e., the epidemiction,
of 1762] is nearly the same disease which was at
London in April and May, 1743, and then called
'Influenza,' the name applied to it in Italy."

In previous epidemics the names given to the disease in England varied from the "Catarrhal Fever," "the Short Fever," "the Epidemical Catarrhous Fever," "the Epidemic," "the Feveret," to "the Dunkirk Rant," &c.

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Your correspondent DR. CHANCE is probably right in some of his remarks regarding the reason why the name of "influenza was applied to this one disease and this one only. It seems to have struck the eighteenth century physicians with astonishment, and we find frequent reference to its universality and its non-infectious nature, while it is also definitely ascribed by several writers to the "influence of the air." And laborious meteorological observations were made by many observers to find out what the special "influence of the air" in the epidemic in question could be.

It is quite likely that if your correspondent read some of the Italian medical literature prior to 1743 he would find early instances of the term "influenza" in a less specialized sense, either applied to the causes of this disease or, as he suggests, to other diseases.

I should be glad if some reader of 'N. & Q.' could throw light on the French synonym for influenza, la grippe. Dr. Grant, in his essay on influenza, published in 1782, asserts that the French term la grippe was derived from an insect of that name, remarkably common in France during the previous spring, which the people imagined contaminated the air. On the other hand, a writer in the British Medical Journal of February 13, 1892, quotes a French archeologist, M. Vacquer, who states that the term grippe in this sense owes its origin to King Louis XV. In a meteorological record kept at Versailles in 1743 appears the following: "During the months of February and March colds and inflammation of the lung were very prevalent at Versailles and Paris. The king gave the disease the name of grippe." Here, again,



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In Millhouse's 'Italian Dictionary,' fourth edi1870, vol. i., Eng.-Ital., "influenza is translated Grippe, infreddatura." Velasquez, 'Spanish Dict.,' 1853, gives no equivalent in that tongue, but a description, "Catarro ó fluxion epidemica." W. F. WALLER.

Sir James Douglas, whose second wife was sister of King Robert II., died in 1420.

"He died of a very fatal epidemic which the faculty attributed to the badness of the seasons. It was called by our forefathers the Quhew. In our day it would have been named Influenza."-Cosmo Innes, 'Sketches of Early Scottish History and Social Progress,' 1861, p. 335, foot-note. WILLIAM GEORGE BLACK.

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12, Sardinia Terrace, Glasgow.

Discussions have arisen at various times in N. & Q' as to the history of the word "influenza. The following extract from the correspondence of an agent of Louis XVIII. at St. Helena during the captivity of Napoleon may be of interest. It is dated "Janvier, 1817," and is cited in the Paris Figaro of April 15:

"La mortalité est malheureusement à la mode depuis quelque temps. Les inflammations sont très communes et dangereuses, car en quatre jours l'on est mort ou hors influence; elle est causée par la sécheresse qui regne d'affaire. C'est la maladie du moment, que l'on appelle depuis plusieurs mois."


[See 7th S. xi. 446; xii. 51.]

A SEVENTEENTH CENTURY COMMONPLACE BOOK: ST. WINIFRED'S NEEDLE (8th S. iii. 163, 212).— "St. Winifred's Needle," mentioned in the 'Seventeenth Century Commonplace Book' as a test of virginity, is, of course, an error for "St. Wilfrid's Needle" in the crypt of Ripon Minster. This is a horizontal cylindrical opening, with a funnelshaped mouth externally, through the wall on the north side of the remarkable crypt under the lantern, ascribed with good grounds to St. Wilfrid, and probably intended by him, like that constructed by him at Hexham, for the exhibition of the relics he had brought with him from Rome. According to Camden the passage through this

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