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his sisters, who kept a seminary near St. John's Street Road. He was educated under Henry Butter, the well-known author of the “Etymological Spelling-Book,' which went to a two hundred and thirty-eighth edition in 1860. At the age of twelve he was apprenticed for three years to a pawnbroker in High Street, Shadwell, and from that period till 1830 was employed in various pawnbrokeringestablishments. About March, 1830, he started in business as a jeweller at 99, Quadrant, Regent Street; but on Dec. 1, 1831, he became an insolvent, and paid the first of his many visits to the King's Bench Prison. Quickly following on this event he was incarcerated in Whitecross Street Prison, on emerging from which he was in such an absolute state of poverty that for several nights he slept on the doorstep of the Bishop of London's house in St. James's Square. He was next connected with “brown money” gambling rooms, and then with billiard rooms, while in the summer months he went speeling, an amusement on a racecourse, consisting of playing roulette in a tent. About 1836 he married, and took a cigar shop in Warwick Street, Regent Street, which had a room behind it where the customers gambled and were supplied with strong drinks. He is next found as a wine merchant in Leicester Place, Leicester Square; but this establishment did not last long, as on April 22, 1836, he was made a bankrupt. He was now fortunate enough to make the acquaintance of Joseph Last, printer, Edward Street, Hampstead Road, who employed him to edit and bring out the Town, a weekly paper, the first number of which appeared on Saturday, June 3, 1837. This paper, a kind of society journal dealing with the phenomena of flash life, was a success from the first, and although some of its contents were not of a highly moral nature, it contained a great deal of information and exposed many swindling companies. The Town contained some illustrations for which “Gillray the younger” made the sketches on wood, and Ebenezer Landells engraved them. In the earlier numbers Nicholson wrote the greater part of the paper; after that he had as contributors, among others, Mr. Anderson, late editor of the Marylebone Journal; John Dalrymple, the writer of burlesques in which Mrs. Honey appeared (in 1839 when on his death-bed, he was taken out of his house and shut up in Newgate on a false charge of forgery, and died the following morning); Henry Pellatt, afterwards known as the double of Lord Brougham; John George Canning, who wrote under the signature of Theophilus Pole, and died in 1847; Dr. William Maginn, dramatic writer, who died Jan. 19, 1842, aged forty-nine; and Edward Leman Blanchard, who deceased so recently as Sept. 4, 1889. No. 156, Saturday, May 23, 1840, “oears to have been the last issue of the Town.
On Sunday, July 1, 1838, in conjunction with Joseph Last and Charles Pitcher, a man of fortune and a sporting character, he started the Crown, a weekly paper supporting the beer-sellers, which with No. 42, on April 14, 1839, came to an untimely end.
On June 13, 1839, he took a benefit at the Queen's Theatre, Tottenham Street (afterwards known as the Prince of Wales's), when an extravaganza called ‘The Town, and a farce entitled “The Licensed Victualler, both pieces written by the bénéficiaire, were produced, and the net proceeds were upwards of 400l.
In conjunction with Thomas Bartlett Simpson, in 1841, he opened the Garrick's Head and Town Hotel, 27, Bow Street, Covent Garden, and in a large room in this house, on Monday, March 8, 1841, established the well-known Judge and Jury Society, where he himself soon after commenced presiding under the title of “The Lord Chief Baron.” On the first occasion of wearing his ermine robes he had among his audience John Adolphus, the father of the English bar. Members of both houses of Parliament, statesmen, poets, actors, and others visited the Garrick's Head, and it was not an uncommon occurrence to see the jury composed of noble lords and members of the lower house of the legislature. The trials were humorous, yet gave occasion for serious eloquence, glowing repartee, and fluent satire. Truth compels me to say that too frequently the cases taken related to seduction or crim. con., when men dressed in female attire were crossexamined, and the judge, counsel, plaintiffs, and defendants all indulged in double entente and other language of an immoral nature. The attention of the public was kept directed to this mimic court of law by advertisements containing amusing sham law reports, by poetical broadsides, and by the exhibition of an immense painting at the corner of Wellington Street, Strand. This picture, a work of artistic merit, by Archibald Henning, cost nearly 200l. It contained portraits of many of the celebrities of the day, and continued as an ornament of the thoroughfare for a great number of years. The most popular of the counsel was Henry Pellatt, always known as Henry Brougham, while John George Canning was equally good as a prisoner, a witness, or a suitor. Nicholson's position as a mock judge was one of the sternest realities of eccentric history. Attorneys when suing him said, “Well, my lord”; sheriffs' officers when executing a writ apologized for the disagreeable duty they were compelled to perform “on the court”; and even the highest judges of the land recognized him and his office while acting judicially in their own courts. In a case in the Common Pleas, Bickley, an attorney, v. Tasker, a wine merchant, the newspapers of the day reported a very amusing conversation between
Nicholson, a witness, and Sir John Jervis, the Lord Chief Justice. In the Ingoldsby Legend of “The Ghost,” Barham says of the judge and jury:— It more resembled one of later date And tenfold talents, as I'm told, in Bow Street, Where kindlier-natured souls do congregate; And though there are who deem the same a low street, Yet I'm assured, for frolicsome debate And genuine humour it's surpassed by no street, When the “Chief Baron" enters and assumes To “rule” oer mimic “Thesigers” and “Broughams.” In 1844 the Judge and Jury Society was removed to the Coal Hole, Fountain Court, 103, Strand, and the entertainment was varied by the introduction of mock elections and mock parliamentary debates. At various times Nicholson “went circuit,” and held his court at Southampton, Canterbury, Manchester, Glasgow, and in many other large towns. During the summer months he attended Epsom, Ascot, Hampton, and other races, with a very large tent, in which he dispensed refreshments, and was, as he says himself, the first judge who ever sold beef on a racecourse, and perhaps the only poet ever engaged in such a novel commercial undertaking. He was also a caterer at Camberwell and other fairs, where he had dancing-booths. On July 31 and Aug. 1 and 2, 1843, he gave a three days’ fete at Cremorne Gardens. It was called the Thousand Guinea Fête, and, by means of ingenious advertisements, large crowds were attracted to the gardens. At Easter in the following year he gave a similar fête, and then opened the grounds on Sunday afternoons for promenade and refreshments. In October, 1844, he was again in the Queen's Bench, and Cremorne Gardens fell to T. B. Simpson, who, being favoured with a series of fine summers, made 100,000l. in ten years. He died June 22, 1872, aged sixty-six. In 1846 Nicholson was again back at the Garrick's Head, where he added to his usual attractions poses plastiques and tableaux vivants in connexion with a musical entertainment, in which he delivered a lecture on poetry and song. In the same year he brought out a troupe of female serenaders at the St. James's Rooms (formerly Crockford's), St. James's Street. His wife died at Boulogne, on Sept. 15, 1849, and shortly after this date he is found located at the Justice Tavern, in Bow Street. By this time he was again in poverty, and was glad to receive an annual salary to preside at the Garrick's Head, where, in company with Farquharson Smith, the vocalist, he managed the entertainments till July, 1851. At this period he quarrelled with Simpson, and Edward Tyrrel Suith advanced him the money to take the Coal Hole Tavern, where he held his court three times a night. As fast as it was emptied it was crowded again. When E. T. Smith took Drury Lane Theatre in 1852, Nicholson became poet laureate
to the establishment, and wrote poetical and prose puffs of the theatre. Smith, who died Nov. 26, 1877, aged seventy-three, immortalized himself by refusing to permit several members of his company to perform before Her Majesty at Windsor. The Lord Chief Baron made his last remove— namely, from the Coal Hole to the Cider Cellar, 20, Maiden Lane—on Jan. 16, 1858, and opened his court and his exhibition of poses plastiques on Jan. 22. Here, in March, taking advantage of a discussion in the newspapers on the social evil, he produced a case on that vexed question, and was rewarded with crowded audiences. The address of his leading counsel, Richard Hart, was printed, and many thousand copies of it were circulated. The chequered and extraordinary career of the Baron came to an end by his death from dropsy and heart disease, at the house of his daughter, Miss Eliza Nicholson, proprietress of the Gordon Tavern, 3, Piazza, Covent Garden, on May 18, 1861, aged only fifty-two; and he was buried in Brompton Cemetery on May 22. He left two daughters, who had for some time helped him in his hotel business. The elder was afterwards the manager of E. T. Smith's Cremorne Restaurant, at the corner of Wardour Street, Leicester Square. Nicholson was the author of 1. Cockney Adventures. 1838. 2. Nieholson's Noctes; or, Nights and Sights in London. 1842. No. XI., Saturday, May 14, 1842, is the last number that I have seen of this periodical. 3. Dombey and Daughter: a Moral Picture. 1858. 4. The Lord Chief Baron Nicholson: an Autobiography. 1860. The Judge and Jury did not die with its founder, for Mr. H. G. Brooks, who had for some time acted as deputy baron, succeeded to the ermine, and continued to hold the court at the Cider Cellar till 1864. It was afterwards removed to a house on the eastern side of Leicester Square, which is now known as M. Phillippe's Cavour Hostel and Restaurant. It was advertised at night by men having on their heads square boxes with canvas sides and lights in the interior, thus enabling the lettering on the canvas to be seen in the dark. About 1878 the Judge and Jury Society came to an end, and it does not seem probable that such an exhibition will again be permitted. Views of the interior of the court will be found in “The Bachelor's Guide to Life in London,’ p. 8, and in the Illustrated Sporting News, May 21, 1864, pp. 129 and 133. George C. BoASE. 36, James Street, Buckingham Gate, S.W.
SHAkspeaRE IN Oxford.—The biographers of Sir William Davenant give no reason, nor even suggestion, why Shakespeare, in his journey from
London to Stratford and back, chose the “ Crown Buckstone succeeded bim, and conducted the house Ind," at Oxford, for his resting-place. I think I with great spirit. His staple trade was the legitihave found out the reason. The Avenants, or mate drama, and the plays of Sbakspere, SberiDavenants, were an old and numerous family in dan, Talfourd, and others were the standing disb. Warwickshire, and the lipes quoted in the Dic- Lord Lytton's 'Money' was first produced here, tionary of National Biograpby' from Gondibert with Macready, Wrench, David Rees, B. Webster, have reference to Avedants deriving their name J. Webster, H. Howe, Miss Fauoit, Mrs. Fitzfrom the Avon, or Aven, as the river was always william, and Miss P. Horton filling the principal formerly called. As the name Davenant does characters.
W. WRIGHT. not occur among the former generations of Oxford 10, Little College Street, Westminster, S.W. tradesmen, the Avenants must bave migrated from Warwickshire very little, if at all, earlier than
ARCHBISHOP WHATELY: “ PRISONER."— The Queen Elizabeth's reign, and Shakespeare may not
following note will be found at p. 20 of the instruconly have been an old acquaintance, but an actual
tive little work by Archbishop Whately entitled
English Synonims':connexion of the Oxford Davenants. I can show several writs relating to the Avenants of county
"It is curious that this word (“confessor” when meanWarwick, tempp. Hep. VI. and Edward IV.
ing one who receives a confession) and one other-i. e.,
| 'prisoner'--present almost the only exceptions to the EDWARD SCOTT.
general rule in our language, that the terminations 'or' " THE Zoo.”—The tendency among English
and 'er' indicate an agent, and not a passive recipient.” people to clip long words into short ones, or even
Though somewhat of a helluo librorum, the into monosyĪables, is notorious. Thus, “cabriolet" archbishop seems not to have been aware that loog has become cab. “ omnibus" bus, and so on. But ago “ prisoner" meant jailor, and not, as now, the change of “zoological” into zoo is, to any one
“jail-bird." That this is so, however, is clearly who knows the origin of the word, the most seen in the following excerpt from “The Story of exasperating of all; and yet we now meet with Genesis and
pet with Genesis and Exodus, an Early Eoglish Song,' “ 200" in well-written journals like the Saturday written about the end of the thirteenth century :Review; and I see the word is being advertised as
Potifar trewith hise wife's tale, the title of a book. There is another variation,
And haved doomt Josef to bale;*
He bad him ben sperdt faste doon, which comes simply from bad pronunciation, as
And bolden harde in prisun. when a cockney holiday-maker tells you he bas
An litel stund, I quile he was ther, been to the "slogical.” If “zoological" is to
So gan bim luven the prisuner, undergo & shortening, like that which has befallen
And bim the chwartrell baveth bitagt "omnibus” and “cabriolet,” let it at least become
With the prisunes** to liven in bagt.tt 20. This would be correct so far as it went, and
Those who wish for further information on the would not be so excruciating as the detestablé zoo. matter should betake themselves to a study of the
J. Dixon. | Song' as edited for the Early English Text
Society by Mr. R. Morris, 1865. THE HAYMARKET THEATRE, PAST AND PRE
Besides “prisoner," as used in modern times, SENT.–Foote was the first lessee of the old house. are not pensioner" and "exbibitioner" In 1747 he made his first appearance in a piece additional examples of persons with passive called 'The Diversions of the Morning'; be after- | functions ? wards presented · An Auction of Pictures.' From Glasgow. 1752 to 1761 his success continued uninterrupted. He died at Dover in 1777. He wrote some twenty
THE STAR OF BETALEREM.-An American pieces.
astronomer, Mr. J. N. Stockwell, of Cleveland, George Colman followed him at the Haymarket, Ohio, bas recently been attempting to revive the and continued the management of that house till theory that the celestial appearance commonly the time of bis death. Born at Florence, 1733, called “the Star of the Magi" was in fact caused died at Paddiogton, 1794.
by a conjunction of planets. This theory, it will George Colman the Younger (1762-1836) in be remembered, was first started by Kepler, and 1784 produced bis first play at the Haymarket, the planets supposed to be Jupiter and Saturn. and in 1789 took the whole management upon Mr. Stockwell, however, finds that a conjunction of himself. In 1824 he was appointed Examiner of Jupiter and Venus (closer than that of Jupiter and Plays, and retained that office till his death in Saturn in B.c. 7) took place in B.C. 6 on May 8, 1836.
when those planets were visible in the morning The present house was opened July 4, 1821. about two hours before sunrise, Jupiter only 32' In 1830 the lessees were Morris and Winston. They were followed by Benjamin Webster, who
|| Prison, gaard-house. carried on the house successfully for some years,
'T Handed over, # Time.
** Prisoners. producing many of Sheridan Knowles's plays. Jailer,
(or about the apparent diameter of the sun or moon)| KILMESTON MANOR House. I seek information to the north ward of Venus. It is obvious that concerning the old manor house of Kilmesthere is the same fundamental objection to the ton, Lants, seven miles east of Winchester, four acceptance of this theory as in the case of the miles south of Alresford, not far from Tichborne, other conjunction, to which I referred in ‘N. & Q.,' and the battle-field of Cheriton. This was lately 6th S. vii. 4. How could a conjunction of planets, the property of Mr. Walter Long, of Presbore, or any star in the astronomical sense of the word, and previously was in the bands of a family called appear to stand over a particular house, as seen by Ridge. The house is apparently Jacobean. Who those who were near it? Nor is it any con. were the original owners; and what is its history? firmation of this view (as might seem to be at first sight) that Jupiter and Venus were visible in
STORMY Petrel.- Among the great numbers the eastern heavens about the time of their con- l.
i of sea-gulls which were flying in Chelsea reach junction. For by seeing the “star in the East,"
during the present frost, there was at least one the Magi probably meant that they saw it when they left their home in the East. It is impossible
stormy petrel, which, curiously enough, was bob
bing up and down over and on the little waves to place the nativity of Christ so early as B.C. 6, consistently with Luke iii. 23 ; and I must remain
caused by the easterly wind in the very place
where the two whales appeared who came up the of opinion that it occurred in the late autumn of
Thames at the time of the Naval Exbibition. Is B.C. 5.
W. T. LYNN.
the petrel a frequent visitor to the metropolis ? Blackbeath.
S. P. A. Queries.
WATER MILL.-Can you or any of your readers We must request correspondenta degiring information direct me to the German original of a short but on family matters of only privato interest to affix their clever poem on the water mill, the refrain of names and addresses to their queries, in order that the whicb, according to a MS. translation I have answers may be addressed to them direct.
The mill will never grind DORSET MARRIAGE LICENCES.—Can any reader
With the water that has passed ? of 'N. & Q.'inform me if there are any allegations
G. B. P. on the granting of marriage licences for the county
Athenæum Club. of Dorset from 1780 to 1810 in existence—if so,
A VIEW OF LIFE.- I found the following graffito where—other than a small bundle, dated in the
on a pavement in the Roman city of Thamugas years 1802 and 1803, which is now in the registry (mod. "Timegad), Algeria, lately exhumed by the at Blandford ? The registry was broken into at the
French Government: “ Uepari lauari lvdere ridere time of the Reform Riots in 1831, when a large
occ est uiuere.” I wonder what would-be viveur number of public papers were destroyed.
can have written it. One who was old enough and W. J. G.
rich enough to have such experience of high life Crouch End,
would scarcely have sat down on the steps of the PerssE FAMILY.-Will some genealogical reader | Forum to give this vent to his enthusiasm with of 'N. & Q! be so kind as to let me know what hammer and chisel. Was it a schoolboy emulous arms are borne by the Persge family of Moyode. of the prowess of big brothers; or some Tittlebat and of Roxborougb, co. Galway? Though they Titmouse out for a holiday, and dreaming himself are a fairly old and certainly well-known family in the possessor of 10,000l. a year ? One scarcely that county, I can find their arms peither in Burke's dares to suggest that the h-less ncc may gmack • Landed Gentry'nor in the General Armory.' of the City apprentice. Possibly the words are a KATHLEEN WARD. quotation. Does any one know?
C. B. Mount. LINES ON Tennyson.'—Will any one who possesses Mortimer Collins's 'Letters to Mr. Dis
GROTTO AT MARGATE. — Could any correraeli' be kind enough to copy for me some lines
spondent give me information about the 80on Tennyson which occur in it ?
called grotto at Margate? Were not shell grottoes TANG JE PUVS.
rather a fashionable fancy at the time of Horace
Walpole; and were they as elaborate as this speciARMS.-Could any reader of N. & Q.' tell me men ?
D. TOWNSHEND. what are the arms of the family of Purscombe ; and of what families the following three coats are MORETON FAMILY.-I am desirous of filling up the arms: (1) Gu., a chevron between 3 pears or ; the gaps from William, And, and Sarah Moreton (2) Arg., a chevron between torteaux az.; (3) Gu., to the Visitation. William and Ann stated to my 3 barts trippant or ?
father that they were cousins to the first Lord F. B. D. BICKERSTSAFFE-DREw.
Ducie, who died in 1735. Op the back of an old 5, Holyrood Place, The Hoe, Plymouth.
letter I have a pen-and-ink sketch of the following
arms and crest:—On a bend three buckles, and in the left top corner of the shield a rose. Crest, a goat's head. William Moreton, of Upper Gower Street, and Southgate, Middlesex, a merchant of London, died Sept. 29, 1834, aged seventy-five, married Sophia , and had issue a son, William Coulson Moreton, Captain 2nd Life Guards, and 13th Light Dragoons, married at Hampton, Feb. 10, 1810, Elizabeth, daughter of W. Griffenhoofe; she died Oct. 27, 1865, aged seventy-five. Capt. Moreton died March 9, 1862, aged seventy-five, and left issue Charles, William, Henry, and Elizabeth, who are all dead. Ann, the sister of William, married about 1779, John Coulson, who died in 1780, aged thirty, and left issue a son and daughter. Mrs. Coulson married secondly Thomas Bettesworth, of Billingshurst, Sussex, a merchant of London, and who died in 1795, aged forty-five, Mrs. Bettesworth died in 1844, aged eighty-five. Another sister of William (Sarah ;), married —— Smith, of Sydenham, Kent, and left issue. These Moretons are all buried in a vault in Hornsey Churchyard. Any information relating to this tool be very acceptable. 51, Marlborough Hill, London, N.W.
Z. Cozens.—Can any of your readers give me information respecting Z. Cozens, who is mentioned in the ‘Bibliotheca Cantiana’ as the author of twelve contributions to the Gentleman's Magazine, chiefly on Kentish antiquarian matters, and also of ‘A Tour through the Isle of Thanet, and some of the parts of East Kent, pp. 507, 4to., Nicholls, London, 1793? Singular to say, there is no account of him in the new “Dictionary of National Biography. Of his chief work I am told there are only fourteen copies extant, the rest having been burnt. C. S.
PortRAIT MINIATURE –I have a very beautiful and perfect miniature by Oliver, of a gentleman, anno 1629, with fine lace collar, gold chain, strongly marked features, reddish brown hair, pointed close beard. On his right cheek is the scar of a great sword.cut. Is there any chance of identifying the person represented J. C. J.
MAINWARING's ‘Discourse of PIRATEs.”—I shall gladly learn if the MS. hereunder mentioned has been printed, and whether anything is known of the author or the circumstances which led to its composition. Folio MS. of twenty-four leaves (in contemporary handwriting) entitled—
A Discourse written by So Henrie Mainwaringe knight and by him presented unto Kinge James An° D'ni 1618 wherein are discovered the beginninges and proceedinges of Pyrats, won theire vsuall places of aboad at all tymes of the Yeare, together wth his advise and direction for surprisinge and suppressinge of them. The pirates alluded to were Englishmen, many of whom hailed from the mouth of the Thames. But Mainwaring says that Ireland was the “nursery