« EelmineJätka »
is another curious reference to Col. Charteris in from the Chronicle of Bermondsey Abbey, ‘Monasthe same volume, pp. 186, 233, where it is stated ticon,' ed. 1682, tom. i. p. 639. This Hospital of that Miss Frances Arabella Kelly, the friend and St. Thomas the Martyr was a distinct foundation correspondent of Swift, appears from a letter to from one similarly dedicated attached to the Swift of July 8, 1733, to have been step-daughter Priory of St. Mary Overy ; vide Tanner's 'Notitia,' of Col. Charteris,“ but the dates are irreconcilable under “Southwark," NATHANIEL HONE. with that supposition.”
“ FRAY-BUG" (8th S. iii. 383).-I find the " THE LEASH” (8th S. iii, 368).-Apparently longer form of this word in Coverdale's version of the office was that of Grand Falconer, or some the Epistle of Jeremiah (commonly known as office below that of a similar character.
Baruch vi.), verse 70 :
ED. MARSHALL. “For like as a frayboggarde in a garden off CucumHas this anything to do with greyhounds ? The bera kepeth nothinge, euen so are their goddes of wod, royal sport provided by these dogs (as described of syluer & golde.
C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. in Strutt) required the services of a master and grooms.
E. H. M.
Richardson cites two further examples :LUCE (8th S. ii. 328, 353, 391, 435, 511; iii. 93, “They fraybugged the’ with the thunderboltes of 155, 372).—The word leucernere in E. S. A.'s their excommunycacyons and interdiccyons."— Bale, quotation from the 'Ayenbite of Inwyt,' at the English Votaries,' pt. ii., the conclusion. last reference, is somebody's blunder for leucervere. |
" They have so fraid us with bull-beggers, spirits,
witches, &c., &c., and other such bugs."-Scot, DisSo Laurent, in his "Somme des Vices et des
coverie of Witchcraft,' 1580. Vertus,' mentions “li liins qu'on apele autrement
T. B. WILMSHURST. le locervere"; and Philippe de Thaun, in his Bestiary,' printed by the late Mr. Wright in his
This word appears in the following quotation, *Popular Treatises on Science written during the given
I given in Carr's Dialect of Craven,' sub flayMiddle Ages,' says (p. 94, 1. 573):
boggard, a hobgoblin :Hyena est Griu num, que nus beste apellum,
"The flesh fantasieth forgoth much fear of fray bugges Ceo est lucervere, oler vait e mult est fere.
and were it not for the force of fayth pulling it forwards
by the bridells of God's most sweet promises, and of hope The etymon of lucervere (mod. Fr. loup-cervier) is pricking it on behinde, great adventure there would be lupus cervarius, a term denoting sometimes the faynting by the way.”—M. Saunder's Letter to his Wife, lynx, sometimes the hyena (see Frantze, 'Historia | 1555. Animalium Sacra,' ed. 1612, p. 214).
F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. Besides lucervere the Old French had loupcerve “Fray-boggarde," meaning exactly the same and loucerve, with the same meaning. Probably thiog, occurs in Coverdale's and other early Bibles, our lucern is a corruption of the last form. Unfor- in Baruch vi.:tunately, I have no materials for a history of the "For like as a frayboggarde in a garden of Cucumbers English word beyond a note that one of Sir John kepeth nothinge, euen go are their goddes of wod of syl. Wallop's bequests (May 22, 1551) was a "gown uer & golde : and like as a whyte thorne in an orcharde, furred with lucerns ” (Nicolas. Testamenta Ve. that ouery birdo sytteth vpon : yee like as a deed body tusta,' ii. 733).
that is cast in the darcke, Euen so it is with those goddes
of wodde, syluer, and golde." “ HOSPITALE CONVERSORUM ET POERORUM”
Coverdale places this apocryphal book among (8th S. iii. 209, 316, 374). —
the Prophets, between Jeremy and Ezechiel. “Conversi in Monasteriis dicuntur laici Monachi
In Cromwell's and succeeding Bibles the word is laicis exercitiis et Monachorum obsequiis addicti, vulgo
R. R. Freres convers. Sic autem appellati quod primitus viri laici pietatis seu etiam quærendi victus gratia Monas. teriis totos se darent, offerent, et addicerent operam
WATERLOO (8th S. iii. 307, 412).--I strongly suam locantes ad vitam suam, unde et Laici, et Oblati, et suspect that the account in the ‘Wellington AnecDonati sæpe dicti leguntur."-Du Cange.
dotes' and also in Gleig, of Wellington's alleged The word conversus, in above sense of lay magnanimous reply to the colonel of artillery who brother, is frequently met with in the registers of claimed to have got the exact range of the spot ancient religious houses, as may be seen in the where Bonaparte was standing, is a story as old as * Liber Vitæ' of Hyde Abbey, recently edited by the Battle of the Boyne, and may be relegated to Mr. W. de Gray Birch for the Hampshire Record the limbo where “Up, Guards, and at 'em!" with Society. Of course, the Domus Conversorum in other apocrypha, do ponance. Chancery Lane was a special foundation, “ad In The Recollections of Joba O'Keeffe' (vol. i. sustentationem fratrum conversorum et converten- p. 149) we read (Colburn, 1826):dorum de Judaismo ad fidem Catholicam.” The “In 1765, at Sligo, I had seen John O'Brien, who had quotation in question will be found in the extracts served at the Battle of the Boyne. He was a fine old
man, and told me many interesting and circumstantial almost certainly from the Latin vola, the palm of anecdotes relative to that day ;-one, that a gunner told the hand, hence a handful-every trick. The book King James, that at that very precise moment bis gun was 80 pointed, he could, in a twinkle, end the dispute for
is an exquisite piece of typography. the three crowns; but James forbade him, and the
HERBERT MAXWELL. nephew and son-in-law were thus saved.”
"ALE-DAGGER” (8th S. iii. 387, 436).— When I have heard that King James's words were the N. E. D.' shows that “ale-dagger" is not “No! do not leave my daughter a widow."
mere slang or raillery, but the properly descriptive W. J. FITZPATRICK. Garrick Club.
name of a well-known weapon of the time, it is
another proof how greatly we are indebted to tbat How different this “saying and doing" of the learned and profound work. It may now safely Great Duke to that of Napoleon Bonaparte, who be supposed that a man might talk in this way:seems not to bave held human life as of the slight-1 “Boy! I go to drink ale at the tavern, so give me my est value. M. Thiers, in his ' History of the Con- 'ale-dagger,' the light and bandy one with two or three gulate and the Empire,' gives us an instance of this pounds of iron in the hilt. Thou wilt find it on the at the Battle of Austerlitz, December 2, 1805 :
shelf by the side of the Pap.Hatchet,'" “Standing on the slopes of the plateau of Pratzen
There can be very little doubt that these two overlooking the ponds, Napoleon perceives the disaster instruments would generally be found in the same that he bad so ably prepared. He orders a battery of the place.
R. R. guard to open a fire of balls on the parts of the ice which Boston, Lincolnshire. stand firm and completes the destruction of the flying wretched upon it. Nearly 2,000 men found a grave beneath “ COMMENCED M.A.” (8th S. iii, 8, 57, 155, 252). this broken ice."-Redhead's Translation, vol. i. p. 589.
-Dr. Fitzedward Hall, replying in his Recent John PICKFORD, M.A. Exemplifications of False Philology'to Mr. Grant Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.
White's objection to such phrases as "he comCOGERS' HALL (8th S. iii. 346).-To the names
menced poet,” “ commenced politician," &c., says of Keogb, O'Connell, and Curran, who spoke at / in a foot-poto (p. 40:Cogers' Hall, may be added (on the authority of
«• To commence M.A.,' &c., meaning to take the Mr. Brady, C.E., of Galway, to whom he told his degree of M.A., &c., has been a recognized phrase for
some three centuries at least. Thei were able to bave experience) the Dominican preacher Father Tom
commenced maisters of arte.' Barnabe Riche, · Farewell Burke. See also 'Life of Very Rov. Thomas to Militarie Profession,' p. 45. This application of comBurke, O.P.' (London, Kegan Paul & Trench, mence probably originated in an imitation of incipere, 1884, vol. ii. p. 263).
which, in modern Latin, has long been used to denote
the object of college-commencements; and it is not at “TELEPATHIC OBSESSION" (8th S. iii. 384).
all unlikely that it suggested the extension of employ.
ment which the term has obtained in ordinary discourse. I would suggest that L.'s letter has nothing what. See Mr. B. H. Hall's College Words and Customs ever to do with any tendency to a belief in witch-(second edition), p. 85." craft, althougb, no doubt, there is still a survival of
C. C. B. that in some country districts. L. clearly belongs See Bp. Patrick's 'Autobiography,' 1839, p. 58, to the class of mentally afficted persons who suffer sent to Cambridge for a certificate of my comfrom hallucinations of bearing, and, in consequence, mencing bachelor of divinity." A surviving applibelieve that conspiracies are being formed against
cation of the same phrase to ordinary use was to them, and that magnetic machines and other devices
be, and perhaps still may be, seen over the chimney. are being secretly employed to act upon them. piece of the “Cheshire Cheese," out of Fleet Street, There is a singular book by John Haslam (a
book by John Haslam. (a in an inscription in honour of one who commenced lunatic), entitled Illustrations of Madness : with
waiter there on such a date. It may bave been a Description of the Torture experienced by Bomb
this inscription that suggested to Shirley Brooks bursting, Lobster-cracking, and Lengthening of an idea, in his ‘Silver Cord.' A frugal couple, the Brain, London, 1810, 8vo. This book is
having to make a wedding present, purchased a embellished with a curious plate, and is thoroughly
second-band salver, which, being well scoured on typical of L.'s case.
NE QUID NIMIS.
reaching its destination, reveals the fact that it had East Hyde.
been presented to some one who similarly “comVOLE (8th S. iii. 187, 274,294).—While protesting menced waiter."
KILLIGREW. against arguing etymology from probability, unsup- In the eighteenth century New England colported by literary evidence, I have myself fallen leges had the long vacation in winter, in order that into the spare. I was rash enough to assume that a students might have the chance to earn some vole at écarté signified and was derived from vol, a money by teaching school in the winter months, robbery. Mr. Hucks Gibbs, in his pretty little The college year commenced at commencement. volume on the 'Game of Ombre'(privately printed, Now it ends there, and begins in September. At London, 1878), has shown (p. 39, note) that it is Yale College, until 1871, commencement was cele
brated the third week in July, nearly half way but a crest. So the older of the two called at a local through the summer vacation. The college year die-sinker's, and selected a lion rampant for his ended in June at “ Presentation Day," so called family crest, and ordered note-paper for himself from the custom (disused long before) of the senior and his brother, with the lion rampant printed in tutor presenting the seniors to the president as all the colours of the rainbow. Then each brother worthy of a degree. It is said that the president sent his carriage, with a sheet of note-paper of his (although he had been instructing the class all the own choosing, to the coach-builder's, and the outprevious year) was expected to appear as if he was come was that the senior now displays on his glad to make the acquaintance of so many excellent carriage & lion rampant gules, and the younger the young men. 0. H. DARLINGTON. same creature, but azure.
L. L. K. Pittsburg, Pennsylvania.
“ To RUSH " (8th S. iii. 368).—This verbis CARLO ALBACINI (8th S. iii. 369).-For a brief used transitively in 'Romeo and Juliet," III. iii. account of the life of this Roman sculptor, who was 26 (“the kind prince bath rush'd aside the law”), one of the executors of Angelica Kauffman, see though it is possible that “hath rush'd” is an the ‘Biograpbical Dictionary of the Society for the
G. J. Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, London, 1842.
This word has been used as a transitive verb in EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. I the game of croquet for at least thirty a
the game of croquet for at least thirty years. It "PRACTICAL POLITICS” (gib S. iii. 347, 395).- means to strike the ball you are playing 80 as This expression was in use nearly twenty years
to hit another ball and drive it forward. James before 1887. Soon after the disestablishment of the Heath, in his 'Complete Croquet Player,' 1875, Irish Churcb, Mr. Gladstone, in a speech in Lanca- p. 32, says: shire (I think), said that the explosion at Clerken. “The object of the rush, or rushing roquet, is generally Pou Prison Chich took place on Dec 13. 1867) to drive the roqueted or object ball to some spot where called the attention of the people of Eogland to
it will be more convenient tu the striker to take the
croquet." Irish questions, and brought the disestablishment
| The word is used in this sense in Whitmore's (in 1869), within the range of practical politics.
Croquet Tactics,' published ten or twelve years earlier,
R. C. A. PRIOR. CONSTANTIUS II., EMPEROR OF ROME (8th S. üi. 388).–Gibbon mentions, in his twenty-fifth
UNLUCKY HOUSES (8th S. iii. 224, 278).—When chapter, that the Emperor Gratianus, son of Valen
at Bishop Burton, near Beverley, some six years tinianus I., married the granddaughter of Congo
ago, I was informed that at least three of the vicars stantine the Great. This lady (see 'Ammianus
had committed suicide. Marcellinus,' lib. xxi. c. 15) was the posthumous
C. E. GILDERSOME-DICKINSON. daughter of Constantius ; two years younger than EPIPHANY OFFERING (8th S. iii. 347, 435).—MR. her husband, she was left a widow at the age of SPENCER PERCEVAL will find a long full account twenty-two by bis assassination in A.D. 383. of this custom in Chambers's 'Book of Days'
W. T. LYNN. | (vol. i. pp. 62–64). Ever since the illness of Blackheath.
George III., the procession and personal appearSAMUEL EVANS, RECTOR OF BROWN CANDOVER,
ance of the reigning sovereign has been discon.
BR. 1 tinued. It is not stated wben first observed in HANTS (8th S. iii. 405).-He matriculated from
this country, but it was observed as a separate New College, Oxford, March 11, 1624/5, then aged eighteen, as the son of the Rev. David Evans,
feast in the year 813. Brady states :vicar (1596-1624) of Biertop, Bucks, and gradu
"To render due honour to the memory of the ancient
Magi, who are supposed to bave been Kings, the monarch ated B.C.L. on Oct. 11, 1632, in which degree be
of this country himself, either personally or through his was incorporated at Cambridge in 1635. He was chamberlain, offers annually at the altar on this day, instituted to the rectory of Syresham, co. North Gold, Frankincense, and Myrrh ; and the Kings of Spain, ampton, in 1637. (Foster's • Alumni Oxonienses,' where the Feast of Epiphany is likewise called the 1500-1714, ii. 472.)
| Feast of Kings' were accustomed to make the like 17, Hilldrop Crescent, N.
W. B. GERISH. NOVEL NOTIONS OF HERALDRY (8th S. iii. 366, THE POETS LAUREATE (8th S. ii. 385, 535 ; iii. 437).-Judging by a recent squabble between 89, 131, 298, 357).-Previous to the demolition of authors of rival text-books on heraldry, about the the Danish Church in Wellclose Square, Ratcopyright of a certain anecdote, heraldic yarns cliff, did any tablet or inscription exist on its walls are scarce. The following was related to me a few to the memory of Colley Cibber, who with his years ago. There were two brothers in a country father and mother were buried in the vault town in England who got on in the world, and no- beneath? It is interesting to know that the thing else lacked them to complete their happiness remains of this celebrated family still lie near
the spot where they were buried; but one would in our house. In the village of Hamsterley, near also like to know if they are in any way com- Bishop Auckland, a public house has the siga of a memorated above ground. JOHN T. PAGE. spinning wheel. Holmby House, Forest Gate.
* In the 'Sketch of the Life of Georgiana, Lady “ YEARN” (gth S. iii. 266).—For a good ex
de Ros,' who died 1891, daughter of the Duchess
of Richmond, who gave the celebrated ball at ample of transitive use of this word see · Gesta Romanorum' (Roxburghe Club), p. 397. “ Wise Brussels on the evening before Waterloo, it is
stated that, among her other acccomplishments, she men are but scornede, and wedowes be sore
used to spin flax on a spinning-wheel presented to yernede.” It is curious to note that in Spenser
her by the Queen. She was the last survivor of yearne usually means to earn, whilst earne generally
that famous ball, and seems to be the last also means to long for; in one instance ('Faerie Queene,'
who used the spinning-wheel. book ii. chap. x. p. 21) to grieve. Yerne also
E. LEATON-BLENKINSOPP. meant to run ; see 'The Ayenbite of Inwyt' (E.E.T.S.), glossary; also Halliwell.
KINGSLEY'S LAST LINES : “BARÙM, BARÙM,
E. S. A. BAREE” (7th S. xi. 387, 479; 8th S. iii. 372). — May I be allowed to suggest that Shakspere Another instance of the use of “Broum, broum," uses the word given as yearn in two senses, as may by å rr
har by a French novelist is in chapter xiii. of Balzac's be seen by referring to the folio of 1623? In Père Goriot,' where the incomparable scoundrel • Henry V.,' II. (not III. as stated) sc. i., Pistol | Vautrin sings, —
O Richard, ô mon roi ! Bays : “Let us condole the Knight, for Lambkins
L'univers t'abandonne, we will live" (11. 133-4); the idea is purely sel- | fish. Then in scene iii., Pistol again : “My manly
with the addition heart doth erne" (11. 6, 6, Folio); and “Falstaff
Broum ! broum ! broum ! broum ! broum ! he is dead, and we must erne...... let us to France And yet a further example is to be found in ......to suck, to suck” (II. 56, 57). So he is think. The Mill on the Floss' (book vi. chap. vii.), ing of his own means of subsistence ; he yearns wherein it is observed that Stephen Guest, when over the lost master, but has still to earn his own preparing to sing in a duet, gave “a foretaste of living.
A. HALL. the tune in bis deep 'brum-brum,' very pleasant
to hear.” MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT (8th S. iii. 88, 173). - It may, of course, be noted that in Dr. Murray's The Earl of Sunderland, writing to the Earl of New English Dictionary,' “ brum” is defined as Ratland, Feb. 17, 1684/5, says :
“ to murmur, hum,” with the reference to Black“ His Majesty......not doubting but you will.....em- wood in 1844, “ Now this is the strangest well! ploy all your interest that good members may be chosen ...... always humming and brumming." for the approaching parliament.”
ALFRED F. ROBBINS. The Marquis of Granby to the Duke of Rutland, April 12, 1719, says:
SECOND Sight (8th S. iii. 307, 412).-Second “I am told several members have talked of bringing a sight, by which is meant throwing aside spectacles pan of charcoals into the House to burn it [the Peerage in old age, occurs to those who were short sighted Bill], others sending for pairs of shears to cut it, and 'tis in youth, and proceeds from the like cause that certain there are precedents of both being done." requires persons with normal sight to use them,
Sir Thomas Hussey, Bart., to Sir Thomas viz., the flattening of the eye in the one case Williamson, Bart., May 1, 1679, in declining to requiring to be corrected with magnifying glasses, stand for election (at Grantham ?), says:
while in the other case the same flattening of the “I neither do nor ever did feed any distastes between eye brings it into its normal state. Sr Robt Car, and myselfe, and much lesse between the
E. LEATON-BLENKINSOPP. rest of the members of Parliament and me, however my actions have been represented to you."
I have not Dr. Holmes's delightful books at W. B. THOMAS.
band for the reference, but somewhere, in the Heaton.
'Autocrat' or the Professor,' he tells of an
elderly gentleman of his acquaintance, who bullied In his Miscellanies' Aubrey mentions one his failing eyes into vigorous renewal of their Edward Gunter as being chosen “Member of Parliament"; and speaks of a certain Col. Remes
| powers. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A.
Hastings. as" a Parliament man." W. F. WALLER.
The late Mr. John Stewart, of Belladrum, InOLD ENGLISH SPINNING (8th S. iii. 368, 411). verness-shire, sometime M.P. for Beverley, re-Spinning wheels were in constant use in the covered his sight and left off the use of spectacles north sixty or seventy years ago in many cottages. long after he was seventy. He died some twenty Even ladies used to spin, and have their spinning years ago, aged nearly ninety. made up into table-cloths. There is one preserved
É. WALFORD, M.A.
AUSTRIAN FLAG AT ACRE (86d S. iii. 427).- Almanack' that I can find just at the moment is Your correspondent will have considerable difficulty that for 1885. On p. 69 is a list of new pieces in procuring an “authentic copy" of this flag. produced at London theatres ; and under the headHowever, he may try his luck by consulting G. ing of “Court” is “ My Milliner's Bill, duologue, Koebler's or Boeheim's book on early war materials. | by G. W. Godfrey, March 6" (1884). The former is in the British Museum, if not the
E. S. N. latter. The duke whose flag Richard L. outraged This word was invented some fifty years ago, to at Ptolemais was Leopold V., who was Duke of describe the usual way in which mattins and evenAustria from 1177 to 1194. I believe the oldest song were rendered in our churches, as a duologue known representation of a coat of arms borne by a
between parson and clerk, the congregation reDuke of Austria occurs on a seal affixed to a deed of 1202, and shows the lion of Styria, which Leo
maining silent. Sometimes it was described as a
parson and clerk duet." Happily, now a thing pold VI. bore as duke of that country. The of the past.
E. LEATON-BLENKINSOPP. earliest known representation of the well-known Austrian, or rather Babenberg, escutcheon-Gules, “DUMBLE” (8th S. iii. 447). — Why not a a feos argent-is shown on a seal to a deed of 1234, variant of " dimble" (a form cognate with if I remember rightly. Cf. Sava, 'Die Siegel der “ dimple"), a depression, hollow, or valley ? Comoester Regenten' (Vienna, 1871). Old Siebmacher | pare the name Dumbleton, in Gloucestershire. The has, I believe, a legend about the origin of this word is used by Ben Jonson : device.
L. L. K.
Within a bushy dimble she doth dwell. HAWISIA DE FERRERS (8th S. iii. 429).-The
Chas. Jas. FÈRET. additional name of Havisa, wife of Robert, first In 'A Sapplementary English Glossary,' by Earl of Derby, was De Vitri. Probably further the Rev. T. L. 0. Davies, I find the following: information may be given in 'Antiquities of “Betsey called it [monk's-bood] dumbledore's delight, Lacock Abbey,'by W. L. Bowles and J. C. and was not aware that the plant in whose belmetNicholls, p. 264.
rather than cowl - shaped flowers tbat busy and best
natured of all insects appears to revel more than in any I have somewhere met with the statement that other is the deadly aconite of which we read in poetry.” she was a De Vitré. If so, she was probably
-Southey, 'The Doctor,' chap. cviii.
S. J. A. F. daughter of André de Vitré by Agnes, daughter of Robert, Comte de Mortain. André's grand CAARLES II., THE FI88, AND THE ROYAL son Robert (the second) died in 1174.
SOCIETY (86 s. ii. 526 ; iii. 234, 377).—MR. W.
Taos. WILLIAMS. WEBB seems to bave studied the problem of ArchiDUOLOGUE (8th S. iii. 406).—The word and the
medes imperfectly, or he would not have fallen entertainment indicated by it are not of such
into the error of supposing that a body immersed recent date as DR. CHANCE seems to suppose,
in water" would displace a bulk of water equal to though it is quite true that dictionaries are silent
: its own weight.”
Suppose a mass of gold to weigh 77: in air, and on this head, even Cassell's edition of 1892 omitting it. The following two quotations may show (1)
| 73. in water, it displaces a quantity of water equal that some five years ago duologues took their rise
to its own bulk, weighing 4x. If the weight in in drawing-room entertainments, and (2) of what
air be divided by the loss of weight in water, that nature this kind of recitation is : “Her taste for
is, 77 by 4, we get 194 as the specific gravity of recitations and drawing-room duologues is growing
gold, that of water being 1. In other words, gold rapidly" (Punch, 1888, i. p. 229); “It reminds
is 194 times heavier than its own bulk of pure mo of one of those duologue entertainments, where
water at 60° F. the lady comes on the stage first, and does her
It may be useful to restate the problem that speech and solo; then exit she,' and enter on the
| Archimedes had to solve. A known weight of other side 'he,' and immediately gives his speech,
gold was delivered to an artist for conversion into his solo ; then exit 'he.' Re-enter she'; to her
à votive crown for Hieron, King of Syracuse (or, enter he': dialogue, duet, dance, and exit one
| as some say, for his son Galon). The crown as of them, and so on, until the final duet, and
delivered was of the proper weight, but a suspicion curtain” (Punch, 1888, i. p. 185). The two
somehow arose that a fraud had been perpetrated.
The crown was accordingly sent to Archimedes for quotations prove one thing more-viz., that the word may be used both as a substantive and as an
| examination, but, as it had some artistic value, be
was not allowed to melt it down into some simple adjective.
K. TEN BRUGGENCATE. Leeuwarden, Holland
geometrical figure, so as to be able to compare it and
measure it with a similar figure in pure gold. If I believe this word is a good deal older than DR. the crown were an alloy of gold and of some less CHANCE thinks. I have known it for a long time, I dense metal, and yet of the same weight as one of though I cannot say how long. The earliest 'Era pure gold, the alloy would be of larger dimensions