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TENNYson's CAMBRIDGE Contemporaries (8* S. ii. 441).-In the interesting note which has been contributed by CANoN WENABLEs upon this subject the name of “C. Donne (licenser of plays)” has been included among the friends and companions of Tennyson at Cambridge. This is a slip of the pen for William Bodham Donne, the late examiner of plays, who died in the early eighties. Mr. Donne was, I believe, a collateral descendant of the poet of that name, and was also connected with the family of William Cowper. After his death an interesting volume from his library came into my possession. This was a presentation copy of the privately printed collection of “Poems' by Arthur Henry Hallam, which was issued in 1830. Bound up with it is the “Poems, chiefly Lyrical,’ of Alfred Tennyson, published by Effingham Wil. son in the same year. It had been the original intention of Hallam and Tennyson, as noted in Kemble's letter to Trench of April 1, 1830, which is quoted by CANoN WENABLEs, to issue their poems in a joint volume. This idea was subsequently abandoned, and Hallam merely printed a few copies of his productions, which he distributed amongst his intimate friends. Mr. Donne, however, carried it out to some extent by binding up the two volumes together. Very few copies of Hallam's “Poems' appear to be extant, and I should be glad to learn if any of them possess a title-page. My own copy has merely a half-title.
REEDs (8th S. ii. 327, 433, 517).-The only person whom I ever knew to use a reed for writing purposes was my late old friend Charles Longuet Higgins, of Turvey Abbey, Beds, who deservedly finds a niche in “Lives of Twelve Good Men,' by his brother-in-law, Dean Burgon. Some autograph letters of his addressed to me, written with a reed, are most carefully preserved. They are beautiful specimens of calligraphy, each character being distinctly formed and nearly one inch in length.
I remember to have seen, some quarter of a century ago, in the fine library at Aldenham Abbey, Herts, belonging to Mr. William Stuart, chiefly collected by his father, the Archbishop of Armagh, a valuable copy of the Pentateuch on rollers, most beautifully written with a reed in Hebrew characters. So regular and uniform were they that they looked as though printed. This, Mr. Stuart informed me, had been purchased for a very large sum at the dispersion of the library of the Duke of Sussex in 1843.
John Pickford, M.A. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.
George WALKER, Bishop of DERRY (8th S. ii. 408).-There was no such bishop. The Rev. George Walker, D.D., the father of the Rev.
George Walker who eminently distinguished himself at the siege of Derry, was Chancellor of Armagh, 1666-77, and probably was ... Archdeacon of Derry. He came from Yorkshire, and became Rector of Badoney, in the diocese of Derry, in 1630, and afterwards Rector of Cappagh, in 1636. He died at his living of Kilmore, on Sept. 15, 1677 (Cotton’s ‘Fasti Ecc. Hib., iii. 40, 337, and v. 204). C. E.
Voices IN BELLs AND CLocks (7th S. xii. 304, 396; 8* S. ii. 238, 298).-Théophile Gautier, in his amusing description of the scalding soup at the table d'hôte at Courtnay during the twenty minutes' halt of the diligence in its journey from Paris to Brussels, in his “Caprices et Zigzags,' says:– “Ce retard Était d'autant plus douloureux, que le plus goguenard des coucous, nous regardant avec les deux trous par où on le remonte, comme avec deux prunelles, semblait mous mépriser infiniment, et nous poursuivre de son tictac ironique, quinous disaiten langage d'horloge: L'heure coule, la soupe est toujours chaude.” Under this head we ought not to forget The mellow lin-lan-lone of evening bells, one of the loveliest lines that even Tennyson has written. This is one of those lines of which we may say with Shelley:— Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. See also Wordsworth's ‘White Doe of Rylstone,’ canto vii. lines 211–226. All the examples which have been adduced by myself and other correspondents are of imaginary articulate sounds in bells or clocks. For an example of the converse of this, namely an imitation, more or less exact, of a bell by a human throat, see the last note in “The Heart of Midlothian' (“Tolling to Service in Scotland”). Neither should we omit the campanero, or bell-bird of South America. See Waterton's graphic description of him:— “His note is loud and clear, like the sound of a bell, and may be heard at the distance of three miles...... Orpheus himself would drop his lute to listen to him, so sweet, so novel, and romantic is the toll of the §.
snow - white campanero.”—“Wanderings in Sout America."
JonATHAN Bouchi ER.
“BE THE DAY weary,” &c. (8° S. ii. 480).For though the day, be never so long At last the belles, ringith to evensong. Punctuation sic in Stephen Hawes, “Pastime of Pleasure,’ capit. xlii., Southey's ‘British Poets,’ 1831, p. 123. ED. MARSHALL.
SoNNET BY TENNYson (8° S. ii. 487).-The sonnet by Tennyson in which “black eyes” are extolled has not been republished. It appeared in the Yorkshire Literary Annual for 1832. S. B. T.
TENNyson on Tobacco (8th S. ii. 326, 371, 450). — Has your correspondent ever searched through Cope's Tobacco-Plant # I do not know the periodical, but I have a faint recollection of being told that something by Tennyson appeared there. T. O. B.
A “CRANK" (8th S. ii. 408, 473).—This is not exclusively an American word. Halliwell has it, and one of its definitions is “impostor.” A book published A.D. 1566 is entitled ‘A Caveat......for common cursetors, vulgarly called Vagabonds...... whereto is added the tale of the second taking of the counterfeit crank. A glossary at the end of the book defines cranke, “young knaves and harlots that deeply dissemble the falling sickness.” An American lawyer published a pamphlet; a newspaper review called it the “effusion of a crank"; for this the lawyer sued for libel; he was nonsuited, the Court holding that to call a man a crank was not libellous per se (Walker v. Tribune Co., 29 Federal Reporter, 827). One having impracticable ideas is called a “crank.” Guiteau, who shot President Garfield, was called a “crank.” The sentinel appointed to guard Guiteau, who considered it his duty to shoot the prisoner, was called a “crank.” The man who entered the office of Rusell Sage and demanded one million and a quarter dollars, and, his demand not being complied with, then and there exploded a dynamite bomb, was called a “crank.”
John Townshend, New York.
Perhaps another word or two may be admitted about “a crank.” It was a common term for crazed folk, whether temporarily through drink, or more permanently through trouble. These poor folk, in Derbyshire, were always called ‘‘cranky.” About thirty years ago the roundabout horses common at wakes, statutes, and fairs began to be driven by a “crank,” turned by a man—superseding voluntary child power—and from thence till to-day the roundabout horses are known as “cranky horses.”
THos. RATCLIFFE. Worksop.
I have been accustomed to use this word all my life. A boat is said to be crank when it is easily upset. If a ladder be insecurely placed, one would say, “Don’t go up the ladder, it's crank" (likely to fall or break). When applied to the intellectual faculties, it is generally pronounced cranky. Skeat tells us that it is a Middle-English word, parallel to the Teutonic krank, to twist.
PICTURE of THE Holy TRINITY (8th S. ii. 89, 152, 395).-The mode of representing the Holy Trinity which MR. H. J. MoULE describes, in which the sacred personages are seated side by side
in equality, and upon a throne, with the Third Person in the usual form, near them, is very frequent, apart from that which appears in the Majesties. MR. MoULE may profitably refer, as MR. E. PEAcock suggests, to the “Iconographie Chrétienne' of Didron, a compendium of wonderful research, which, alas ! remains unfinished by its author, Paris, 1845. In Bohn's “Illustrated Library” a volume of an excellent translation, by Mr. E. J. Millington, with all the original cuts, of this work was published in 1849, and entitled ‘Christian Iconography.” In 1886 a second and much extended edition of this translation was issued by Messrs. G. Bell & Sons. In either of these books MR. MoULE will find what he wants (see ‘The History of God’). There is a good sketch of the subject at large in Mrs. Jameson's “History of Our Lord' (ii. 345). No such picture as the “Albert Dürer” (!) which Pennant mentioned as existing at Blithefield Park is known to critics as the work of that master. He never painted on a gold ground. Besides, Mrs. GAMLIN describes a Majesty, which is quite a different thing from that MR. MoULE inquires about.
“To THREEP" (8° S. ii. 325, 452, 491)—In Herbert Coleridge's “Dictionary of the First or Oldest Words in the English Language, from the Semi-Saxon Period of A.D. 1250 to 1300, thrope is given as “w.a. =convict, refute. Ps. Xciii. 19. Anglo-Saxon breapian.” The word is still in common use among the uneducated classes in the Lowlands of Scotland. The phrase “Ye won't threap that doun my throat” may be often heard. Burns uses the word in the postscript to his epistle to Wm. Simpson:— Some herds, well learn'd upo' the beuk, Wad threap auld folk the thing misteuk. W. A. HENDERSON. Dublin.
Threep is pre-eminently a Scottish word. It is “to aver with pertinacity, in reply to denial.” “Luna is silver we threpe,” in Chaucer, as well as “Came unto me and threped upon me that...I should be the duke of Clarance sonne,” in Hall's “Chronicle,’ attest the accuracy of the definition.
“Zola Esque” (8th S. ii. 468).-Why should not those of us who find such a word as Zolaesque suited to their present uses use it accordingly, without getting it put into a dictionary? Homer and Shakespeare have their adjectives, with somewhat differing application; but Shakespeare and Homer are immortals. Nor do we grudge Milton, “a name to resound through ages,” his not so frequent adjective. But after suchlike it becomes a matter for consideration whether a poet, rhythmical or otherwise, deserves promotion from substantive to adjective rank. “Johnsonese,” said Macaulay; “Macaulayese,” said somebody else; but is it certain that either this critic or the critic criticized contemplated the addition of a new word to the English language? The day may come when we shall know no need for “Zolaism” or “Ibsenism” (which some call Zolaism with a wooden leg), and we may again have to talk of “Anthony-Trollopy women and men in Birket-Fostery landscapes.”
Writing once, in virtue of my position as one of those ignorant men in the street who make the British language, I ventured to protest betimes against the recognition of some words newly coined without, as it appeared to me, the temporary justification of the one in question. In doing so I chanced to make a perfectly incidental but insufficiently respectful reference to a word which, whether I liked it or not, I recognized as being a part of the British language. The result was interesting. Unneeded defence of this word came from the highest authority, while the “words that were not wanted” received no notice whatever; and a cultured contributor, who, alas ! contributes no longer, expressed his gratification in a reply which showed that he had read the latter, but apparently not the former entry.
There must be in every language vacancies for ideas not yet expressed; but, in consideration of the scope of the ‘N. E. D.,’ the editor seems more in need of support in rejection than in admission.
I should not be so sanguine as to look for the insertion of this word in the “N. E. D.’ There would be no end to the inclusion of such words, indicative of literary style, words which can be coined intuitively in the course of converse without lexicographical authority. Accord Zola such a distinction, and straightway you must open your columns to adjectivalities in connexion with all great authors, from Herodotus to Hugo. No, no! Such words should neither encumber nor infest the pages of a dictionary.
In a copy of Craig’s “Universal Dictionary' which lies before me I find the word rhubarby
is given as “like rhubarb”; but I look in vain for the word rhubarb itself | Substance is often sacrificed by an overreach at the redundant. RoBERT LouTHEAN. Thornliebank.
I join MR. GERISH in his hope that Zolaesque may be included in the last part of the ‘N. E. D.'; and in order to help towards the completeness of the “Dictionary' I have sent Dr. Murray quotations for Zolaism, Zolaistic, Zolaite, and Zolaizing. What should we think of a dictionary which omitted euphuism and bowdlerize, or of a new compilation which refused to recognize boycott as a word added to the language?
SEDAN-CHAIR (8th S. ii. 142, 511).-One would
like to know whether the passage quoted from “Bygone England' by MR. BIRKBECK TERRY, under this head, rests on any authority, or is only a mere ipse dizit of the author. To say that “the sedan-chair was named after Sedan, the town
where it was first used,” is to say what there is
no French authority, with which I am acquainted, to back. By whom was it called a “sedan” chair?
Certainly not by Frenchmen, who called it a chaise
à-porteurs. The author of ‘Bygone England.” seems to have adopted the statement to be found
in Haydn, that sedan-chairs were “first seen in
England in 1581,” and “came to London in 1634.” The Duke of Buckingham may have used a so
called sedan-chair (i.e., subsequently so-called);
but if his “sedan” was borne “like a palanquin,” it was not the sedan-chair as we understand the
thing; it was the primary form of it, simply an
uncovered arm-chair; a revival of the Roman
lady's cathedra, attributed to, or, at any rate, largely patronized by, the Reine Margot. Accord
ing to La Rousse, the sedan-chair proper, the covered and enclosed chaise-à-porteurs, was “imported into France” at the commencement of the reign of Louis XIII. (1610–1643). Now, it might very well have been “imported” from Sedan, which did not form an integral part of France till 1642, when Maréchal Fabert, in the name of “the Just,” came down upon Frédéric-Maurice de La Tour-d'Auvergne, and deprived that active conspirator of his principality. But neither La Rousse nor the likes of him say anything about sedanchairs having been imported from Sedan, or of their having been manufactured there. The “importation” is stated to have been due to the Marquis de Montbrun. An association for supplying chaises-à-porteurs to the public on hire was formed in Paris in 1617. The patent bears date December 11. The association consisted of the Sieur Jean Doucet, manufacturer; the Sieur Jean Regnault d'Eganville, financier, a very singular character; and Pierre Petit, a captain of the Gardes. It was the Guardsman's influence which obtained the patent from the parlement. This conferred on this copartnery the sole right of supplying chaises-à-porteurs on hire, not only in Paris but “in the other cities of the kingdom, pour y faire porter des rues à autres ceux ou celles qui désireront s'y faire porter.” The offices of the association were in the Rue du Grand-Hulen, at the house of Charles Chaignier, master cabinetmaker, where a model of the chaise was on view. In 1639 a similar patent was granted to another Marquis de Montbrun, for, if the chronologist be correct, the first would have been dead in 1637; another to the Sieur de Souscarrières; and a third to Mlle. d’Etampes. Under Louis XIV., thanks to the Maintenon, the chaise-à-porteurs became more fashionable than ever. How inveterate grew the use of it Mascarille witnesses in the ‘Précieuses Ridicules.” When the Duchesse de Nemours, Princesse de Neuchatel, was minded to go from Paris to her principality, she went in a sedan with forty porteurs, who bore her in reliefs, and took ten days over the hundred and thirty leagues. Apropos, Angelo, somewhere at the end of the first volume of his “Memoirs, tells a lively story of a lady's sedan-chair which was housed in St. James's Palace about 1762. W. F. WALLER.
Major Henry Brackenbury, in his interesting history of the Queen's body guard, recently published, mentions that to Sir Saunders Duncombe, ancestor of Lord Faversham, is credited the introduction of sedan-chairs into England in 1634, and that he received “from the king a patent for himself and heirs, vesting in them the sole right of carrying persons for hire in these novel conveyances.” CoNSTANCE RUssell. [See also 1st S. xi. 281,388; 6th S. xii. 308, 331,498; 7th S. i. 37,295; ii. 6; xii. 394.] “GEE -Wol” (8th S. ii. 445).-These words are used here by waggoners, carters, &c., walking by the side of their horses; but, as I was taught more than fifty years ago, it shows dreadful ignorance to use them on horseback or riding in any vehicle. “Wo !” or “Woy 1" means stop. **Gee 1 "-go to the right, or away from the driver, who walks on the left hand of his horses. “Auve 1° or “Come hither, Auve!” in a singsong tone, sometimes accompanied by laying the waggoner's long whip gently across the neck of the horse, means “Come to me,” or to the left. “Tcla-tcla-tcla,” a noise made by the tongue against the roof of the mouth, means get on, or mend your pace. “Woy "when prolonged into “Whoigh-ah!” and uttered severely, means “Stop instantly, you stupid beast; did you not hear me speak?” R. R. I think Halliwell is correct as to the first exclamation, “Gee : " it being derived from the A.-S. gegan, to go. According to Nall (and my
own experience) it is generally used in a negative sense in Norfolk, as, “Ta don't fare to gee,” equivalent to “He does not seem to go.” Davies gives “Gee-ho, a gee-ho coach seems to be a heavy coach from the country” (probably plying between the large cities and going and stopping at the towns and villages on the way; hence “Geel-Ho / "going, stopping). He quotes: “They drew all their heavy goods here so orsleds or sledges, which they call gee-hoes, without wheels.”—Defoe, ‘Tour through Great Britain," ii. 314. “Ply close at inns upon the coming in of waggons and gee-ho-coaches.”—T. Brown's ‘Works," ii. 262.
W. B. GERISH.
“Gee, Up !” and “Gee, Woo !” both mean “Horse, get on 1" In Notts and many other counties nurses say to young children, “Come and see the gee-gees.” “Up” is a contraction of “stir up” (your stumps), and “Woo !” is a provincial pronunciation of “away” or “way,” meaning, Get on the way. In confirmation thereof we refer to two other terms used to horses: “Woo’ish 1” =bear away, and “Woo'sh, come hather” (hather to rhyme with father), i.e., bear away to the side on which the carter walks. There is not the least likelihood that “Gee!-Woo !" is the Italian gio, because gio will not fit in with any of the other terms, and it is absurd to suppose that our peasants would go to Italy for such a word. “Woo !”=stop or halt, is quite another word. The carter or team-man walks on the left side. Wo, or woh, is a turning (see Bosworth). E. Cobham BREWER.
design be bas conceived for the purpose of tor- containing chiefly plates, in which the letterpress menting them. Two misprints were noticed in serves only to describe them in a brief manner, are the errata in the ensuing number of ‘N. & Q.' usually printed in this way, the obvious fact Ergötzen is not a misprint, it is the word employed being that the binder cannot cut the printed page in my edition of Faust' (Rivington, 1882). down without serving the plates in the same way
B. D. MOSELBY. and thus ruining the book. I have a large-paper Burslem.
copy of a local work (no plates save the frontis
piece), the late C. J. Palmer's ‘Diary,' published AMBROSE GWINETT (8th S. ii. 447, 535).- I have
1892, which has an almost equal margin all round, a copy of this rare “Life of Ambrose Gwinett,'
Gwipett, allowing for the space taken into the binding. As which I have had bound up with my friend Theolito
| it will not be rebound in my time, I confess to a dore Watts's 'Reminiscences of George Borrow.'
disregard for future generations' approval, and It has always been a pet little volume on my shelves,
es, I admire it greatly, and shall be pleased to show it but I shall be delighted to lend it to your corre
to any correspondent when in this neighbourhood. spondent should he desire to read it. Unfortu.
W. B. GERISH, nately no date is indicated, but I should take it
South Town, Great Yarmouth. to be 1770 or thereabouts. The frontispiece has two engravings, one of the man whom Gwinett VERSES BY WHITTIER (8th S. iii. 9).was supposed to have murdered being seized by
A dreary place would be this earth the press gang, the other of Gwinett in a cart being
Were there no little people in it,' taken to be hanged on the gallows erected in a are the opening lines of a short poem called 'The field hard by the church. The title is too long for Little People,' given by way of motto to Child 'N. & Q.,' but I give the pith of it:
Life,' a collection of poems edited by Whittier “The Life, Strange Voyages and Uncommon Adven-|(London, 1874), one of the most charming coltures of Ambrose Guinett, formerly known to the Public lections of poetry for children that I have ever seen, as the Lame Beggar : Who for a long Time swept the
The concluding lines of the poem are : Way at the Mew's-Gate, Charing Cross. Containing an account, &c. The Fourth Edition. London, J. Lever,
A doleful place this world would be Little Moorgate, next to London Wall near Moorfields.
Were there no little children in it, (Price Six Pence.)”
There is nothing to indicate that the verses were I should much like to know if the story has written by Whittier, though in all probability they ever been dramatized, as Mr. Watts infers in his were.
W. W. DAVIES. Reminiscences of Borrow'; also if it is founded on fact ; or are we indebted to Oliver Goldsmith's
The verse inventive genius for it ?
Ah! what would the world be to us,
If the children were no more?
We should dread the desert behind us SALISBURY MISSAL (8th S. ii. 528).-The Missal
Worse than the dark before, in English was published in 1868 by the Church Printing Company. The Lesser Hours of the Day
is from H. W. Longfellow's Children.'
WALTER HAMILTON, were published by Swan Sonnenschein about two years ago. The Broviary complete in English is TOWELL (8th S. ii. 485).-The use of to at is promised this year—I am uncertain by what firm well known to students of the earlier language. of publishers. It is to be published by subscrip- Mätzner gives several instances in his 'Grammar,' tion and with music.
H. A. W. 1 and the following quotation from Prof. Earle's There is a complete English translation of the
'Book for the Beginner in Anglo-Saxon' (1877, Salisbury Misgal by Mr. Walker, I believe, and of
p. 57) enables us to conjecture how John Atwell the Breviary by the Marquis of Bute.
acquired his alias of Towell :J. T. F.
"In Anglo-Saxon we find to where now at is preferred, Winterton, Doncaster.
quite often enough to modify our wonder at the great
prevalence of to in Devonshire. Such a phrase as this SIR EDWARD LITTLEHALES (8th S. ii. 527).-Sir
Wæs Hama swan gerefa to Suðtune' (Hama was herdEdward Baker Littlehales (afterwards Sir Edwardshire. Not so very ma
reeve at Sutton)-is of constant occurrence in Devon
abire. Not so very many years ago, schoolmasters in Baker Baker) was Under-Secretary of the Military Devonshire were wont to tell how that Atterbury gave Department at Dublin at the time mentioned by as a reason for unwillingness to go into Devonshire, that your correspondent. Sir Edward apparently held | the natives could not pronounce at, and he had no fancy this post from 1801 to 1819.
| In Toterbury the vulgar pronunciation of tutor Book MARGINS (8th S. ii. 307, 435).-The sug- would have been reproduced, just as Towell would gestion of MR. WYLIE respecting an equal (perhaps be pronounced Toowell. In recent years the chaff I should say a more equalized) margin all round of outsiders has led some of the Devonian folk to the printed matter of a page is not new. Works | adopt the alien at into their speech, to the disuse
to be called Toate