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he was at least as early as Sandys (1636) to whom PROF. SKEAT refers, and it is more than probable that he was before him. THOMAS BAYNE. Helensburgh, N.B.

I gladly acknowledge my indebtedness to the writers who have noticed my query under this head. We have now before us three early examples of this metre, viz., Sandys's 'Paraphrase of Ps. cxxx.' (published 1636); a Luttrell broadside (circ. 1660); and Lord Herbert of Cherbury's Ode' (1665). It is possible that the late Laureate became acquainted with Sandys's paraphrase in Dr. Tennyson's library at Somersby; but the probability is that Lord Herbert's poems were introduced to Tennyson's notice by Arthur Hallam himself. In this latter case there would be a peculiar fitness in the choice of the metre in quezduring memorial of Hallam than the marble on tion for the poem which must prove a more enthe western wall of the manor aisle in Clevedon Church.

We know, on the testimony of the elder Hallam, that Arthur in his youth became acquainted with, and was an ardent admirer of, the best English writers of the period to which Lord Herbert's poems belong; and specimens of composition in this metre are to be found in the volume of 'Remains' of Arthur Hallam's writing

Also in William Whittingham's translation of which his father printed for a memorial among his

Psalm cxxvii. :—

Except the Lord the house do make

and thereunto dos set his hand what men doe builde it cannot stand. Likewise in vaine men vndertake

cities and holds to watch and ward, except the lord be their safegard. But is not the elegy in Ben Jonson's " woods' the pattern of Tennyson's poem ?


It may be well to have in the pages of 'N. & Q'a record of Charles Kingsley's description of this metre. In the criticism of 'În Memoriam' which he wrote for Fraser's Magazine in 1850 Kingsley pronounced the metre of the to be poem 'Under


In searching for the origin of what is now justly called the In Memoriam' stanza, Ben Jonson should not be overlooked. He died Aug. 6, 1637, leaving a considerable amount of MS. verse. Part of this collection was the 'Underwoods: consisting of Divers Poems,' which appeared in the second folio of 1641. Of these, An Elegy is written in the stanza in question, and Lieut.-Col. Cunningham, in his edition of Gifford's 'Jonson,' expresses the opinion that "Mr. Tennyson must have been familiar with this 'Elegy' before he commenced his 'In Memoriam.'" The poem

opens thus:

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Though beauty be the mark of praise, And yours, of whom I sing, be such, As not the world can praise too much, Yet is 't your virtue now I raise. Perhaps it is impossible to say when Jonson actually wrote the 'Elegy '; but, when we consider the troubles from which he suffered towards his end, it may be safely inferred that he did not write it in his latter days. Thus in all likelihood

"so exquisitely chosen, that while the major rhyme in the second and third lines of each stanza gives the solidity and self-restraint required by such deep themes, the mournful minor rhyme of each first and fourth line always leads the ear to expect something beyond, and stanza to stanza and poem to poem." enables the poet's thoughts to wander sadly on, from


is a short account of the massacre of Scio, or Chios, MASSACRE OF SCIO (8th S. iii. 387).-Subjoined taken from the appendix to Greece,' a work of my father, the late Mr. George Wanderings in Cochrane, of the Middle Temple, barrister-at-law, who was in the Greek naval service during the latter part of the War of Independence :

"I must now refer to one of the most dreadful occurrences of the whole war. The island of Scio, which is not far from the mainland of Asia Minor, was at this time very flourishing; it contained 100,000 Greeks, 6,000. Turks, 68 villages, 300 convents, 700 churches. It appears that the inhabitants had been excited by the Ipsariotes, who were the avowed enemies of the Turks, and in the month of March, 1822, the people of the town arose, and drove the Turks into the citadel. This news soon flew to Constantinople, and Kara Ali was sent with six lineof-battle ship, ten frigates, and smaller vessels; and he

arrived before this ill-fated place on April 11, 1822. He landed several thousand men, and at the same time Vehib Pacha, who was in the citadel, made a sortie with the garrison. Upon this commenced a scene equal in horror and bloodshed to the ransacking of Tripolizza; 9,000 persons, of every age and of both sexes, being slain. On the 16th the disorder was somewhat abated, and the Sciotes were taken and chained together like cattle; and by the end of May 25,000 Sciotes had fallen victims to the fury of the Turks, and 45,000 had been carried away into slavery. In consequence of this disaster, the Greek islands fitted out a numerous fleet with brulots. Canaris commanded one of them, and, while the Turks were at anchor, attached his vessel to Kara Ali's large vessel of war, which ultimately blew up at two o'clock in the morning. The Turks were furious at this, and made fresh attacks upon the poor Sciotes; they hunted them in the villages like wild beasts, so that by June 19, 1822, there were not 1,800 Greeks upon the island out of a population of 100,000. Such a frightful destruction of mankind, in so small a spot, is perhaps unparalleled in the annals of history. The account given by General Gordon is that, of the 100,000 Greeks of Scio, 45,000 were made slaves and 1,800 only were left on the island; consequently, 50,000 men, women, and children must have been massacred."

"Brulots" were fire-ships. General Gordon was one of the Philhellenic executive committee after the death of Lord Byron. For a more detailed account of the massacre I would refer MR. PICKFORD to Gordon's History of the Greek Revolution,' published in 1832.



POWELL OF CAER-HOWELL (8th S. iii. 268, 373). -May I ask for a correction? I wrote Eineon Efell, and not "Simeon Sfell." Perhaps my handwriting was in fault. Eineon and his brother Cynric both bore the appellation of Efell, "the twin." A Welshman would be horrified with the words as they now stand. THOMAS WILLIAMS.

ing to doubtful authority, of a son William, of Broclosby. Idonia Beauchamp left three sons and three daughters, but her posterity survived only in the female line, in the issue of her daughters, Maud Mowbray, Beatrice Montchensey, and Ela Wake. These, therefore, are the lines along which to look for the descent, besides that of the heiress of Longespée, Margaret de Lacy. HERMENTRUDE

Your correspondent MR. WILLIAMS thinks it possible John of Gaunt may have been a descendant of Alice de Laci, and thus of Rosamund Clifford. This could not have been the case.

John of Gaunt was the son of Edward III. and

Philippa of Hainault. If an ancestress of John of Gaunt, Alice must have been an ancestress of either Edward or Philippa. Now Edward and Philippa were married in 1329, and in 1322, when Alice married Eubolo le Strange, she had had no children. She died childless in 1348, as I mentioned in my former reply; but whether she had had children or not, she could not have been an ancestress of John of Gaunt.

If John of Gaunt was descended from Fair Rosamund, so also were his brothers and sisters; and the descent must have been either through Philippa of Hainault (their mother), Isabella, daughter of Philip IV. of France (their grandmother), or Eleanor, daughter of Ferdinand III. of other person through whom they could possibly Castile (their great-grandmother). There was no have been descended from Fair Rosamund.

And, after all, it does not seem to be an established fact (see the reply of CANON VENABLES) that William Longsword, through whom the descent is supposed to have come, was the son of

Fair Rosamund.


FURYE FAMILY (8th S. iii. 68, 118).-Lieut.Col. Furye was killed in action at Sachsenhausen, of HERMENTRUDE, and yet it seems permissible to It it rather a bold thing to question a statement July 10, 1760. See despatches of the Marquis of doubt the assertion that Will de Longespée's Granby, July 14, 1760, to Viscounts Ligonier and daughter Ida was mother of Hugh Bigod. The Barrington, Hist. MSS. Com., Twelfth Report,'Lacock Book' says she married Walter FitzAppendix, Part V., vol. ii. pp. 219, 220.



JOHN OF GAUNT (8th S. iii. 109, 231, 292).— Alice (or, more correctly, Aleyse) de Lacy, was thrice married; first to Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, secondly, to Sir Ebulo L'Estrange, and thirdly, to Sir Hugh de Fresne. She left no issue, as is shown by her Inquisition, 22 Edw. III., 34. William, Earl of Salisbury, son of Henry II., had issue four sons and four daughters, of whom four only-William, Stephen, Nicholas, and Idonia Beauchamp-left issue. His son William had three sons and two daughters, of whom William and Ela Audley left issue. The two daughters of Stephen, Elena La Zouche, and Emelina Fitzmaurice, both left issue. Nicholas was the father of Agnes, Abbess of Shaftesbury, and also, accord

Robert, I presume one of the Clares (the second Walter as he stands in my notes, with a query). Certainly she might have married Roger Bigod, but I cannot see how she could have been mother of Hugh. Hugh did homage on his father's death in 1221, and he must then have been of age, as he died four years after leaving at least three children. Hugh's mother, admitting she was Ida, could not in 1221 have been more than five-and-twenty. Her father and mother, it seems clear both from Matthew Paris and Hoveden, were not married before the death of William d'Evreux, her (Ida's) mother's father. The marriage might have been after 1196. I do not think she was the eldest child; anyhow, she could not have been the mother of a son aged twenty-one and probably much more in 1221. By-the-by, who was Lucia, wife of Robert de Berkeley and neptis of William Earl

Sarum, avunculi regis in 6 Hen. III.? I do not think Maud, wife of Will de Beauchamp, was daughter of John Fitz-Geoffrey, but of John FitzJohn (Fitz-Geoffrey), his son. That John FitzGeoffrey married Isabel Lacy is expressly stated in the Annales of Ireland' at the end of Camden.

He was then, apparently, Justice of Ireland, 1248. He died in Ireland in 1258; and his son John, who married Margery, daughter of Philip Basset, lived to 1276. It seems certain that Richard, who succeeded, was this John's son, and not his brother as generally given, for in the Quo Warranto case of 7 Ed. I. Richard Fitz-John shows that Shyre, Surrey, was given by Hen. III. to his father, John Fitz-Geoffrey, but that he inherited Gorneshelve from John Fitz-Geoffrey avo prædicti Ric. Maud Beauchamp seems to have been sister and coheir of this Richard, and so (as I think) granddaughter, and not daughter, of the John Fitz-Geoffrey who married Isabel Lacy. THOMAS WILLIAMS.

Aston Clinton.


SILVER IN BELLS (8th S. iii. 105, 175, 269).— The report that the Californian bells, imported from Spain by missionaries, are made in part of silver is quite in keeping with mediæval ideas and practice. Many years ago the tone of the chief bell in German Erfurt struck the writer as charming, recalling Shakspeare's silver-sweet lovers' tongues by night." The sexton assured me that this bell, baptized "Maria gloriosa," and weighing 275 cwt. was half silver. My Murray also said that this bell "had much of silver in its composition," but gave its name as Susanna. I failed to examine its inscription, which was said to be:

Ich heisse Susanna

Und treibe die Teufel von danna ! The last of great magicians, Theophrastus Paracelsus, made a bell of astrological omnipotence, for it was compounded of all known metals. These were then held to be seven, each symbolical of one of the seven planets. Hence this bell, when struck, called up the spirits of all the planets, and made them subservient to its owner. The seven-fold mixture was called electrum, and held to be even more potent than electricity has yet proved itself. Witness the bell of the sorcerer Virgil, which drove crazy all who heard it. J. D. BUTLER.

Madison, Wis., U.S.

JOAN OF ARC AND WILLIAM TELL (8th S. iii. 388). A bibliography of the Tellsage, or Tell myth, would take up a considerable space. Your correspondent may refer, however, to BaringGould's 'Curious Myths of the Middle Ages'; Dr. Buchheim's edition of Schiller's William Tell' (Clarendon Press Series of "German Classics "), Vischer's 'Die Sage von der Befreiung der Waldstatte,' 1867, and especially to the exhaustive statement of the subject in Rilliet's, 'Origines de la Confédération Suisse, Histoire et Légende,' 1869.

If your correspondent cares to communicate with me, I could give him further information. A. COLLINGWOOD LEE.

Waltham Abbey.

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An English book which enters into the question very fully is Baring-Gould's Curious Myths of A French book in which there is a similar examithe Middle Ages,' at pp. 113-133, Lond., 1888. nation is E. Fournier's 'L'Esprit dans l'Histoire,' ch. ii. pp. 18, 19, Paris, 1883. There are various references to authorities. The same volume also has a full examination of the case of Joan of Arc, ch. xvii. pp. 121-6. There is a great variety of reference to authorities. There is no question here as to the existence of Joan of Arc-" Je ne serai

pas de ceux qui doutent de l'existence de Jeanne tions:d'Arc" (p. 121)-—but only of the mythical accre

"De nos jours l'on a douté de l'aventure, et l'on a fort bien fait, à mon sens, Il y a tant de choses qui prouveraient au besoin qu'elle ne dut pas être, si peu qui témoignent qu'elle est authentique."—P. 123. ED. MARSHALL.

1. Joan of Arc.-The St. James's Magazine, xiii., has a chapter entitled 'Historic Misrepresentations,' which may be of service to your correspondent.

2. William Tell.-Dr. Ludwig Hausser, in his 'Die Sage vom Tell,' proves that a person named Tell existed, but that the incidents commonly connected with him have been borrowed from the Icelandic Sagas. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN.

71, Brecknock Road.

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"(1) No public records of the time (1307) mention Arnold de Melcthal, and Stauffmacher. (2) There is a him, but only Gruttli and his three associates, Furst, perfect chronicle of the Bailiffs of Altorf, but the name of Gessler is not among them, and no Bailiff of Altorf was murdered after 1300. (3) A governor of the fortress was shot dead with an arrow by a peasant in revenge, in legend of Tell is based on this event. (4) Not till the 1296, on Lake Lowertz, not on Lake Schweitz. The end of the fourteenth century did Swiss historians mention this legend. (5) Tell is a nickname, from Toll (German) applied to a prattler or visionary enthusiast. (6) The apple' story is told of Egil and King Nidung; and in Norway of King Olaf and Eindridi; and in the Faroe Isles of Geyti and Harald; also of Joki, the Danish hero, and Harald; and in England of William of Cloudesley and King Henry IV., in the ballad of Adam Bell, Clym of the Clough, and William of Cloudesley. (7) The Canton of Schuyz, in August, 1890, ordered the story of Tell to be expunged (as being non-historical, and legendary only) from the school-books of the Canton.Edw. Geo. Mills."

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and for referring me to his edition of the 'Minor Poems,' with which I am unacquainted. My idea that the Anglo-Latin writers had not been sufficiently taken into account was formed during a perusal of some of their works a few years ago, and in some measure confirmed by finding no note referring to Alanus de Insulis on 1. 137 of the Legend of Good Women,' edited by Prof. Skeat in 1889. I shall be grateful to PROF. SKEAT if he will explain how the passage he quotes from Hofmann's Lexicon Universale' fixes the identity of Bernard the Monk. The chief evidence in favour

of St. Bernard appears to be that a proverbial saying to this effect, which may have originated from the passage in question, existed after the time of Chaucer, and in the seventeenth century was applied by Hofmann to St. Bernard, as the greatest of the Bernards. Chaucer begins his Prologue to the 'Legend of Good Women' by speaking of the "Ioye in heven and peyne in helle," and states that those who tell of these things do so only on hearsay; and then remarks :

Bernard the Monk ne saugh nat al, parde.

Now this is not particularly applicable to any of the works of St. Bernard, but is singularly apposite when applied to the 'De Contemptu Mundi' of Bernard of Morlaix, which commences with an elaborate and minute description of the joys of heaven and the pains of hell, occupying some seven or eight hundred lines.

Again, Was it usual to speak of St. Bernard as Bernard the Monk? He was a monk, in the strict sense of the word, for a very short time, being ordained abbot within two years after his admission as a novice to Citeaux. The epithet seems rather used to mark a distinction between the monk and the saint. Chaucer could have no object in speaking slightingly of St. Bernard; but in the cause of "Good Women" he had every reason to cast discredit on Bernard of Morlaix, whose strictures on the ladies of his day are exceedingly severe. Even if it can be proved that a proverb of this kind existed before the time of Chaucer, is it not much more likely to have had reference to the poet who drew so largely on his imagination than to the orthodox and universally credited father of the Church? Although the fame of Bernard of Morlaix has been almost eclipsed by that of his greater contemporary, his poem was by no means unknown in the Middle Ages (see references in Fabricius, 'Bibliotheca M. et L. Lat.,' 1734). It was printed in 1557, and four times reprinted within the next century.

It is somewhat singular that at the present day, whilst the works of St. Bernard are comparatively unread, portions of the poem of the humble monk have found their way into the hymn-books of almost every sect.

E. S. A.

"Stilbon," in the passage quoted by E. S. A. from John of Salisbury ('Entheticus,' i. 211), has

nothing to do with the Megariau philosopher Stilpo, but refers to Mercury, whose planet is so called by Marcianus Capella in another part of the book from which John borrows one substance of this part of his poem (viii. § 851). For other examples of this use see Liddell and Scott, s.v. σTiλẞwv.

Can any reader of N. & Q.' throw light on the source of the anecdote told of Chilon by John, 'Policr.,' i. 5, from which Chaucer seems to have derived his story of "Stilbo, that was a wys C. C. J. W. ambassadour"?

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FOLK-TALE (8th S. iii. 308, 337).—Hans Sachs (1494-1576) assures us that in Schlaraffenland the fish remain still to be caught, roast fowls, geese, and pigeons fly into the mouths of those who are too idle to catch them, and cooked pigs run about with knives in their backs, so that everybody may help himself:

Die Fisch' in Teichen und in Seen
Am Ufer stehn sie alle still,
Man fängt, so viel man immer will.
Auch fliegen um, ihe könnt es glauben
Gebrat'ne Huhner, Gans' und Tauben
Wie sie zu fangen ist zu faul
Dem fliegen schnurr! sie in das Maul.

Die Säu' alljährlich wohl gerathen
Sie gehn umber und sind gebraten,
Ein Messer steckt in ihrem Rücken,
Der erste nimmt die besten Stücken
Stekt drauf das Messer wieder ein

Und lässt auch andern was von Schwein.
Before Sachs, however, in the latter part of the
thirteenth century, we English had our 'Land of
Cokaygne,' and there

The gees, irostid on the spitte,
Fleegh to that abbai, god hit wot,
And gredith "Gees! al hotel al hote!"
Hi bringeth garlek gret plente
The best idight that man mai se.
The leuerokes that beth cuth,
Lightith adun to manis muth,
Idight in stu ful swithe wel,
Pudrid with gilofre and canel.


"LOOKING FROm under BreNT HILL" (8th S. under brent hill" is the very opposite of the iii. 209). It strikes me that "looking from "sullen, frowning [look] of one in ill humour." "Brent" means without a wrinkle. Thus, of John Anderson, in his palmy days, Burns "and his says, his "locks were like the raven "bonnie brow was brent" (without a wrinkle). Gazing from under brent hill is looking fondly at another, as a loving person does when he turns his eyes upwards and gazes in silent admiration. In what Milton calls "heavenly contemplation" child angels and saints so gaze with upE. COBHAM BREWER. turned eyes.

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JAMES HENTHORN TODD, D.D. (8th S. ii. 208, 314). In his brief but interesting rejoinder to my note, MR. PICKFORD unintentionally deprives Dr. Todd of a day in his earthly pilgrimage. June 28, not June 27, 1869, was the precise date of Dr. Todd's death. I copy the following from Dr. Leeper's invaluable little Historical Handbook of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin,' 1891, p. 102 :— "A monument has been erected in the churchyard to the memory and over the remains of James Henthorn Todd, S.F.T.C.D., Precentor of the Cathedral. A large, well-executed Irish Cross, erected by his brothers and sisters, marks the grave, with the following inscription:

Jesus Soter Salvator.

In Memoriam

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A MOTTO FOR THEATRICAL MANAGERS (8th S. iii. 106, 315).—I cannot but smile, in the midst of so many remarks upon, and feverish anxieties to establish, the accuracy of language, to see constantly their utter inefficacy. I imagine that nobody will say that Dr. Johnson, although he was taught at school very thoroughly the Latin language, did not attain to the writing of English generally with very great grammatical accuracy. Yet here we have been blundering in such manner as to render one or two readers of N. & Q.' quite puzzled, or fancying they are puzzled, about what he means to say. "The stream of Time......passes without injury by the adamant of Shakspere." Johnson never meant to convey that "the stream of time" suffered any injury from Shakspere's adamant, but that the adamant could not be hurt either by "the stream of time" or the imber edax of friend Horace. It is only the ordo is wrong. If Johnson had written, "The stream of Time ......passes by, without injury [to] the adamant of Shakspere," there would be nothing to remark upon. I insert to; but if omitted the same sense is conveyed. What chance is there that the general public will speak English with scientific accuracy when a signally practised and competent pen such as Johnson's conveys an erroneous impression by so small a slip as the above. All error, if any exist, resides here in

separating the adverb by from the verb; it ought to qualify passes. Such inaccuracies as the above are inevitable. You must be a very dull writer indeed if you can escape falling into such inadvertencies as this of Johnson. The mind is, or ought to be, full of its theme, and in the freedom of expressing it will occasionally leave behind a something that may be misread alike by the incompetent or over critical. To express yourself well you have to be fully kindled by your thought; to attain minuteness of accuracy you must be thinking only of the words. To achieve the latter is the best possible recipe for dulness of thought,—it C. A. WARD.

ensures it.

Chingford Hatch, Essex.

AMBROSE GWINETT (8th S. ii. 447, 535; iii. 56, 116, 192).—I have another reference for this or a similar story to a work entitled 'Remarkable Events in the History of Man,' by Dr. Joshua Watts. A youth, condemned for murder of a boatswain, was hung, but taken away by his friends and recovered, put on board ship, and afterwards met the boatswain, who had been taken away by the press-gang. HARDRIC MORPHYN.

TYING STRAW TO A STREET-DOOR (8th S. iii. 327).-This custom also prevails in Staffordshire, and means, "Thrashing done here." J. BAGNALL

Water Orton.

TITHE-BARNS (8th S. ii. 246, 330, 397, 475; iii. 16, 314).-As a former lay brother of the Abbey of St. Mary of Beaulieu, Hants, I must ask your leave to correct the statements of Y. T. at the last reference. The barn alluded to never was a tithebarn; it has no connexion with St. Lawrence; and it is in anything but a good state of preservation. That it is, or was, large, and is still picturesque, is, however, correct. The barn was not a tithe-barn, seeing that the abbey owned not the tithes merely of Beaulieu, of which there never were any, but the whole fee simple of the manor. The barn was used for storing the whole of the produce of their corn-lands on their farms of St. Leonard's, Clobb, Bergerie, Gius, Warren, Thorns, Beck, and Sowley. I give the names on account of their quaintness and the strange mixture of Anglo-Norman and technical English. All the names connote some recognizable characteristic save "Clobb," a word to which I never was able to attach anything more than an appellative signification. The barn in question is at St. Leonard's (not St. Lawrence's) Grange, some four miles from the abbey. It was originally a splendid building, about 210 feet long and 70 feet wide, and would hold, probably, 4,000 quarters of grain stacked in the straw. So far from its being now in a good state of preservation, scarce anything remains but the two gable-end walls, which are fairly intact. The roof

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