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seven or twenty.eight examples of ring-parks, church, and, in the case of a better-class wedding. dating from 1813 to 1838. These records, roughly the best man” carried a basket containing a plum scratched on the walls and coloured with red-ochre, loaf, a cheese, and a knife, all wrapped in a white were locally known as “cheeses," because, as the cloth. Amongst the poorer class the bridegroom vicar says, it was the custom of the Lanebam bimself carried under his arm a cake wrapped up ringers to mark out the form of a cheese on the in the same way. This gift was taken to the belfry wall, and then place within the round the initials and delivered to the oldest ringer, who cut the of the married persons and the year of our Lord.

cake and cheese and distributed to all the assembly, About two miles west of Laneham, and three bat first of all to the village children, who came in miles south of Treswell, is the village of East a few at a time and were arranged in a row with Drayton, and there, as the vicar, the Rev. Mr. their hands folded, the idea being that they must Wilkinson, informs me, there are no fewer than a be orderly and well behaved in the belfry. When hundred of these curious markings, not scored, but all bad partaken of the simple feast, the wedding simply painted on the belfry walls. They are party paraded down the four streets of the village kuown as "rings” or “rounds”; sometimes they with the attendant throng until they reached the are called "cakes," as they used to be at Tresweli, bride's house, where all went merry as a marriage but never “ cheeses," as at Laneham. East Dray- bell, and where the church ringers were entertained ton ring-marks, which are still fresh and undis. at supper in the evening. turbed (in fact, they were retouched at the restora

At a wedding at East Drayton in April, 1891, tion of the churcb), contain three initial letters and the bridegroom took a plum loaf and a piece of

cheese to the ringers in the belfry; but no record the four figures of the year, dating from W.D. to

was placed on the belfry walls, although," says B.

1777,

Mr. Wilkinson, “I believe the bride's sisters' R. M. and probably to even a still later date. The 'rings' are on the walls.” The custom of painting 1865,

the rounds seems to havo ceased when the floor tep letter stands for the bride's Christian dame, of the ringiog loft was raised some years ago. the lower letters for the Cbristian and surname

Readers of ' N. & Q.’are familiar with the comof the bridegroom, and the figures, of course, for mon practice in former days of newly married the year of the marriage. The old village carpenter people making gifts to friends and neighbours*now living was the last to put up “marriage lines" a usage that has been completely reversed in our such as these, and, according to the testimony of own times — but this apparently local custom his wife," he was a good letterer and did a many." of recording marriages on belfry walls may not be

The custom was that every married couple who generally known ; indeed, I fiod it has even brought the ringers a large plum loaf of six or escaped the notice of Mr. Briscoe, a Nottinghameight pounds weight, and rich according to the shire antiquary, in bis interesting compilation of wealth of the giver, a cheese, often a

• Curiosities of the Belfry.' JAMES HALL

sage cheese," such as is still not unknown in tbat

Lindum House, Nantwich. neighbourhood, and a certain sum of money for beer, had not only a "ring o' bells" on the wedding POLLS AT PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS mord, but also a with their respective

BEFORE 1832. initials put up on the belfry walls by the ringer

(Continued from p. 303.) who was best skilled in that art. In course of

Herefordshire. time, as the walls became covered with these de- Polls in Smith, 1722, 1754, 1774, 1776, 1796, 1802, 1818. vices, it was found necessary to efface the older

Hereford. records in order to paint new ones in their place, 1661 Sir Henry Lingen, Konto and evidences of half-obliterated “rings

Sir Edward Hopton, Knt.

251 traceable underneath more modern ones.

Herbert Westfaling

233

This was a double return, and the whole election was Dwellers in towns and cities, whose knowledge declared by the House void, and a new writ ordered. of a village wedding is derived from Luke Fildes's 1689 Vice Sir William Gregory, made a Judge of tho celebrated picture, may be interested to know

Court of Common Pleas. what was the old-fasbioned way of keeping up a Henry Cornewall

372 wedding in these remote parts of Nottinghamshire.

Edward Gwyn

143 Everybody was apprized of the coming event three weeks before by a peal rung after the morning ser. Drayton, it is usual to have competitive races, and tho

* In a Yorkshire village, not many miles from East vice on the Sunday when the banns were first pub-wedded couple to give the prizes: a pound of tobacco lished—a custom which, by the way, is still prac- for old men, a pound of tea for old women, a silk hand. tised at East Drayton. When the day came the kerchief for young men, a ribbon for young girls. If village was en fête. The nuptials having been be found at the door the next morning, the idea being

these sports and prizes were not provided, a besom would solemnized, and the wedding breakfast over in the that if the bridal couple did not give anything to race for morning, the whole bridal party walked back to they were too poor to buy a besom.

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1714 Thomas Foley

787

Hertfordshire,
Yiscount Scudamore

777 1689 Sir Thomas P. Blount, Bart.
Nicholas Philpot
550 Sir Charles Cæsar, Kat.

1415 Herbert R. Westfaling

375
Ralph Freeman

1368 1716 Vice Lord Scudamore, dead,

This was a double return of Cæsar and Freeman, and Herbert R. Westfaling

634 Freeman was declared elected. Timothy Geers

421 1695 Sir Thomas P. Blount, Bart. 1734 Thomas Foley, Jun. 693 Thomas Halsey

1428 Sir John Morgan, Bart.

555
Robert Cecil

1412 Herbert R. Westfaling

522 Ralph Freeman 1764 Vice Jobo Symons, dead.

1698 Ralph Freeman, Jun,

1699 John Scudamore

237
Thomas Halsey

1565 117

Plumer
Hopton

1239 Titus

1084 Polls in Smith, 1741, 1747, 1761, 1818, 1826.

1714 Sir Thomas S. Sebright, Bart.

1807 Leominster. Ralph Freeman

1787 1705 Lord Coningsby 296 Sir Ralph Ratcliffe, Knt.

1158 Edward Harley 136 1722 Ralph Freeman

1614 John Dutton Colt 50 Sir Thomas S. Sebright, Bart.

1464 1713 Edward Harley

219
Charles Cæsar

1340
Henry Gorges
186 1727 Charles Cæsar

2021 Job Dutton Colt 88 Sir Thomas 8. Sebright, Bart.

1424 1716 Vice Lord Coniogsby, made a peer of Great Ralph Freeman

1012 Britain.

1736 Vice Sir T. 8. Sebright, dead.
George Caswall

190
Charles Cæsar

1078
Richard Gorges
38 Henshaw Halsey

1019 Henry Gorges

20 Polls in Smith, 1754, 1761, 1774, 2784, 1790, 2796, 1802, This election was declared voiu.

1805. 1722 Sir Archer Croft, Bart.

253

Hertford.
Sir George Caswall, Knt.
205 1679 Sir William Cowper, Bart.

284
Edward Harley
92 Sir Thomas Byde, Knt.

228 James Clarke 80 Henry Danston

220 John Raby ...

16 1681 Sir Thomas Byde, Knt. 1727 Sir George Caswall, Kat.

265 Sir William Cowper, Bart.
Viscount Bateman.

262
Sir William Leman, Bart.

23 Sir Archer Croft, Bart.

109 It is said that Byde and Cowper each polled more than 1742 Vice Mr. Jobn Caswall, dead.

300, but the exact figures are not found.
Robert Harley
210 1701 Charles Cæsar

452 Sir Robert Cornewall, Bart.

101
Richard Goulston

303 George Hanbury

5
Wiliam Monson

220
Bach
0 1705 Charles Cæsar

348 Polls in Smith, 1700, 1701, 1714, 1741, 1747, 1780, Richard Goulston

319 1784, 1790, 1796, 1797, 1802, 1812, 1818, 1820, 1826, 1830, Thomas Clarke

256 1831 (two elections).

Clarke vice Goulaton on petition.
Weobley.
1708 Sir Thomas Clarke, Knt. ...

246 1691 Vice Jobo Birch, dead.

William Monson
John Birch

23
Charles Cæsar

207 Thomas Foley

26
Dimsdale

159 This was a double return, and Foley was declared 1710 Charles Cæsar

376 olected.

Ricbard Goulston

364 1698 Robert Price

Sir Thomas Clarke, Kot....

27 55 Thomas Foley

William Monson

258 40 Jobn Birch

35 1713 Charles Cæsar

Richard Goulston This was a double return. Foley was declared elected and the election of Price was not disputed.

Sir Thomas Clarke, Knt.

373 1722 Nicholas Philpott

60
1714 Charles Cæsar

215
7
66
Richard Goulston

362 Serjeant John Birch

201 15 Edward Hughes

Sir Thomas Clarke, Knt. 26 26

275 Jobn Carpenter

24
Jobn Boteler

272 266 25

The first poll is that by the Mayor, the second that The first poll was that taken by the old legal constables; after the honorary freemen, and other illegal votes had the second chat by the new constables.

been taken from the other poll, according to a statement 1732 On the expulsion of Baron John Birch (a Cursitor in the Flying Post for January 25, signed by Clarke and Baron of the Court of Exchequer)

Boteler, who were declared elected on petition. James Cornewall

55 1770 Vice William Cowper, dead. Baron John Birch

26
Paul Feilde

244 Paul Foley

4
Lionel Lyde...

1622 Polls in Smith, 1729, 1734, 1747, 1754,

Polls in Smith, 1722, 1780, 1784, 1790, 1826, 1831.

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Sl. Albans.

BEGINNING OF THE CHRISTIAN ERA. 1701 George Churchill

293
Jobo
Gape

Writing on this subject some years ago in

244 Joshua Lomax

188 N. & Q.' (6th S. vii. 515), MR. W. T. Lynn, in Thomas Lomax

70 giving his adherence to the opinion that the birth James Wittewrong..

37 of Christ probably took place in the autumn of 1705 George Churchill

B.C. 5, makes the following observation :-
Joha Gape

236

“ But I wish to point out that it by no means follows Henry Killegrew

233

from this that if we could now rovert to a correct Killegrew vice Gape on petition.

reckoning from the birth of Christ the present year would 1708 Joba Gape

372 be not 1883 but 1888. It is remarkable how often mis Joshua Lomax

258 takes of this kind are made from not recollecting that George Churchill

254 chronologists have no year 0, but pass at once from B.0.1 1713 William Grimston

to A.D. 1. Admitting the birth of Christ to bave been in William Hale

308 B.C. 5, from then to the same day in B.c. 1 would be four John Gape

294 years, and to A.D. 1, five years, and to A.D. 1883, 1887 On petition Gape vice Hale.

years. So that our present reckoning is not five, but

only four years in error." 1717 Vice William Hale. Joshua Lomax

303

Although I have duly consulted the indexes to Jennings

263 N. & Q.,'I do not find that this very emphatic 1722 William Goro

461 238 statement of MR. LYNN's has been challenged ; William Clayton

461 238 and as the point is one of no little interest and Viscount Grimston ...

335 331 MR. Lynx's authority on such matters deservedly Joshua Lomax

258

258 of great weight, I trust be will pardon me for The second poll is that after deducting the honorary requesting him to review the matter in the light of freemon and paupers. Gore and Clayton were returned. the following considerations. 1727 Viscount Grimston

475

By a parity of reasoning, from a day in a.d. 1 te Caleb Lomax

447 Thomas Gape

197

the same day in A.D. 2 would be one year ; to 1729 Vice Lomax, dead.

A.D. 3 two years, and to the present year 1892 Thomas Gape, Jun.

399 years only; but both A.D. 1 and A.D. 2—not the Brassey

165 interval between a day in the one and the same 1734 Sir Thomas Aston, Bart.

499 day in the other-must be reckoned, and similarly Thomas Ashby

471 B.C. 5 and B.C. 4 are respectively the first and Viscount Grimston

388 second years of the era on the supposition that the 1742 Vice Thomas Asbby, dead.

birth of Christ took place in B.c. 5. Consequently Hans Stanley

325 five years is really the amount of the error, as the Hon, James Grimston

303

whole of B.C. 5 must be reckoned, even if the Polls in Smith, 1761, 1784, 1790, 1796, 1807, 1809, 1812, event from which the era takes its rise bad 1818, 1820, 1821, 1830, 1831.

happened on the last day of that year. Huntingdonshire.

The present year is 6606 of the Julian period ; 1729 Vice Marquis of Hartington becoming Duke of deduct 1893, and the quotient, 4713, is the year of Devonshire.

the Julian period for B.c. 1, the year prior to the Robert Pigott

638 Sir John Bernard, Bart.

beginning of the era ; and in like manner, subtract

473 1739 Vice Lord Robert Montagu becoming Duke of ing 1898 (1893+5) from the Julian period for this Manchester,

year, we obtain 4708= B.C. 6, the year prior to the Charles Clarke

692

true commencement of our era. Whether the latter William Mitchell ...

521 | bo reckoned from the Annunciation (as I underPolls in Smith, 1741, 1768, 1807, 1818, 1826, 1830, 1831. stand it to be) or from the birth of Christ is im

material to my point. I contend that if the latter Huntingdon.

event took place late in B.C. 5 (should a correct 1702 Hon. Charles Boyle

91 reckoning of the era be reverted to) the present Anthony Hamond

89 Francis Wortley

would be A.D. 1898. 34

year John Pocklington

MR. Lynn's averment seems explicit enough,

41 Lord Orrery

2 but I may have misunderstood him. Should be do 1705 Sir John Cotton, Bart.

73 me the honour of reconsidering the matter, any Edward Wortley Montagu

73 observations of his on the subject cannot fail to bo John Pedley

64 of interest. On petition Pedley vice Cotton.

The other day MR. Lynn drew attention to an Polls in Smith, 1741, 1820, 1824, 1831.

error in ‘L'Art de Vérifier les Dates. Although

W. W. BEAN. not bearing directly upon the subject of this pote, 4, Montague Place, Bedford Square.

I may point out that this most valuable work, in (To be continued.)

treating of the date of Christ's birth (vol. ii. p. 233),

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gives the year of Rome 747 as 4708 of the Julian land is described in English as “ bastler land." period and 6 B.C., instead of 4707 and 7 B.C., The rod, or symbol of investiture whereby copybold wbilst the year of Rome 749 is given as 42 of the land was conveyed, might have been hastula, but I Julian era and 4 B.C., in place of 41 and 5 B.C. doubt whether servitium hastilare is in any way respectively. These errors can hardly have arisen connected with this symbol, especially as in these from the existence of the astronomical year 0; in villages copy hold lands are said to be held" by any case the correct dates are to be found in the the straw.'

S. 0. ADDY. chronological tables contained in the first volume, 3, Westbourne Road, Sheffield. and may be verified otherwise throughout the volumes cited.

J. YOUNG.

FOLK-LORE : DROWNED BODY LOCATED.-The Glasgow.

Suffolk Times and Mercury of Friday, Nov. 4,

1892, under the heading of 'A Norfolk SuperThe ROYAL MARRIAGE.—The fact of the direct stition,' gives the followiog :heir to the throne marrying an English woman is

“ Last week (writes our Thetford correspondent) in, 80 rare an event that it seems worth noting. I can

formation was received at Thetford that a middle-aged only recall two instances since the Conquest, viz., and had been seen at Thetford. Her friends naturally

woman had been missing from Brandon since Oct. 11, Edward, the Black Prince, and Edward, Prince of became alarmed about her, and had serious fears as to Wales, son of Henry VI., who married Aon of her rafely, and as they could bear nothing about her, Warwick, subsequently the Queen of Richard III. they asked that the river between Thetford and Brandon Ann of Warwick, however, was not of royal blood; might be dragged. Instead of this, recourse was bad to but the Black Prince and Joanda of Kont were people really believe. On Tuesday afternoon the Naviga

a very curious procedure, in wbich it appears somo equally descended from Edward I., and, oddly tion Superintendent got a boat and rowed down the enough, as in our present royal marriage, the bride river, accompanied by a policeman, who was mildly and was a generation older than the bridegroom. slowly beating a big drum. It was stated that, if they Edward, the Black Prince, was great-grandson of came to any part of the river in which there might be * Edward' I.; Joanna of Kent was granddaughter of be distinctly noticed. The experiment, however, was a

dead body, a difference in the sound of the drum would the same king ; the Duke of York is great-great- failure, and later on, it was reported that a person an. grandson of George III. ; wbile the Princess May swering to the description of the missing woman was at is only great-granddaughter of the good old king. Elvedon. This proved to be correct, and she was ulti

Several of our kings bave married English wives, mately taken home, to the great relief of her friends." but, so far as I can remember, no direct heir to the I fancy this belief is uncommon; at least, I have throne has ever done so except those I bave men.

never met with it before. W. B. GERISH. tioned. CHARLOTTE G. BOGER,

South Town, Great Yarmouth, St. Saviour's, Southwark,

TAE INVENTOR OF LUCIFER MATCH E8.ARCAILOCHUS.- Apparently the usually accepted “Mr. John Walker, chemist, of Stockton, and the epoch at which the great satirist of Paros flourished original inventor of lucifer matches, died in that town must be brought down about half a century. In the other day at the age of seventy-eight. Por a con

siderable time he realized a handsome income from the one of the fragments which alone remain of the sale of his matches in boxes at 1s. 6d. each."- Vide works admired by Horace, he speaks of Zeus turn- Baptist Reporler, June, 1859. ing midday into night, a phenomenon so remark

Joan T. PAGE. able that he thinks no one ought afterwards to be Holmby House, Forest Gate. surprised at anything-not even if the dolphins and land animals should change places. An Italian

RELICS IN A LONDON CAURCH.—The following astronomer, Prof. Millosevich, of Rome, has appears in the City Press:recently re-examined the question of explaining closed during the next few weeks, and used only as a

“As the church of St. Mary, in the Minories, will be this by the occurrence of a total eclipse of the sun

mission room, a faculty having been obtained some time in the locality where Archilocbus resided, with the ago for the amalgamation of the parish with that of St. result that one only in the seventh century before Botolph, Aldgate, what is going to be done with the Christ will perfectly correspond with the circum- interesting relics? Notably among those is the head of stances. This was the eclipse of April 6, B.C. 648, the Duke of Norfolk, which is kept in a black box under which was total over Thasos about ten o'clock in a glass cover in the vestry. The story goes that, im

mediately after his execution on Tower Hill, the duke's the morning, and thus fixes the date of the com. friends obtained possession of the head and secreted it position of the poem.

W. T. Lynn. in the chapel attached to his family mansion. This Blackbeatb,

family mansion really comprised the buildings of the

ancient Priory of Holy Trinity, as founded by Matilda, HASTLER LAND.-Io some villages in the neigh-Queen of Henry I., in 1108, and wbich, together with bourhood of Sheffield land was anciently described the precincts, bad been given, at the dissolution of the as being held of the lord in seruició hastilari. monasteries by Henry VIII., to Thomas Audley, Lord This expression occurs in documents of the twelfth church, made the place his residence until his death, in

Cbancellor of England, who, after pulling down the and thirteenth centuries, and at a later period the the year 1554. Thereupon, in virtue of his marriage

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with the Lord Chancellor's daughter, the property passed defence of the Catholic doctrine of confession is into the possession of Thomas Howard, Earl of Norfolk, quoted in 'Redgauntlet' (Centenary Edition, whose unbappy lot it was twenty-two years afterwards to lay down his life on the block. After his execution,

letter viii. p. 91) ? his son, the Earl of Suffolk, disposed of the priory pre- "If you ever saw me tremble, be assured that my cinct and his mother's mansion therein to the City. ' In flesh, like that of the old Spanish general, only quaked at the year 1622, the inhabitants of Duke's Place, that had the dangers into which my spirit was about to lead it.”been built on part of the site of the old priory, having come 'Redgauntlet,' Centenary Edition, letter iii. p. 29. to an open quarrel with the parishioners of 'St. Catherine Cree, obtained leave of Charles I. to rebuild the priory remark occurs in 'The Fair Maid of Perth'(Cen

Who was this old Spanish general ? The same church, with the assistance of Lord Mayor Barkham. The church was accordingly rebuilt, and remains to this topary Edition, chap. viii. p. 95). day.”

Hang thee, Alan, thou art as unfit a confidant for a H. T. youthful gallant with some spice of imagination as the

old taciturn secretary of Facardin of Trebizond.”-Ibid.,

letter iii. p. 32. Queries.

From other sources I bave some reason to infor We must request correspondents desiring information that Prince Facardin of Trebizond was the name on family matters of only privato interest to affix their or hero of a play or opera which was well known names and addresses to their queries, in order that the in Berlin in the beginning of this century. Preanswers may be addressed to them direct.

cise particulars would be welcomed. WAVERLEY NOVELS.—What is to be under- made it himsell, I reckon– he has cheated mony ane, but

“It's no a Scotch tune, but it passes for ane-Oswald stood by the allusions in the following passages ?- he canna cheat Wandering Willie," Ibid., letter x.

“Do you know who taught the young person to p. 105. dance ? Some of her steps mightily resemble Le Jeune's Joseph Lincke, a celebrated 'cello player, born of Paris.”. – Peveril of the Peak," Centenary Edition, in 1783, is stated to have learned his instrument chap. IXXI. p. 378.

from Oswald. Presumably this is the person Who was Le Jeune ?

Wandering Willie alludes to ; but who was he ? “Had contrived a species of armour, of which neither

J. T. B. the horse-armoury in the Tower, nor Gwynnap's Gothic Hall, no, nor Dr. Meybrick's invaluable collection of Old Bell. — There was sold, on the 9th inst., ancient arms, has preserved any specimen.” — Ibid., in Dowell's Rooms, Edinburgb, a bell, dated “ 1789. chap. xxxii. p. 396.

Lepine, Fondeur, a Quimper," with Latin cross What is meant by Gwynoap's Gothic Hall ? embossed. This bell was in a church at Quimper,

“ Winterbloggom is one of us was one of us at least- in Normandy. It was desecrated in the French and won't stand the ironing. He has his Wogdens still, Revolution, was in the Pique frigate, which was that were right things in bis day, and can hit the hay taken in the war, and was presented by the captain

tack with the best of us.”—“St. Ronan's Well,'Centenary to Wm. Macdonald, of St. Martin's, in 1804. It Edition, chap. iv. p. 49. What were Wogdens ?-pistols ?

was used in the belfry of St. Martin's Abbey, in

Strathmore, Perthshire, for fifty years. By the by, Lady Penelope, you have not your collec

J. F. S. GORDON. tion in the same order and discipline as Pidcock and Polito.”—Ibid., chap. vii. p. 85.

Glasgow. Who were Pidcock and Polito ?-keepers of a

Hill. --My grandfather's uncle, one Joseph wild-beast show ?

Hill, was apprenticed between 1740 and 1750 as "For fair play's sake I made him take one of my pistols a violin maker to Peter Wamsley, who carried on -right Buchenritters."-Ibid., chap. xix, p. 210.

business during the first half

of the last century io Is anything known of Kuchenritter ?-pre- Piccadilly and in Little Russell Street, near samably a gunsmitb.

Covent Garden. I want, if possible, to obtain "With a volley of such oaths as would have blown a particulars of the apprenticesbip deed ; and as I whole fleet of the Bethel Union out of the water."

have always understood that in those days such Ibid., chap. xxi. p. 233.

documents were publicly entered and preserved, What was the Bethel Union ?

where should I be likely to find any trace or " With your usual graceful attitude of adjusting your knowledge of this matter ? perper.dicular shirt-collar, and passing your hand over

ARTHUR F. HILL. the knnt of your cravat, which deserves a peculiar place in 38, Now Bond Street, W. the Tielania."-Ibid., chap. xxvi. p. 287. What is the Tietania ?

Lyon Family.-Can any reader of ‘N. & Q.' "Why, your memory must have been like Pat Mur. put me in the way of substantiating the early tough's greyhound, that let th: hare go before he caught accounts of the Scotch family of Lyon before the it." - Ibid., chap. xxx. p. 329.

Sir John who married the Princess Jane, and got Is Pat Martough a fictitious person ; or bas be with her the lands of Glamis ? Were they conany connexion with Murtough O'Hara, whose nected with the Northamptonshire Lyons ?—wbo

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