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To the latter of these passages the editor has attached a note thus: “Fray-bug or fray-hnggard (first edition), an imaginary monster.” Though the martyrologist is, to use a word employed by a very dear friend, a most “undepend-uponable” historian, yet there is imbedded in his pages a mass of information of considerable value. He is also a typical specimen of that class, by no means extinct in our own day, which sees no harm in perverting the facts of history for the sake of enforcing its own opinions. When are we to have a scholarlike edition of the ‘Acts and Monuments, showing the variations between the several issues, and supplied with a body of notes correcting obvious errors, and explaining the names of men and places which are often disguised so as to be far beyond interpretation by any save an expert. * How Foxe ought not to be edited may be learned from the pamphlets written on this subject by the late Rev. S. R. Maitland, D.D. There is a set of them in the London Library. They are among the most instructive examples of criticism that I ever encountered. Ast ARTE.

“Trlepathic Obsession.”— The following appeared, as an advertisement, in the Norwood Review of March 11 and 18, and I am not sure that it had not appeared once before these dates :

* Notice.—College Road, Dulwich.-There is evidence of divers inhabitants of this road having been submitted during the last few years to telepathic obsession. Certain people are suspected who have used this form of injury, and more evidence is required against them for their conviction. More than twenty cases of lunacy have occurred in this road, extending from the Fire Brigade of the Crystal Palace to North Dulwich. Of these cases seven have been self-murders. Any information relating to these practices will be gladly received at the office of the Norwood Review, addressed L.” In the number of March 18, in addition to this notice, there was a long letter addressed by L. to the editor and headed “Telepathic Obsessions.” The pith of this letter lies in the last few lines, in which L. endeavours to point out how “telepathic obsession” may be distinguished from the insidious advances of insanity. He says:– “The person is at first strong in body and temperate; he is at first startled at night or in the morning by something relevant to his personality being apparently shouted; it may be he is urged to cut his throat, and if he is foolish enough, he does it; should he bear his obsession and complain of it, his morale breaks down, and he is incarcerated. It is not shouting which he hears, but telepathic vocalization, with all that it implies, and his voices are not spiritual, nothing so supernal. They vary, however, from ribulous [bibulous?] whispers to definite shouts, urging him on to death of to complain. They may be known by being always associated with human beings, and not with the noises of animals and natural sounds.” In another part of his letter he quotes a friend who says that this telepathic obsession is practised “with the object of incarcerating people with

money, by their relatives.” If so, the people living in College Road must be singularly unfortunate in their relatives. I myself have lived in the immediate neighbourhood of College Road for a great many years, but I had heard nothing of this telepathic obsession until a friend drew my attention to this notice. If I write about the matter, it is not that I myself have any belief in it, it is merely to show that a, tendency to a belief in witchcraft—for what else is this telepathic obsession?—seems to be as rampant or as ready to start up now as it was centuries ago, and that among educated people. A local chemist and druggist seems to have hit. the right nail on the head, for in the number of March 18, he inserted the following advertisement:- - * = o, “Telepathic Obsession.—Persect immunity from this. insidious complaint guaranteed by taking Fluide-Coca Nerve Tonic, post free, with Medical Reports and Testimonials, 2s., 3s.6d., and 10s. 6d., from,” &c. At any rate, it is not precisely telepathic obsession that one would suffer from if one followed this advice, and swallowed the medical reports and testimonials as well as the medicine, even though' no postal fee were exacted for their transmission downwards to the stomach. F. CHANCE. P.S.—Since the above was written another suicide has taken place in College Road, being the

second in the same family in the last six months.

“ENGENDRURE.”—Thanks to Mr. E. H. Marshall, M.A., of Hastings, I have been enabled to correct my culpable ignorance of this word. I asked what English author besides Mr. Sala had used it, and in what English dictionary it was to be found. The latter part of the query was warranted by the fact that “engendrure” is not to be found in Coles, Phillips, Bailey, Johnson, nor Webster. Mr. Marshall turned it up, however, in a Chaucer lexicon; and it is to be read three or four times in almost as few lines in the “Wife of Bath's Prologue.” W. F. WALLER.

OLD PRoverbs REwRIT.-Speaking of Newnham, the Brighton apothecary, Dr. Gordon Hake says:

"I think often of the advice he tendered me as a young physician. “Never dine with a patient. Such has been my rule through life; for if you do, sooner or later you are sure tolet out the fool.'”—“Memoirs of Eighty Years,” 1892, p. 109.

Is not this advice as old as Solomon? Cf.

“When thou sittest to eat with a ruler, consider diligently what is before thee: And put a knife to thy throat, if thou be a man given to appetite."—Proverbs xxiii. 1, 2.


“Spum cuique."—The present Chancellor of the oldest English University, in a suggestive

scientific address he gave in the Sheldonian oak which bears an edible fruit, and is derived Theatre on March 1, seems to have over from esca, food or nourishment," and then goes on looked one important point regarding the genesis to assigo it to the natural order Sapindacem and and history of modern bacteriology, which may not to describe the horse-chestpat. be out of place to be merely touched upon among Dryden, in translating Virgil, is, as might be your “ Notes." The fact is the great discoveries expected on a point of this kind, somewhat loose. of those invisible active germs of various diseases In Georg.,' ii. 16, he renders @sculus “boeob," now called bacilli or bacteria, which science attri. whilst in ii. 291 be calls it simply "Jovo's own butes chiefly to men like Pasteur or Koch of our tree," apparently because Virgil, in the former days, bave not been made all upon a sudden place, speaks of it as nemorumque Jovi quæ towards the end of this scientific contury, but they maxima frondet." were preceded to refer to but one predecessor The diphthong in esculus seems to make the by one of the foremost pioneers of physical and derivation from esca doubtful. The word is promedical science, who flourished and worked already bably connected with the Greek äkulos, itself of before the middle of the century. It was Ehren- uncertain origin.

W. T. Lenn. berg who disclosed, by means of his meritorious Blackheath. microscopic researches, the hidden world of Infusoria, and laid down the results of his investiga

“ WEEK-END": "TRIPPERS."_These two protions in a work that appeared as long ago as

vincialisms (with which visits north bave long 1838 at Leipzig. It is true that Ebrenberg did not familiarized my ear) seem, to judge from the froyet discern between Infusoria and Bacteria, and

quency of their occurrence in London newspapers consequently did not use the modern name of a

-although, as yet, rarely attered by polite southBacillas in its present sense; but to his labour, ono

ern lips likely to obtain general correnoy. As may fairly acknowledge, is due the foundation of

they are useful terms of native origin, it is not pro modern bacteriology. A noteworthy record of the ba

bable that they are destined to enjoy a merely life and work of Ehrenberg, which was closed at ephemeral popularity. HENRY ATTWELL.

Barnes. Berlin in 1876, may be found in the 'Allgemeine Deatsche Biographie' (vol. v.), published at Leip. INSCRIPTION IN AN OLD BOOK.-In an old zig in 1877.

X. volume of Oxford Latin poems, printed in 1703, I

find written in MS. the following couplot :PRONE.-One would have thought that Mr.

Hunc tenet Edvardus Pilkington jure libellum : Henry W. Lucy must know the meaning of this Errantem cornis si modo, redde mibi... little word ; and yet he tells us in Settled Down,'

E. WALFORD, M.A. . in the Graphic, April 8, p. 367, of Mr. Ventnor. James Lowther, "Before half an hour had sped he was in a Parliamentary sense, of course) prone on THE CARDINAL VIRTUES. (See 2nd S. viii. 42.) his back.” The authors of The Dynamiter' (p. 18)-The four cardinal virtues, how early were they are more discriminating : “ They lay some upon recognized as such 1-was a question early asked their backs, some prone, and not one stirring." in ' N. & Q.,' but which seems to have remained

Sr. SWITHIN. unanswered. The inquirer thought they might THE HORSE-CA ESTNUT.-Whilst admiring the

not have come in earlier than the tbreo Christian beautiful avenue of horse-chestnut trees in Bushey

graces, Faith, Hope, and Obarity. In fact, they Park recently, I could not help wondering why

hey are far older. Thus, Cicero (‘Ad Herennium,'iii, 2)

AVR, “ Rectum dividitur in Prudentiam, Justitiam, botanists had given the genus (which is of the

Fortitudinem, Modestiam," equivalent to our Pruorder Sapindaceæ, a word derived from Sapoindicus,dence Justice Fortitude, and Temperance. Should owing to the use of the fruit of some species, in

doubts arise whether “Modestia" means Tempermaking a kind of soap) the name of Æsculus. For

ance, they will vanish when we see “Modestia" it is certainly a very different tree from the esculus

defined by Cicero as "continens in animo moderatio of Virgil ('Georgics,' ii. 16, 291), which seems to bave been a species of oak, a broad-leaved variety,

cupiditatum.” But the fourfold division of virtues according to Prof. Tenore, of the Quercus sessili- Cicero. In planning his ideal republic, modelled

was well known to Plato several centuries before flora. The acords of this variety are sweet and

after a perfect map, be would have it wise, and eaten like chestnuts, whence probably the ancient

valiant, and temperate, and just (iv. $ 6, E.). Some name. But the puts of the horse-chestnut are

Grecian I trust will trace for •Ň. & Q.' the not esculent, although it is said that the name " horse".chestnut is derived from their being

genealogy of the grand four up to an earlier era.

JAMES D. BUTLER. sometimes ground and given to horses medicinally

Madison, Wis., U.S. in the East. Paxton confuses the ancient and modern Æsculas in his “Botanical Dictionary,' HOLL GUIlD8. — Dr. Lambert, in his 'Two where he says it is the name "given to a kind of Thousand Years of Gild Life' (Hall, 1891), prints

in English translation the text of the deed of foundation of the Holy Trinity Guild of Hull, in which the date of its origin is given as 1369. But probably this is a transcriber's error, as on reference to Frost's ‘History of Hull' I find that Robert de Selby, the mayor, and William de Cave (misprinted Cane in Dr. Lambert's book) and William de Bubwith, the bailiffs, who signed the document, held office in 1371, and not in 1369, in which year John Lambard was mayor (the names of the bailiffs are not given for that year). With Roman numerals 71 can easily be transformed into 69. The certificate of this guild is not in the Public Record Office—at least, it is not included in Mr. Selby's MS. index of Guild Certificates. As regards the Guild of St. John the Baptist of Hull, Dr. Lambert prints a translation of its original deed of foundation too (p. 111), and conjectures (it is not stated on what grounds) that the guild was founded about 1350 (p. 233). The date is destroyed in the original certificate in the Public Record Office, and I presume no copy of the document is to be found among the town records. The list of mayors compiled by Frost, however, again enables one to fix the date. The certificate was sent up from Hull in response to the king's writ of 1388, consequently the member of the guild who signs himself “William, domestic tailor to the Lord William de la Pole,” must have been in that employment before 1366, in which year William, son of the oldest known William de la Pole, died, and the will of the other William, son of Richard, was proved. The deed of foundation is signed, according to Dr. Lambert, by William Transale as mayor, and by Nicholas de la More and William Bate as bailiffs. One William de Stransale was one of the chamberlains of Hull in 1352, and Nicholas del More one of the bailiffs in 1363; but neither Transale's nor Stransale's name occurs in Frost's list of mayors. But there is a blank in the list, and only one, before 1366, and consequently we may fairly assume that the Guild of St. John the Baptist of Hull was founded in that very year, namely, in 1357, and we may also fill up the blank left by Frost with the name of William Transale, or probably more correctly Stransale, as mayor and the other two names as bailiffs. Stransale's colleague as chamberlain of the town, Thomas de Santon, held the office of mayor in 1355 and again in 1356. According to the will of John Schayl, a burgess of Hull, one of his houses was occupied by a Robert de Stransale in 1303. L. L. K.

“THE Woodpecker.”—A writer in the December Good Words, p. 804, likens himself to The woodpecker tapping the hollow elm-tree. The reference, no doubt, is to Moore's ‘Ballad Stanzas : I knew by the Smoke,” in which, how

ever, the woodpecker taps the beech, not the elm. The line concludes the second of the four stanzas composing the lyric. In English song-books the version set to music by Kelly as The Woodpecker' omits the first two lines of the second stanza, the other two lines being used as a chorus or refrain to the first and third stanzas, which embody the attitude and the aspiration of a youthful sentimentalist. The poetical reading is as follows:– It was noon, and on flowers that languish'd around In silence reposed the voluptuous bee; Every leaf was at rest, and I heard not a sound But the woodpecker tapping the hollow beech-tree. THoMAs BAYNE. Helensburgh, N.B.

CLARK's ALLEY. —In the course of a ramble along the Bankside the other day, I came across a mural tablet with the following inscription:—

“This ancient way, known as Clarks_Alley, and leading from Willow Street to the River Thames, being a free passage, is closed by order of the Clink Commissioners, 1796.”

This is worth making a note of, for one of these days this ancient landmark will be removed and perhaps lost. It would be interesting if those of your readers who know of similar tablets would point them out. HENRY R. PLoMER.

GREY FRIARs' CHURCH, ABERDEEN.—In connexion with the extension of the University of Aberdeen it is proposed to demolish the ancient church of the Grey Friars, which, with the exception of the north transept and crypt of the East Church, is the only pre-Reformation building in the city. The church was built between 1518 and 1532 by the famous Bishop Dunbar, the architect being Alexander Galloway, rector of Kinkell, a wellknown personage in Scotch ecclesiology. It is built in the earlier and more refined (Scottish) Gothic style, and possesses a fine buttressed side and a magnificent Gothic window, which is beautifully emblematic of the Trinity. The date of its erection and of every alteration in it being known, it is an importantlandmark in the somewhat obscure history of Scottish Gothic architecture. Besides these ecclesiological considerations it possesses various interesting historical associations connected with the history of Scotland and of the city of Aberdeen. Unfortunately, it has been completely hidden by buildings all round it except on one side, where there projects a hideous lastcentury addition to the church. The result of this is that it is never shown to visitors and very few citizens know its value or its beauty. The University authorities wish to keep the church, as it would make the best possible front to their new buildings, but the Town Council, who have contributed to the University extension scheme, insist on a front completely granite (the church is built of free-stone). This granite fad is no new

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INSCRIPTION on BRAss, OxTED CHURCH, SURREY. —On a stone on the floor of the chancel of this church are two effigies of children in brass (the head of one is gone), habited in long, full robes down to their feet, with full sleeves, their shoes showing, the hands clasped in prayer. Underneath is this inscription, relating to the elder one, on the dexter side, in capitals:—

“Here lyeth enterred the body of Thomas Hoskins Gent. second sonne of So Thomas Hoskins Knight who deceased y” 10th day of Aprill A* Dni 1611 atty" age of 5 years who aboute a quarter of an houre before his dep’ture did of himselfe wthout any instruction speake thos wordes: and leade us not into temptatio' but deliver us from all evill, being y” last words he spake.” The brass is exceedingly interesting in its details, and in the matter of costume, but the inscription, recording as it does the last words of the deceased, is specially noteworthy. Can any of your readers supply like instances from brasses or monumental inscriptions? In the churchyard of Peasmarsh, Sussex, is a stone to William Edward, son of William and Sarah Bannister, died Nov. 17, 1871, aged eight, and on it, “Nearly his last words were, ‘Don’t cry, Ma; I am going to Jesus.’” The words “from all evill,” on the brass, are curious. Do they occur in the Lord's Prayer in any version of the Bible of about this date 7 G. L. G.

Monastic RULEs.-Will some one kindly inform me whether, in the Middle Ages, the monks in a Cistercian monastery (such as Fountains, in Yorkshire) were allowed indiscriminately to go into the surrounding hamlets to visit the sick and dying poor; or whether this duty was allotted to some particular monk or monks? I have sought in several quarters for definite information on this point, but without success. HERoNDAs.


*ALE-DAGGER.”—In Nash's ‘Countercuffe giuen to Martin Iunior,’ written in reply to one of the Martin Mar-Prelate Tracts, occurs the following:

“I will leape ouer one of your brother Preachers in North-hampton shire, which is as good a Hownde for his

sente to smell a feaste as euer man sawe. Pasquill met him betweene Bifield and Fawseley, with a little Hatte like a Sawcer vpon his crowne, a Filchman in his hande, a swapping Ale-dagger at his backe, contayning by estimation, some two or three pounds of yron in the hylts and chape, and a Ban-dogge by his side to command fortie foote of grounde wheresoeuer hee goes, that neuer a Begger come neere him to craue an Almes.”—P. 6.

The meaning of “ban-dogge” appears plain enough, and “filchman” is probably a beggar's staff; but what is an “ale-dagger”? Surely it can have no connexion with dagger ale ! John TAYLoR.


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for it seems almost incredible that the Tarks Dr. Wilhelm Freund in his ' Latin-German Lexicould have put to the sword so great a num-con’is, I understand, erroneous. Dr. Freund is, ber as forty thousand people, as stated. Pre- I believe, the accepted authority; but the etymology sumably they slew "man and woman, infant and of the word is given differently by Georges, White, suckling." Another account says that out of a and Riddell.

J. COLLINSOS. population of a hundred thousand only ten Wolsingham, co. Durham, thousand escaped. This occurred on April 11, 1822. [In the Century Dictionary' it is derived from Lat. Is the massacre in any way referred to or noticed crudelis, and is spelt “crewel," "crewell."] by Lord Byron, who died at Missolonghi in 1824? | Scio claims the honour of having been the birth. CONSTANTIUS II., EMPEROR OF ROME.—Hed place of Homer, as do several other places, and is he any descendants ; if so, who were they? I alluded to in the hymn to the Delian Apollo, know, from Gibbon, that he may have had one quoted by Thucydides, 'Ev ois kai avtôú born after his death in 361.

AMERICAN. bepro On (bk. iii. cap. civ.):

SIR CHRISTOPHER MILTON : ARMS, &c.—Did 'Yueis d'eu uáda nãoai útokpívao 'évońuws Sir Christopher Milton bear arms; if so, what Τυφλός άνήρ, οικεί δε Χίω ένα παιπαλοέσση. were they ; and did he bear a motto? John PICKFORD, M.A.

EDWARD W. GEORGE. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

The Woodlands, Stratford, E. LINDSAY AND CRAWFORD.—John, sixth Earl of ISLEHAM, CAMB3.-Can any one identify the Crawford, succeeded his father David, Duke of arms borne on a shield on the magnificent Montrose, who died in 1495–s.p., says Mr. Solly; mediæval brass eagle lectern now in Islebam but there was this son John, who survived till 1513, Church : A chevron, itself bearing a roupdel, bebut did not claim the dakedom. Under the same tween three groups of five rocodels each! Groaps head I find that Walter, younger son of John, first of five and eight roundels appear alternately at Lord Lindsay, living 1455, is styled Lord St. John intervals round the moulding of the lectera. of Jerusalem. What is known of this last title ?

HAWKES Masos. . A. H. Barton Mills, Mildenhall. " ENGINES WITH PADDLES," A.D. 1699.-Can

BARTHOLOMEW HOWLETT, THE ENGRAVER,— any of your readers give me information as to what engines were meant by the following, which

Can any one inform me where the following colI have extracted from the original minute-book !

lection now is, and whether the seals have been “At a Court of Directors of the English East India

engraved ?Company held at Skinners' Hall on Wednesday, April 19,

"By the friendly liberality of John Caley, Esq., 1699, the Court were informed that there were engines

F.S.A., Keeper of the Records in the Augmentation with paddles to move ships wben they are becalmed, and

Office, I am enabled to illustrate these notes with an it was moved that one might be sent at the Company's

engraving, from a drawing by the late Bartholomew charges by the Los fridigbt or the Rock. Ordered, tbat

Howlett, of the seal of Tavistock Abbey. It is one of the one of said engines be provided by Mr. Shepherd upon

extensive and valuable collection of drawings after monthe Company's Account.”

astic seals, made for Mr. Caley by that ingenious artist," In the King's Library, Brit. Mus., case xviii.,

-Gentleman's Magazine, 1830, pt. i.

If this collection of drawings has been engraved, there is shown the title-page and plate of a small

I should much like to be informed where I can see book. The title-page reads :

| them, and where Howlett s drawings now are. “A discription and draft of a new invented Machine for Carrying Vessels or Ships out of or in to any Harbour

LEO. Port or River against Wind or Tide or in a Calm, By “ As PROUD AS A LOUSE," Is this a common Jonathan Hulls. London, 1737. Price 6d."

expression in any part of England besides the The plate shows a stern-wheeled steam-barge West Riding of Yorkshire ? I often heard it in towing a man-of-war. This seems probably a Bradford and the neighbourhood some twenty successor to the engine about which I inquire years ago; and it was recalled to my mind the


other day in a letter in which it was stated that 5, Eaton Rise, Ealing, W.

Mrs. So-and-so was “as proud as a louse of her JOAN OF ARC AND WILLIAN TELL.-Can any

| little girl.”

Paul BIERLEY. one inform me of any books or magazines (with references) which treat the stories told of the above

SIR CHARLES SEDLEY. - Where did he die?

Steele, in a letter to Pope, dated June 1, 1712, personages as mythological tales ? EDWARD W. GEORGE.

which is quoted by Howitt in his Northern Stratford, E.

Heights of London,' p. 219, says that he was then

writing in a house, between Hampstead and LonCRUELTY."—What is the mediæval etymology | don, and, indeed, in the very room, in which Sir of the word cruelty ? The etymology as given by Charles Sedley breathed his last. This house on

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