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is one hour after midnight, and is not one hour cannot be needful. However, every reader of before either midnight or midday. I am prepared N. & Q.' will call to mind the famous example to be told that the figures are not to be read in in the New Testament (Luke v. 10): “And so connexion with the letters. But that is my com- was also James and John, the sons of Zebedee.” plaint.
KILLIGREW. In regard to Lindley Murray; he sleeps in peace, The following cutting from the Birmingham
and if he slept till I thought it desirable to Daily Post (August 27, 1891) gives a very extra
awake him, my dearest foe might enjoy half his ordinary reading of P.m. by one of the unlearned,
revenues for ever. E. COBHAM BREWER. which is worth recording under this beading : LIFE OF LOCKHART (8t: S. ii. 328, 438, 511).
“In the course of the hearing of a case at the North to the biographical articles already mentioned London Police Court, on Tuesday, a witness, who was may be added tbat of William Bates, in his ‘Macdescribed as a commercial traveller in the City, was lise Portrait Gallery' (Chatto & Windus, 1883). asked, Was it night or morning that the affair occurred ? | . Post mortem,' was the ready reply. What do you
To a fairly good outline of Lockbart's career and mean?' said the solicitor. Why, at night, of course,' a sensible estimate of his work, the writer adds In face of this astounding ignorance it is somewhat various important references, which should interest curious to read that at the same court a number of poor the admirers of a man who has not always got his persons were summoned for not sending their children to school,”
due. See also 'Archibald Constable and his I have a correspondent who habitually uses such
Literary Correspondents,' vol. iii. passim. phrases as “I met Mr. -
THOMAS BAYNE. yesterday A.M.,” “any time this P.m."-evidently treating these
Helensburgb, N.B. sigas as equivalent to “morning” and “after CLAUSE IN Old LEASE (766 S. xii. 149, 311).-I
R. Hudson. have since come across another “olla,” also called Lapworth.
“Colman," existing, apparently, rather more than DR. CHANCE says he has often wondered what a century earlier than the one mentioned in the these letters are taken to mean by those who are above reference. It occurs in Mr. T. F. Kirby's ignorant of Latin. Some time ago a Babu gentle. ' Annals of Winchester College,' pp. 160-1, and is man of Calcutta, who was, apparently, not ignorant
described (from the back of a roll for 1412) as of Latin, wrote to an English acquaintance of his "a great brass pot ‘Colman' with ears and feet.” that he purposed coming to see him the following
Other similar instances would be welcome. day at two, post mortem. My friend was relieved
W. C. W. at seeing him appear in the flesh.
MOTTOES (8th S. ii. 507).-Messrs. Kegan Paul W. F. PRIDEAUX.
| & Co. have issued during the past month a book Ben PRICE (8th S. ii. 448).—There was a Ben which I should judge, from a slight acquaintance Price, a centenarian, of Chelsea, whose obituary with it, would well answer MR. ELLIOTT's purpose. may be found in Gent. Magazine. 1776. p. 335. It is called English Folk Rhymes, by t. . In Russell Smith’s ‘Catalogue of Portraits' ap
| Norchall. The published price is 108. 6d. parently what is a copy of the same print as MR.
A. L. HUMPHREYS. CAMERON possesses is catalogued as “ Price (Ben) 187,
187, Piccadilly. of Herefordshire ? Private Plate.”
MR. HORACE ELLIOTT may, perhaps, see what A. L. HUMPHREYS. 187, Piccadilly, W.
he wishes for in J. A. Mair's Handbook of Pro
verbs, English, Scotch, Irisb, American, Shak"AVAILED OF” (8th S. ii. 325.417. 498) _The sperian, and Scriptural, and Family Mottoes,' reply of MR. Adams opens up a new question of
Routledge, 8.a., pp. 192, small size (A-N).
ED. MARSHALL. considerable interest, viz., the right of using elliptical pbrases. The sentence quoted by him, Essex: HIGAWAYS, BYWAYS, AND WATER“There is both a St. Christ and a St. Jesus ways' (g. S. ij. 139, 437, 493). -As I am writing written at full length would, of course, be—“There away from my books, I am unable to answer in is both a St. Christ, and there is also a St. Jesus.” | detail MR. GRIFFINHOOFE's question with regard The word both, italicized by MR. ADAMS, and the to the "strange architectural freak” of the spire repetition of the article in the latter clause, show of All Saints' Church, Maldon. But, unless some the sentence to be elliptical. There could be no one send a better description, this note may objection to a verb plural; but, in my opinion, serve: The tower (I believe of Norman date) 18the verb is better in the singular number, as it triangular, while the spire is hexagonal. As one individualizes the two remarkable saints and is angle of the tower projects into the body of the more emphatic.
church, the remarkable effect produced may be It would not be difficult to fill a column with imagined. I believe this instance is unique. similar locations from our best writers; but this
PRINTERs' ERRoRs: Double F (8th S. i. 185, 217; ii. 337, 456).-Replying to MR. INGLEBY, I happened to note especially the use of double f in our parish register, which begins at 1561. From that time to about 1627 the use of it is common. Names of persons and places are written with two small fos made large (if I may use the expression), other words with two smaller f's. But the use is by no means invariable. We find all through the period “first,” “fifte,” &c., side by side with “first,” “ffourth,” &c. We also find the two fs in such compounds as “twentie-first.” From 1630 we get the single f only, and the modern form of capital, as “Franke.” R. HUDson.
LEATHER Money (8*S.ii.308,394,517).-There are several leather trade tokens in the Beaufoy Collection at the Guildhall, which have been described by J. H. Burn. The most interesting, perhaps, are two issued from the Chapter Coffee House, Paternoster Row. The larger one appears to have passed as a groat, being marked with the figure 4. They have in the field a mitre. The Chapter House was for generations the resort of eminent literary people, and a place of meeting for London publishers; and here Charlotte and Anne Bronté stayed when they came to town in 1848. A few years afterwards it was turned into a tavern, and has been rebuilt quite recently. The old name still remains on the passage at the side, leading into St. Paul's Churchyard. These leather trade tokens have no date, but were probably issued before the middle of the eighteenth century, for “a leather threepence, Union in Cornhill.” occurs in the sale catalogue of the coins and other articles of virtù, the property of Peter Birkhead, goldsmith and antiquary, deceased, which were sold in January, 1743, at his house, the Queen's Head, in Grafton Street, Soho. The Union was also a coffee-house. PHILIP Norman.
May I mildly protest against the note with this heading at the last reference? Anglesey pennies and halfpennies of 1788 and thereabouts are very common. But I quite fail to see what they have to do with the “leather money.” R. Hudson.
PortRAITs WANTED (8° S. ii. 468).-There are many portraits of Robert Car, Earl of Somerset. The Duke of Devonshire has a picture which bears this name. Mr. Jeffrey Whitehead lent a miniature of him, by Peter Oliver, to the Burlington Club in 1889. There is a print of him by Simon Pass; another by Wandergucht; a third, by Houbraken, is among the ‘Illustrious Heads,’ but cannot be genuine. Lord Lothian had, or has, a head of him at Newbottle, so says Granger. Mr. G. Digby Wingfield Digby exhibited a Cornelius Jonson of John Digby, first Earl of Bristol, at the National Portrait Exhibition, 1866, and has it still ; likewise a miniature, said to be by Cooper. The Rev. W. B. L. Hawkins has a miniature of the same peer; Mr. Lumsden Propert is equally fortunate. F. G. S.
words which he quotes from one of Sterne's the Revolution, to be used, if occasion served, at letters, “ My Lydia helps to copy for me, and my the execution of General Washington. When the wife knits, and listens as I read her chapters"; but British army retired the irons were left behind. how does ho know what parts Lydia copied, or The evident fact that the outfit was intended for a what chapters Sterne read aloud ?
much smaller man physically than General WashI must confess that I have read chapters from ington does not impress the minds of those who 'Tristram Shandy'to my wife and daughter; but listen to the story. It is probable that this is the I would ask MR. Dixon not to assume, as a matter only set of gallows irons existing in the United of course, that such readings have included “ The States. The punishment of hanging in chains Abbess of Andouillets," or any passages containing does not appear to have been inflicted in this objectionable matter. The question your corre country, at all events not since Independence. spondent puts to me being, in my opinion, based
John E. NORCROSS. on a supposition, I think it unnecessary to reply Brooklyn, U.S. to it.
C. M. P.
ITALIAN IDIOM (8th S. ii. 445, 498).-In my "THE OFFICE OF HOURS OF THE BLESSED opinion DR. CHANCE is bardly justified in raising to VIRGIN' (860 S. ii. 425).--Montalembert must not the dignity of an “idiom”the reprehensible practice be supposed to give the earliest use of the popular of putting the singular form of the verb along devotion ; for, as Mr. Procter observes in his with a plural pronoun. This Tuscan peculiarity is invaluable History of the Book of Common animadverted on by Veneroni in a chapter “On Prayer'—
| Improper and Obsolete Words" ('Italian Master,' “ This was commonly called the Little Office, and
London, 1801). He there writes : before the middle of the sixth century was ordered by “Avoid saying, as the Florentines do, voi dicevi, bethe Popes Gregory III. and Zachary to be sung by cer-cause the termination in vi is never used but with tu in tain orders of monks in addition to the Divine Office. the singular. Read those authors who have written in The observance having gradually fallen away, it was the purity of the Italian language, whom I have quoted at restored, and the office itself raised, by Peter Damian the end of this treatise; and all those that have written (1056)."-P. 23.
since the origin of that language to the present time, EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. and you will see that tbey disapprove of voi avevi, which Hastings.
is a great blunder in the Florentines, and in illiterate
persons. To convince those that say voi amavi instead New Life Or DANIEL DEFOE' (gib s. ü l of voi amavate, I shall only refer them to the remarks 326, 417).-I saw an interesting note in one of
of Giacomo Pergamini, Trattato della lingua Italiana,' your numbers lately concerning the above-named del più deve esser terminata in vaie. E contra questa
p. 173 : •La seconda persona dell'imperfetto nel numero past celebrity, and thought it might serve a useful terminazione ricevuta universalmente da, regolati dicipurpose if I drew the attention of your numerous tori, hanno alcuni moderni usato di scrivere cantavi, readers to the fact that a fine memorial obelisk has
vedevi, il che è manifesto errore.' Ferrante Longobardi, been erected to his memory in that many-stoned
in his book entitled, 'Il torto ed il dritto,' condemns this ground the Bunbill Fields cemetery. Here is the
manner of speaking, voi cantavi, as impertinent." story of the why and wherefore.
It will be seen from this quotation that the soInscription, upper part :
called “Italian idiom” must have got into the
good graces of educated Italians with unusual Daniel De Foe.
rapidity during the century, if it be now—as Born 1661. Died 1731.
stated by Dr. CHANCE's informant-considered Author of
pedantic to employ the tense in its correct form. Robinson Crusoe.'
The occasional use-or misuse-of the present Lower part :
subjunctive for the imperfect subjunctive in This monument is the result of an appeal French is not an analogous case: a nearer French in the Christian World' newspaper
equivalent would be que vous aimasses-an imto the boys and girls of England for funds to place a suitable memorial upon the grave
possibility. Nor does DR. CHANCE's suggestion as of
to the origin of the Italian-or rather Tuscan Daniel De Foe.
error appear to me to be altogether satisfactory, as It represents the united contributions of Veneroni, in the work above quoted, coupsels the seventeen hundred persons.
avoidance of such forms as voi avesti for voi aveste, Sept 1870.
where evidently there is no difference in the Horner. Scul Bournemouth.
length of the word to offer in extenuation of the D. HARRISON.
blunder. And even as regards facility of pro
nunciation, there is no perceptible advantage in GEMMACE (8th S. ii, 69, 138, 252, 370).- In the substituting for eravate ? the exasperating form old Moyamensing prison at Philadelphia the keeper eri voi ? which, by the way, bas its counterpart in used to show a set of irons whicb, he assured his the English “was you ?”. hearers, had been sent to that city in the days of Some not very flattering remarks regarding
other irregularities of Tuscan speech are to be found in a grammar prefixed to the second volume of Baretti's ‘Italian Dictionary.” MR. INGLEBY is mistaken with regard to the Italian use of voi when addressing royalty. His remarks will doubtless receive attention elsewhere; but perhaps I may be allowed to add a line or two respecting some peculiarities of construction observed in other idioms in regal and official style. In Spanish, for instance, nos and vos are used for nosotros and vosotros, instead of the singular, as: “Nos Don N., Obispo de Toledo, os mandamos.” The second person plural is used in Portuguese also in addressing royalty; both Spanish and Portuguese differ, however, from Italian in that the adjectives and participles do not agree with the attribute, but with the gender of the person. Therefore, “Vostra Maestà è stata ingannata” is rendered in Spanish “Vuestra Magestad ha sido engañado,” when addressing a king, and “engañada” in the case of a princess. The so-called “plural of majesty” occurs often in Shakespeare: e. g., “We ourself will follow in the main battle” (“Rich. III.'); “In our remove be thou at full ourself” (“Meas, for Meas.'). A phrase, repeatedly used not long ago by the present Premier in addressing the Queen, attracted some attention, and was at the time burlesqued by Punch: “Mr. Gladstone presents his humble duty to your Majesty.” This is exactly in accordance with the Spanish formula: “El Señor G. puesto 4 los reales piés de Vuestra Magestad, humildemente le ofrece sus respetos,” where the same apparent incongruity of persons is reproduced. German Court phraseology also presents some singular divergences from ordinary rule: “Seine Majestät, der König, haben befohlen”; “Ihre Majestät, die Königin, sind ausgefahren”; “wenn Ihre Majestät befehlen,” and such like. A Portuguese anomaly is the substitution of the Spanish article el for the Portuguese o when referring to their king, who is styled el-rei; any other king is termed o rei; d'el-rei and do rei differ in that the former refers to the King of Portugal and the latter to the king of another country.
J. YoUNG. Glasgow.
Dr. Antonio Montucci, in his edition of “Galignani's Grammar’ (Lond., 1823), observes at p. 131 :—
“The solecism voi avevi is now in universal use throughout Italy, and cannot be avoided in conversation without incurring the charge of [being] an affected pedant. Let this be applied to the same person and tense of all other verbs.” At p. 139 he tells us that, although the academicians Della Crusca sanction the use of voi erio in
* Matched, though only in appearance, by the English vulgarism you was. You is, however, is as unknown as oot set.
common conversation, it “can never pass for correct in elegant prose.” In Italian books my attention has frequently been directed to this idiom, as by Buommattei (‘Della Ling. Tosc.,’ Milan, 1807, ii. 285, 314); the author of a “Vocabolario...... per agevolare la lettura degli Autori' (Paris, 1768, s.v. “Preteriti"); an anonymous ‘Gramatica’ (Parma, 1771, p. 114); Soave (‘Gramatica,' Milan, 1816, p. 58); Mastrofini (‘Dizionario...... de' Verbi, Milan, 1830, i. 67, 76, et passim); Corticelli (‘Regole...... della Lingua Tosc., Turin, 1846, pp. 81, 85). It is used by Machiavelli not only in verse, but in prose (“Arte della Guerra, lib. vii., in “Opere, Milan, 1798, viii. 289), Agnolo Firenzuola (“La Trinuzia,” III.i.; “I Lucidi,’ I. ii.), and Benvenuto Cellini, whose editor, Carpani (Milan, 1821, ii.203), has the following note to voi avevi:— “I Fiorentini adoperano ordinariamente negli imperfetti de' verbi la seconda persona del singolare anche per la seconda del plurale; cosi voi eri, voi fosti, voi saresti, e simili si leggono, spesso negli Scrittori i più autorevoli in lingua italiana.” Here is the conjugation of the imperfect indicative of essere and avere as given by the Florentine Lorenzo Franciosini in his ‘Vocabolario Italiano e Spagnolo’ (Rome, 1620, pp. 10, 19): Io ero, tu eri, quello era, noi eramo, voi eri, quello erano. Io havevo, tu havevi, quello haveva, noi havevamo, voi havevi, quelli havevano. All the verbs are conjugated in accordance with this paradigm, and the assimilation of plural to singular in the second person takes place also in the perfect definite indicative and both past tenses of the subjunctive. Franciosini acknowledges no other conjugation. DR. CHANCE says that voi with the singular verb-form is used in addressing a single individual; but there is no question of numerical restriction in the authorities I have cited. Mastrofini affirms, unconditionally (i. 68): “In Firenze non si dice altro maiche voi avevi, ed avevate sarebbe affettazione”; and Nannucci, in his “Analisi de' Verbi’ (Florence, 1843, pp. 144, 145), quotes two verses from the younger Buonarotti's ‘La Tancia,” in which plurality is unquestionable:— E come v'eri prima amiche siate.—II.i. O che badawi voi, dismemoratio—W. v. DR. CHANCE's explanation seems to me unexceptionable save in one point, viz., his assumption —the assumption upon which Carpani's note is based—that in vot avevi the singular is used for the plural. The use of singular verb-persons for plural by old writers, even Tuscan, is of frequent occurrence, says the editor of the ‘Leggenda di san Petronio,' commenting on quilli tene written where a modern would write quegli tengono; and in verse of the thirteenth century I have met with sai for sapete and fai for fate (real plural) and fanno. But the example we are considering appears to be simply an Italian corruption of Latin habebatis— not a borrowed singular, but a dialectal plural form. Prof. Nannucci, at the place already cited, exhibits the etymological changes in the instance of coi amavi as follows: from amabatis to amabati, then with elimination of t to amavai (cf. Spanish amabais), and finally, with syncope of a for facility of pronunciation, to amavi. For avevi the process would be habebatis, habebati, havevai, havevi. As to the singular tu amavi, Nannucci observes that whereas its true form was amava (Latin amabas) the change to -i was determined by the personending of the present (twami). The idiom appears to have passed into familiar Tuscan speech from the Florentine, where, as I have shown, it was in high literary honour; but Nannucci says it was not wholly confined to the Florentines, and quotes the following verses— Sospira il core quando mi sovvene Che voi m'amavi, ed ora non m'amate— from Fra Guittone, the Aretine poet commemorated by Dante in the ‘Purgatorio.” Dante himself never uses this idiom, and it is worth noting that he blames Guittone “et quosdam alios” as “nunquam in vocabulis atque constructione desuetos plebescere” (“De Vulg. Eloq.,’ i. 13). My objection to DR. CHANCE's explanation, however, does not affect his theory; for the populace do not talk etymology, and doubtless use avevi instead of avevate for the reason he assigns. It is the sound of the longer word that is disliked by people so addicted to word-clipping. Not €ramo is in use for the same reason. Any one saying eravamo “sarebbe da tutti forse burlato” (Buommattei, ii. 314). Oddly enough, the people fail here to be more accurate than the grammarians only by reason of their throwing back of the accent under the influence of the third person érano. The poets, with whom eramo is in general use, always keep the accent in the right position, i.e., on the penultimate. F. ADAMs. 105, Albany Road, Camberwell, S.E.
“YELE” (8th S. i. 294, 341,442, 462; ii. 177, 414, 476).-The last communication under this head requires that I should say that the replies to my query have been instructive. While thank. ing those who were good enough to give them, I may say that there was no intention of discourtesy when I wrote in May last.
SIR GEORGE Down!Ng (8° S. ii. 464).-Pepys has several entries, all more or less prejudiced. Sir George was a trimmer. January 28, 1659/60, He was to sail for Holland, salary 1,800l. per annum. He was knighted in Holland, May 21, 1660. He arrests three regicides on March 12, 1611/2, “like a perfidious rogue.” As some compensation we find, May 27, 1667, that he was ** active and a man of business, and values himself upon having of things do well under his hand.”
AUThors of QuotATIons WANTED (8th S. ii. 489).Those white souls Who give themselves for others all their years In trivial tasks of Pity. Lewis Morris, “Epic of Hades, ed. 12, 1881, p. 264. W. C. B.
NOTES ON BOOKS, &c.
The Attis of Caius Valerius Catullus. Translated into English, Verse, with Dissertation, &c., by Grant Allen, B.A. (Nutt.) To his “Bibliothèque de Carabas”, Mr. Nutt has added the text of the ‘Attis,' a translation by Mr. Grant Allen, with an introduction and dissertations on “The Myth of Attis,” on “The Origin of Tree Worship,” and on “The Galliambic Metre,” by the same eloquent, erudite, and assiduous ex-Postmaster of Merton College. Like the previous volumes of the series, it is a treasure to the bibliophile, a book on which the hand lingers caressingly. It is, moreover, a valuable addition to scholarship and an important contribution to folk-lore. Into all he has to say upon the galliambic metre there is no strong temptation to follow a writer who is always ingenious and always modest, if not always thoroughly convincing. In respect to the myth of Attis and the origin of tree worship, all that Mr. Allen has to say is of deepest interest and significance. Starting from the point of view of Mr. Herbert Spencer in deriving polytheism from ghost * ancestor worship, and accepting the theory of Mr. Frazer, in ‘The Golden Bough,’ that Attis was originally a tree spirit, Mr. Allen carries out his argument as to the close relationship between ancestor worship, stone worship, tree worship, “and the cult of the corn spirit in his various forms as man or animal, pine tree or cedar.” To explain in a few sentences the manner in which Mr. Allen arrives at this conclusion is obviously impossible. There are few readers who follow his argument, luminously expressed, without yielding to his reasoning. With admirable lucidity he traces to their source the various forms of sacrifice collected in Mr. Tylor's “Primitive Culture,” and lately dealt with briefly by us in reviewing Mr. Baring Gould's “Curious Survivals,' and he establishes his position that to understand the origin of tree worship “we must directly affiliate, it upon primitive ancestor or ghost worship...of which it is an aberrant and highly specialized offshoot.” Most warmly do we commend to our readers a noble and far-reaching book.
English Writers—An, Attempt towards a History of English Literature. By Henry Morley, LL.D. Vol. IX. Spenser and his Time. (Cassell & Co.) We are glad to welcome another instalment of Prof. Morley's magnum opus. The book opens with a curious slip. “Edmund Spenser,” Prof. Morley tells us, in the first sentence, “was born in Lancashire.” A few pages further on he assures us that he was certainly born in London. Though Spenser appears to have belonged to a family of that name which had long been resident in North-east Lancashire, his parentage is more or less conjectural, and no record of his birth has been discovered. Spenser himself names London as the place of his birth in the ‘Prothalamion,' while tradition fixes the spot at East Smithfield, near the Tower. The book is full of interesting matter, and should be widely read. Besides Spenser, who is the principal figure in these pages, we make the acquaintance of Sir Walter Raleigh,
Sir Philip Sidney, William Camden, Richard Hakluyt,