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nexion with the same "gros-là.". In the sequel to 449, and vol. i. p. 390. There were Adamses at

Consuelo, 'La Comtesse de Rudolstadt, Con- Writtle (vol. ii. p. 64) early in the last century, suelo, in her journal, which she had to write and about then a Thomas Adams married Mary secretly when in the state prison of Spandau, in Rebow, of Layer-Breton (vol. i. p. 410); but there speaking of the new prison adjutant, IX. Mayer, is nothing mentioned by Morant to show that these says:

Adamses were related to the baronets, or that they "Je ne pouvais plus le méconnaître; sauf qu'il a pris were descendants of either Robert and Simon encore plus d'embonpoint, c'est le même homme, avec Adams, who presented to the living of Pardon in Bon air avenant, sans façon, son regard faus, sa perfide 1558, or of Theophilus Adams, who beld some faisait une étude de trompette avec sa bouche." - property at White Colne in 1592. It might be Chap. xix.

worth while referring "The Visitations of Essex, JONATHAN BOUCHIER. printed by the Harloian Society. The second RODGER’S-BLAST (8th S. iii. 106).— Is not this well as Berry's pedigrees and a full general index.

volume contains sundry miscellaneous pedigrees as word connected with Roger, the name for a bull

H. G. GRIFFINBOOFE. -& word into whose applications research is un- 34, St. Petersburg Place, W. desirable ?

E. H. M.

“TAE Z00": TRAM (8th S. iii. 96). — The THE DOVER SLAVE TRADE (8th S. iii. 109, etymology of tram has been often dealt with in 253).—The form of receipt, which I copy from one your columns, and so far back as 1861 (2nd S. xii. in my possession, on the part of the Royal African 276) a correspondent, J. N., quoted some words, Company of England, may perhaps be of interest : as is from an Act of Parliament of 1794, to prove

" No. 13. On the 26th day of July, 1685. Received of that the derivation of the word from Outram is_a Mr. Robe Woolly for Tho. Barnes the sum of Two bun- chronological absurdity. His

note runs :dred pounds, on acot of Lot 23:30, sold to him on the 17th day of this Inst. By the Royal African Company Parliament for the construction of an 'iron dram-road,

“In 1794 Mr. Homfrary [sic] obtained an Act of of England for whose use I receive the same. For my tram-road, or rail-way' between Cardiff and Merthyr Mr. Robt Williamson, Treasurer. Jos. White. (£200.)" Tydvil."

ED. MARSHALL.

This is not satisfactory. The writer does not J. P. E. is certainly wrong in referring that tell us how he acquired his information, and his slave trade to America America had nothing to good faith is brought into suspicion by the fact do with it. It was an English trade, and I leave that the same statement is made in Rees's Cycloit to Englishmen to enlighten their ignorant pædia,' vol. vi., second page of Y, art. “Canal":brethren in regard to it. AN AMERICAN. “ About the year 1794......Mr. Samuel Homfray, and

others, obtained an act of parliament for constructing POWELL OF CAER-HOWELL (8th S. iii. 268).- an iron dram-road, tram-road, or rail-way, between CarThere can be no doubt that the Powells so called diff and Merthyr Tidvill in South Wales"were a branch of the same family as the Powells of a statement which does not prove any more than Park. The arms have different tinctures, but I. N.'s with its artful quotation-marks that the both show descent from Simeon Stell, a base scion words "iron dram-road," &c., are in the "act of of the princely stock of Powis. He bore Party parliament.” But the Cyclopædia' proceeds per fess sa., arg., a lion rampant, party per fess" that should be free for any persons to use, with draws counterchanged. I suspect Caer-Howell should be or trams of the specified construction, on paying certain Cae-howel. This latter place belonged to the tonnage or rates per mile to the proprietors." Kynastons about 1400. Thos. WILLIAMS. Whether this is the language of an Act of Parlia

ment a few years before, or of the cyclopædist a Adams FAMILY OF Essex (8th S. iii. 288). - few years after, Outram took in hand the conThe manor and estate of Elsenham was purchased struction of “iron rail-ways," is of no importance, by

It stifles all doubt as to the meaning of dram-road “Sir Thomas Adams, Alderman and mercer, of London, or tram-road. This was a road for the waggon created a baronet, 13th of June, 1660. He died in 1668. called “ dram" or "tram" to travel on; and what His son and beir, Sir William Adams, married Jane.... that died, in an advanced ago, the 15th of January, 1727. had Outram to do with that vehicle ? By her he had several sono. He himself departed this life

I commend these remarks to the consideration in 1688. His eldest son, William, was dead before him; of MR. BLOUNDELLE-BURTON, who asks at the eaving an only daughter, Jane, married to Sir Erasmus above reference if he may not adduce tram as an Norwich. Sir Thomas, the second son, succeeded his instance of word-clipping—" the only one I can father, but died in August, 1690, unmarried; whereapon, recall which springs from the clipping or cutting 12th August, 1726, had for successor, his brother, Sir down of a surname.'

F. ADAMS. Robert, the eighth son."

105, Albany Road, S.E. This family had lands

at Broxted and Tolles- The derivation of tram from Outram is quite hunt. Vide Morant's Essex,' vol. ii. pp. 571, wrong. The word, both in its present meaning

and in that simply of beam, is far older than following extract from J. T. Smith's 'A Book for Benjamin Outram. See 'N. & Q.,'6th S. ii., iii., a Rainy Day,' edit. 1845, p. 234, may be conpassim.

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. sidered to have some relevance to the subject :Longford, Coventry.

“The term busby, now sometimes used when a large MR. BLOUNDELLE-BURTON derives tram from bushy, wig is spoken of, most probably originated from

the wig denominated a buzz, frizzled and bushy. At all the name Outram, but I think it will be found events, we are not satisfied that the term busby could that it was in use before Outram was born. have arisen, as many persons believe, from Doctor Busby, Webster says it is the North-Country word for a Master of Westminster School, as all his portraits either coal-waggon, and that a tram-road was a road made represent him with a close cap, or with a cap and hat." for such waggons to run on. Halliwell says the It seems not improbable that the Hungarian same.

HENRY H. GIBBS. far cap, on its first introduction into England as a St. Dunstans.

beaddress for the recently formed Hussar regiments, Some years ago I was, for a moment, surprised resemblance to the bushy wig of that name, of

was probably termed a busby on account of its to hear the

librarian of a scientific institution speak which the use was then dying out. of a manual of "zalogy"; and within the past few

W. F. PRIDEAUX. months I heard the town clerk of an important

29, Avenue Road, N.W. city make the same atrocious blunder at a public meeting, "Andbook of Zalogy" being the precise “ CROSS-PURPOSES" (8th S. iii. 27, 71, 275).expression used. Such vulgarisms as these, how. The game of "cross questions and crooked anever, are of no philological interest, whereas the swers” is described in Mrs. Valentine's Games derivation of the word tram from Outram is at for Family Parties and Children, 1869, p. 82. least worth recording. 'ARRY.

J. F. MANSERGA.

Liverpool, JOHN LISTON (DIED 1846), ACTOR (8th S. iii. 143, 216, 252).— There are some interesting reminis

THE DRAMA AND THE ARCHANGEL GABRIEL cences of this celebrated

comedian to be found in (ath S. iii. 268). ---It is not unusual in Italy for a the Life of Charles J. Mathewe,' by Charles known instance being that of San Carlo in Naples.

theatre to be dedicated to some saint, the best Dickens. Liston years before had induced

F. W. G. Mathews to adopt the stage as a profession. In 1813, when a boy of ten years of age, Mathews VACCINATION (8th S. ii. 364; iii. 277).-In conmentions his going behind the scenes at Covent nexion with this it may be of interest to note that Garden Theatre "to see Mr. Liston in the cha- in Adamnan's 'Life of St. Columba' (c. 695), racter of Moll Flaggon.” May I ask in what play book ii. chap. iv., cow.pox and small-pox appear she is represented? The name reminds one very to be identified. Adamdan states that while much of a landlady or hostess. Was Liston ac- Columba was living in Iona (563-597) he saw in customed to personate female characters ? His the north a dense rainy cloud, and said to a comname is usually associated with Paul Pry. panion that it would be very baleful to man and JOHN PICKFORD, M.A.

beast, and that after passing over a great part of Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

Ireland it would discharge a pestilential rain,

“quæ gravia et purulenta humanis in corporibus, SIEGE OF BUNRATTY (8th S. ii. 468; iii. 113). — et in pecorum uberibus, nasci faciet, ulcera, quibus MR. GARRETT'S query still remains unanswered; homines morbidi et pecudes, illa venenosa gravi. and though I am unable to supply much informa- tudine usque ad mortem molestati, laborabunt." tion, I think he will find a description of the siege Which in due course came to pass ; but both man and general history of the castle in Leneban's and beast were healed by being sprinkled with * History of Limerick.' There is a copy of this water in which blessed bread had been dipped. useful work in the Picton Reading Room, Liver- We need not attach too much weight to the statepool, but none, I regret, in our otherwise excellent ment that the cattle were brought to the point of Manchester Free Reference Library. I know the death, unless, indeed, there was at the same time castle well, and have pleasant remembrances of a some cattle plague of a more severe kind than that delightful row one summer afternoon down the of cow.pox. The story could hardly have arisen Shannon from the "City of the Violated Treaty” unless the writer had been acquainted, either perto picnic beneath its picturesque ruine.

sonally or through his informants, with some epiJ. B. S.

demic of severe and “purulent" ulcers on the Manchester.

bodies of men and on the udders of cows. BUSBY (8th S. ii. 468, 491 ; iii. 31, 171).

J. T. F.

Bishop Hatfield's Hall, Durham. The references quoted by MR. E. H. COLEMAN show that inquiries about the origin of this word “ HOSPITALE CONVERSORUM ET PUERORUM" are among the bardy perennials of N. & Q.' The (8th S. iii. 209, 316).-It was while looking up the story of Bermondsey Abbey in a comparatively after this passage was written, under circumstances small copy of Dagdale's • Monasticon' in English to which I need not more particularly refer. I see at the Guildhall Library that I came upon these no reason, however, to doubt the accuracy of the words. One reader of N. & Q.' was good enough passages which I am about to quote, as, even if to write personally to me and explain that “Con- supplied by Mr. Shapira, they are probably taken versorum meant converts from the world, and from Maimonides. was applied to monks. But this scarcely seemed According to this authority, the following five to fit in.

rules were to be observed by a scribe when tranThe foundation of St. Thomas's Hospital is scribing a book of Holy Scripture :generally believed to be entirely the work of the “1. A Scribe must say before writing a Holy Name of Canons of St. Mary Overies. But apparently God, 'I am ready to write the Name of the Lord with the hospitium or inn belonging to St. Mary's and mind and understanding. If he omit this formula oven the Hospitale Conversorum, &c., of St. Saviour's, once, the roll is made unlawful. Bermondsey, stood close together in St. Thomas's dipped pen, for fear of making a blot, but must fill his

“2. He must not write the Name of God with a freshly Street. Both houses were dedicated to St. pen when he has at least one letter to write before the Thomas à Becket, they were united by Peter Holy Name, des Roches and gradually grew into a refuge for Name either out of, or between the lines.

"3. He is not allowed to put a single letter of the Holy the sick and wounded. I wrote down my notes from Dagdale in the Deut. xii. 3, 4, to scratch out,

“ 4. According to the Talmud, it is forbidden in

oy, or blot out even a library at Guildhall, and have them now before me. single letter of a Holy Name, in the words, Yo shall how PRECENTOR VENABLES will, I think, have no diffi- down the graven images of their gods, and destroy the culty in finding the passage in the account of Ber- names of them out of that place, Ye shall not do so unto mondsey Abbey. I am much obliged by the notice incorrectly upon anything, whether an earthen or stone

the Lord your God.'. If a Holy Name be written taken of my query, and particularly desire to thank Vessel, or a sheet of parchment, that thing must be buried my unknown correspondent.

and replaced by a correct one. CHARLOTTE G. BOGER. “5. The scribe is not allowed to think of anything else, St. Saviour's.

or to speak, while he writes the Holy Name, nor to give

an answer even to the greeting of the King (see JerusaStow writes of the Hospital of St. Thomas, lem Talmud, tract Brachoth, ch. v.). “Hee (Richard, Prior of Bermondsey] named it "Some of the cabalistic writers went so far as to wash the Almerie, or house of Almes, for convarts and their whole body in water before writing the Holy

Name." poore children " ("Survey,' p. 339, ed. 1598). ÈDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A.

The whole essay is interesting, and is not, perHastinge.

haps, so well known as it deserves to be.

W. SPARROW SIMPSON. REEDS (8th S. ii. 327, 433, 517; iii. 52, 116, 311).-Reed pens, cut in the usual form, are

Dibdin's Songs (gth S. iii. 307). — True extremely useful for directing large parcels, and I Courage' was produced at Leicester Place, 1798,” have known them used for writing out extracts, being one of the songs in 'The Tour to the Land's &c., in very large letters for the use of a venerable End. See Dibdin's Songs,' &c., ed. 1842, student whose literary interests long survived the

vol. i. p. xxviii. clearness of his eyesight. The reeds I knew grew

EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A.

Hastings. in ditches in Winterton Carrs, Lincolnshire,

J. T. F.

THOMAS, SECOND EARL OF ONSLOW (8th S. iii. Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham.

289).-The lines on this nobleman, as I received At the last reference the Rev. JOHN PICK- them from my father, who lived in those days, FORD notes that before writing the most boly name were as follows :of the Deity a Jewish scribe cleanses his reed pen.

What can Tommy Onslow do? Io Unexplored Syria,' by Richard F. Burton

Drive a phaeton and two. and Charles F. Tyrwhitt Drake (2 vols. 8vo.,

Can Tommy Onslow do no more? London, 1872), is a very interesting excursus, "On

Yes :, drive a phaeton and four. Writing a Roll of the Law. The Rules prescribed

J. CARRICK MOORE. by Maimonides and other Hebrew Authorities." ABBÉ OR ABBOT (7th S. xii. 449, 518; 8th S. Vol

. i. pp. 294-332. The writer acknowledges that i. 403). -I am afraid that it may be inferred from he has received most valuable assistance” in my note at the last reference that the Ital. abate compiling this paper “from Mr. Shapira, a Ger- (abbate) is now used in Italy as abbé is now used in man-speaking Jew by birth, thoroughly read in France. But this is very far from being the case. the Talmud and traditional lore of the Hebrews, a French curé (=our vicar) may, of course, be and now a member of the Protestant community addressed as “Monsieur le caré," and a vicaire at Jerusalem.” Mr. Shapira's name became some-|(=our curate) as “Monsieur le vicaire," but it is wbat notorious in the literary world some years more common, I should say, to address them as

“Monsieur l'abbé.” In Italian, on the contrary, they cut open in front for convenience." I have freare, as a rule, never addressed as “Signor abate,” but quently attended an Armenian service in Conalways as "Signor carato," "Signor vicecurato." stantinople, and can say positively that the cope is The only exception is when a curato has a church quite similar to that used in the West, and in no which formerly belonged to an abbey, and then he respect resembles a chasuble. It is sometimes so may be given the title of abate.

overloaded with gold and jewels as to be a severe But though the title of abate is very rarely given burden in hot countries. to priests in Italy, it is often made use of as a title,

E. LEATON-BLENKINSOPP. as is also the diminutive form abatino. Strictly speaking, no one who is not being educated for the

TIPPINS (8th S. iii. 308). -Bardsley's 'Cariopriesthood is entitled to either of these titles, sities of Puritan Nomenclature' derives the name or the equivalent ones, chierico, chierichino, nor,

from Tibbe (Theobald). Fairbairn (new edition) indeed, anyone who is being so educated until he has gives five families of Tipping as bearing crests, but received the first tonsure. Only those seminarists, none spelling the name without the final g. therefore, who intend to become priests (for some

J. BAGNALL. there are, it would seem, who do not), and have

Water Orton, received the first tonsure (at what age is this MR. LEWIS asks a strange question. How can usually given ?) have really a claim to these titles. a family be legitimately entitled to bear a crest But, as a matter of fact, all those who (without and motto without a coat of arms ? I would being destined to the priesthood) wear any suggest an application to the advertisers, who description of ecclesiastical dress, such as the would speedily find both crest and motto, and a acolytes who serve the mass and choristers, also get coat of arms also, for the small fee of 3s. 6d. the title of abate or abatino, chierico or chierichino,

H. S. G. according to their age and size. In Italy it seems that few boys sing in the choirs ; the choristers

BRIDGE AND CULVERT (gth S. iii. 248).-The are chiefly grown men, and hence, perhaps, in part late Mr., Grover, in his book on Bridges and arose the reprehensible mutilation which is said to Calverts' (London, 1870), gives an example of a have been formerly common in Italy.

culvert having a span of twenty feet and subSomething similar will be found in Roquefort, stantial wing walls (plate 6). My experience is who gives moiniot (properly “little monk")= that county surveyors call many structures bridges " enfant de chœur," and I believe that I have else which Great George Street men would classify as where seen moigneau in the same signification.

calverts. I well remember trying one day to find When, therefore, Littré gave his second defini- Moreby Bridge, in the East Riding of Yorkshire, tion of abbé-viz., "Toat homme qui porte un on my way from Cawood to York. I had the habit ecclésiastique "- he exactly described the Ordnance map by me, and could identify the exact familiar use of abate in Italy at the present time, spot; but

still there was not a sign of a bridge though, as I have said, the title in its diminutive visible. Here was a stracture with all the attriform is there extended to boys also ; but his bates of a culvert. It was a long underground definition does not apply quite so exactly to the arched channel of brickwork and masonry for conabbés of the last century whom he intended to dacting water ; it had no parapets ; one of the describe, for, though they were commonly not culvert fronts was some scores of yards away from priests, they had evidently frequently taken the the road in a private field, the other front was at tonsure, and so done something more than wear an some depth below the level of the road in a wooded ecclesiastical dress ; whilst, as applied to the time glen. And still the old county surveyor called at which he wrote--that is virtually the present it a “ brige." Its span is about seven feet, if I day-his definition is altogether misleading.

remember rightly.

L. L. K. As for Don, I was wrong in suggesting that it Dr. Murray's Dictionary' does not at present corresponds to the French abbé, for Don is never include

“Calvert," and therefore, so far as I know, made use of in addressing an Italian priest. It is we have no means of making out the history of the used when speaking of him only.

word. So far as I can call to mind, I have not And finally, with regard to priests and religions met with any example of it earlier than about orders, a Roman Catholic priest may, I believe, 1825. everywhere be a member of a religions order, but calvert, or, as it is more commonly pronounced,

In the northern parts of Lincolnshire, such priests are, I am told, much more common in culbert, is in constant use; and we know quite England than in France and Italy, while missionary well the distinction between a culvert and a bridge ; priests very commonly do belong to some order.

but it is one by no means easy to make clear. A

F. CHANCE. culvert is a tunnel for carrying water under a CHARLES LAMB AS A RITUALIST (8th S. iii. 28, "gatestead” or a road. Culverts are commonly 76, 132, 176). --MR. ANGUS is not correct when he narrow, and with level tops, that is, covered over writes that the Armenian cope" is really a chasuble, with flat stones. I think, but am not quite sure,

that if the top of one of these was made by an arch ordered that it should be called after him, and formed of bricks, it would then be called a tunnel, bear his crest and motto as its badge. It is also, not a culvert. The rough stone underdrains which it should be remarked, the only regiment named were used in many places for carrying off dirty after a subject not of royal blood. water from houses and the drainage from farm- The old nickname of the 33rd was, according to yards were called culverts. They were all of them, Capt. Trimen's work on the subject of regimental so far as I know, flat topped. Examples of these, nicknames, the " Havercake Lads," but there seems we may hope, since the introduction of sanitary to be no record of its ever having been called tubes, have become rare. These old, roughly made " Johnson's Jolly Dogs"; wbile, since its facings culverts neither confined their fluid nor their were red and white at Dettingen, “The Yellow gaseous contents; and so unlevel and full of pooks Boys” would not then have been appropriate, and corners were their bottoms and sides, that it unless derived from some other cause. was impossible to remove the filth that lodged in

JNO. BLOUNDELLE-BURTON. them by any amount of flashing with water.

Barnes Common.
EDWARD PEACOCK.
Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey.

If D. K. T. wishes any further information on

the subject, may I suggest that he should apply to What a theatre is to an amphitheatre, a bridge the officer commanding, 1st Battalion, Duke of is to a culvert. A bridge is formed by an arch or Wellington's Regiment, Bradford ? O. O. other method of support, more or less semicircular, and having the water or ground bridged over a8 SOCIETY (8 s.'ii. 526; iii. 234). — It cannot be

CHARLES II., THE FISH, AND THE ROYAL the chord of the arc. road ever another, but only liquid is intended to supposed that Archbishop Whately had any special pass through a culvert, which is built more or less knowledge on this subject when he stated positively circular, as its common alternative name, barrel- that "the Royal Society were imposed on"; but drain, implies. There is a special kind of bricks, he used such language to illustrate the

practice of called culvert-bricks, so contrived as to be capable the skilful sophist, who will avoid a direct asserof being laid continuously, with or without cement, tion of what he means andaly to assume ; because and without the "centreing," i.e., the supporting that might direct the reader's attention to the conframework necessary for the construction of the sideration of the question, whether it be true or ordinary arch of greater size. Sewers are now not; since that which is indisputable does not so mostly culverts, irrespective of dimensions. often need to be asserted.” If the bottom of the structure referred to by

In like manner, my old friend the late Prof. De H. I, is flat, it is bridge ; if it has a bottom Morgan, in his valuable and amusing chapter on formed by an inverted arch, and in general con- “ Fallacies,"contained in his Formal Logic,' struction is circular, it is a calvert. The wings are quotes a short story from Boccaccio, in illustration of no consequence. FRED. T. ELWORTHY.

of the fallacia accidentis, or arguing a dicto simFoxdown, Wellington,

pliciter, ad dictum secundum quid. Has not the question whether the structure is have no connexion with the Royal Society, any

If the fish story can be traced to James L, it can simply a drain something to do with the subject of more than Cromwell's “fool's bauble.” But to this query? Annandale's definitions may perhaps answer MR. HALL's questions would be to reopen be of service:

the whole subject. Some time ago Mr. St. John Bridge.-Any structure of wood, stone, brick, or iron, Hope wrote a long letter to the Times on the subraised over a river, pond, lake, road, valley, or the like, ject of the mace, which he supposed was new infor

“Culvert.-An arched drain of brickwork or masonry mation. I replied to this in the Antiquary for carried under a road, railway, canal, &c., for the passage March, 1892, giving particulars well known in the of water."

Royal Society, and which seem to me to settle all J. F. MANSERGH. matters in dispute respecting

the Society's

mace. THE 33RD REGIMENT (8th S. iii. 267).—The

C. TOMLINSON, F.R.S. 33rd was raised either in Kent or Yorkshire by

Highgate, N. George, Earl of Huntingdon (the nobleman who I have often thought that the question, as bore the sceptre at Queen Anne's coronation), in originally put, referred to an actual fact, viz., that the year 1702. The colour of the facings is not, if a live fish, i.e., one that swims, were put into a however, recorded to have been yellow at the vessel full of water, the weight of the vessel would period of Dettingen, bat "white and red.” As remain the same as before, because the fish would regards territorial distinction, the oldest army lists displace a bulk of water equal to its own weight. I have seen—and they go back far-give it the This would not be the same with a fish that sank title of the West Riding Regiment from the early to the bottom. It might displace less than its own part of this century, which it kept until after the weight, as, indeed a live fish would, by diminishDuke of Wellington's death, when the Queen ing its volume, if it purposely sank. But that

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