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tine and a man being executed, a large round basket placed for the head to fall into, and the executioner in the act of pulling the rope. It is entitled “View of La Guillotine, or the modern beheading machine at Paris by which Louis XVI, late king of France, suffered on the scaffold, Jan. 21, 1793.” Sports and amusements of the past and present are shown in the coaching, racing, wrestling, cock-fighting, bull and bear baiting, &c.; also in the menageries and peep-shows. The department with Jesuit china is interesting. It is said to have been made in the sixteenth century, in order to teach the Chinese the facts on which Christian teaching is based; the Nativity, the Crucifixion, the Ascension, and some Old Testa. ment subjects. There is a group in china of Ridley and Latimer at the stake, with the words so well known, “Be of good comfort, Master Ridley, and play the man; we shall this day light such a candle by God's gro in England as I trust may never be put Out, Many of the designs and rhymes with reference to drinking are very quaint, and there is a set of eight plates, with pictures à la Hogarth, describing the evils of drink; No. 8 showing the drunkard in a madhouse after having murdered his wife. One white jug, with barrel and grapes in black, is thus inscribed:— Come, my old Friend, and take a Pot But mark now what I say— While thou drinks thy neighbour's health, Drink not thine own away : It but too often is the case While we sit o'er a Pot, And kindly wish our friends good health Our own is quite forgot. A china figure on one side represents a sober man, neat and tidy; on the other a drunkard, “tight and needy,” hugging his gin-bottle. A very curious flask, in the shape of a large potato, is said to have been made in order to smuggle spirits into workhouses or hospitals. Toby Fillpot, the jug in the shape of a stout man, whose hat forms a cup, is here seen ; also the Sussex pig, of which the head comes off for a drinking cup, standing on the two ears and snout, and the body, set up on tail end, is the jug ; these “pigs” were often used at weddings, when each guest would be invited to drink a “hogshead” of beer to the health of the bride. One mug has a print of an invalid lying back in his armchair, the doctor by his side, the nurse behind him, taking advantage of their conversation to act Mrs. Gamp, and put her lips to a bottle as she is so “dispoged.” Written below is, The Bachelor. Dead to the raptures of a wedded life

And scorning everything that breathes of wife, Observe the rake, and tremble at his fate.

On the floor, showing his libertine taste and his

belief in quackery, are Rochester's “Poems,’ and a
pamphlet, “Leeke's justly famed pills.”
I hope this short account of some of the
curiosities to be seen in Mr. Willett's collection may
interest those people who, perhaps, have not before
heard of it. I have not touched much on the
different makes of the china and pottery, our view
being more the history in it, not the history of it;
that will be found in the explanatory Catalogue, to
be had at the Brighton Museum.
Charlotte ForTEscue Yonge.

POLLS AT PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS
BEFORE 1832.
(Continued from 8th S. ii. 524.)
Harwich.

1713 Sir Thomas Davall, Knt. ... --- ---

Thomas Heath --- --- --- --- 16

Carew Mildmay, jun. --- --- --- 16

This was a double return, and Mildmay was declared elected.

1714 Vice Davall, dead.
Thomas Heath ... 19
Hon. B. L. Calvert... --- 12
On petition Calvert vice Heath.
Polls in Smith, 1708 (vice Sir J. Leake), 1802.
Maldon.
1681 Sir William Wiseman, Bart. 126
Sir Thomas Darcy, Bart. ... 122

The Senior Bailiff ... --- --- --

A Justice of the Peace ... --- ---

The names of the latter two are not mentioned, neither are the numbers voting for them.

1693 Vice Sir T. Darcy, dead.

Sir Eliab Harvey, Knt. -- 159 Richard Hutchinson --- --- 127 1698 Sir Eliab Harvey, Knt. Irby Montague 149 William Fytche 148 1701 William Fytche 147 John Comyns 141 Irby Montague 129 1722 Thomas Bramston ... --- --- --- 265 John Comyns 264 Henry Parsons 165 1761 Bamber Gascoyne ... 400 John Bullock - 381 Robert Colebrooke... -- --- 342 1763 Vice Gascoyne, made a Commissioner for Trade and Plantations. John Huske... --- 438 Bamber Gascoyne ... 254

Another statement makes Huske 441, Gascoyne 266.

1768 John Huske... 455 John Bullock 443 John Henniker 328 1774 Vice Huske, dead. Charles Rainsford ... 272 Wallinger --- 121 1774 Hon. Richard S. Nassau ... 333 John Strutt... --- --- 396

Lord Waltham --- --- --- --- 284 Polls in Smith, 1714, 1734, 1747, 1754, 1802, 1806, 1807, 1826, 1828.

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Gloucestershire.
1713 Thomas Master ..

393 1701 Maynard Colcbester 2529 Benjamin Bathurst ...

353 Sir Ricbard Cocks, Bart. ...

24.8
- Foyle ... ... ...

253 John Howe ...

1475 Edmund Bray 1702 Maynard Colchester

2536 Polls in Smith, 1761, 1768, 1774, 1790, 1796, 1802, John Howe ... ...

2370 | 1812, 1818. Sir John Guise, Bart. ...

2394

Gloucester. Colchester and Howe were returned, and Howe was 1713 John Snell ... ...

... ... declared duly elected on the petition of Guise.

Charles Cox ... 1705 Sir Jobn Guise, Bart.

2450

John Blanch ...
Maynard Colchester ... ...
2443 1722 Charles Hyett ...

750 John How ... ...

2385

John Snell ...
Sir Ralph Dutton ...

1912

Sir Edward Fust, Bart. ... 1717 Vice M. D. Moreton, appointed Vice-Treasurer and 1727 Benjamin Bathurst

944 Receiver-General, and Paymaster-General in Thomas Chester ... ...

936 Ireland.

Charles Selwyn ...

923 Matthew D. Moreton 2767 Hon. M, D. Moreton ...

910 Henry Colchester ...

1342 All the above were returned and all petitioned, but all 1719 On the death of Mr. Stephens.

petitions were withdrawn and the return was amended Henry Berkeley

by rasing out the names of Moreton and Chester.
- Gage ... ...
1721 1761 Charles Barrow ...

1012 1734 Thomas Chester ...

3606
George Augustus Selwyn ...

981

... ...
Benjamin Batburst ...

3266
Powell Snell ...

... ... ...
John Stephens

2610 1805 Vice John Pitt, dead. 1784 Thomas Master ...

530 443

Robert Morris ...
Hon. George C. Berkeley ...

357

Lord A. J. H. Somerset ... 20

| W. H. Hartley

Polls in Smith, 1741, 1789, 1816, 1818, 1830, 1831. Polls in Smith, 1776, 1811.

Terkesbury.

1721 Vice Nicholas Lechmere, becoming Lord LechBris'ol.

mere. 1681 Thomas Earle

1486

Viscount Gage
Sir Richard Hart, Kuit. ...

... ... ...
1481

... 241

· George Reade Sir Robert Atkins, K.B. ...

1342
Sir Jobn Knight, Knt. ...

1296
Polls in Smith, 1734, 1754, 1784, 1796, 1797, 1807, 1831.

W. W. Bean. 1698 Robert Yate

1136 Sir Thomas Day, Knt. ...

976

4, Montague Place, Bedford Square. Sir John Knigbt, Knt. ...

785

(To be continued.) Sir Richard Hart, Knt. ...

421 John Cary ...

279 1713

TRANSCENDENTAL KNOWLEDGE. — The following Jo-eph Earle anh Farle ...

656 Thomas Edwards, jun.

I 474

passage seems to me to be of singular lucidity. Sir William Daines, Knt. ...

189

attribute it to the pen of Coleridge simply because 1714 Sir William Daines, Knt. ...

I believe nobody else in England to be capable of Joseph Earle

writing it. I cannot, however, find it in 'The Philip Freke ...

Friend,' 'Aids to Reflection,' or any other of his Thomas Edwards, jun. ...

works known to me. Can any reader better qualiIt is stated that Freke and Edwards had a majority of

fied point to the place where the passage occurs ? about forty or fifty on the poll, but Daines and Earle demanded a scrutiny and obtained a majority on it.

- Transcendental knowledge is that by which we en1722 Joseph Earle ..

deavour to climb above our experience into its sources

2141 Sir Abraham Elton, Bart.

by an analysis of our intellectual faculties, still, however,

1869 William Hart, sen. ...

standing, as it were, on the shoulders of our experience ... ...

1743

in order to reach at truth which was above experience; 1734 Sir Abraham Elton, Bart. ... ... 2428

while transcendent pbilosopby would consist in the ato Thomas Coster ...

2071 tempt to master a knowledge that is beyond our faculJohn Scrope ... ...

1866 | ties. An attempt to grasp at objects beyond the reach Polls in Smith, 1739, 1754, 1756. 1774, 1780, 1781. of hand or eye or all the artificial ends (and, as it were, 1784, 1790, 1796, 1812 (two elections), 1818, 1820, 1826. | prolongations of eye and hand) of objects, therefore the 1830. It may be as well to state tbat many of the polls existence of which, if they did exist, the human mind for this city as recorded in Smith are different from has no means of ascertaining, and therefore bas not even those in other works.

the power of imagining or conceiving ; that which the Cirencester.

pretended sages pass off for such objects being merely 1689 Henry Powle

images from the senses variously disguised and recom340

| posed, or mere words associated with obscure feelings Richard How

323

expressing classes of these images. A procese pardonJohn How ...

309

able in poetry, though even there quickly degenerating On petition Powie and Richard How were at first into poetic commonplace, as, for instance, fountains of declared duly elected, but afterwards, on a hearing at pleasure, rivers of joy, intelligential splendours, and the the bar, the Hows were declared elected and Powle not like, but as little to be tolerated in the scbools of philoelected

sophy as on the plain high road of common sense.”

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Another scrap, which I take to be his most certainly, is this:— “The knowledge has been entitled transcendental aesthetic, a term borrowed from a fragment attributed to Polemo, the successor of Speucippus, who succeeded Plato, the great founder of the Academic School.” This I cannot find in Coleridge's published writings. Whilst upon the subject, is there any catalogue yet extant or procurable of the sale of J. H. Green's library? Green published “Spiritual Philosophy,’ a work supposed to be founded on teachings of Coleridge. Green must have had many Coleridgean documents in his possession. Did these come to the hammer on the dispersal of his library; and, if so, where are they What became of Coleridge's elaborate “Logic” It was thought to be nearly all ready for the printing-press at his death. . Its first two chapters were to have been entitled “No. 1, History of Logic”; “No. 2, Philosophy of Education.” The latter ought to have been of considerable value from such a man. As to logic, I regard it as a hollow farce. Coleridge himself admitted that logic was utterly useless in the investigation of nature; but he seems to have regarded it as a kind of grammar to metaphysic, or chart of the capacity of the human mind, to cure a defect in which it was invented by Aristotle. Myself, I cannot but smile at the folly of these grand men, Aristotle, Bacon, and Coleridge, in their Quixotic intention to correct the working of the most prodigious bit of vital mechanism that it has pleased the Creator of man and the universe to make us cognizant of the human brain.

The answer to such preposterous intention and purpose is this: that if a genius such as Aristotle could succeed in making us a syllogistic baby-jumper to keep us out of mischief ratiocinative, it would be so very hard to get into and thoroughly control that it would require a genius abreast of his own, or even superior to his, to employ it to advantage, whilst a genins equal to any one of the three men named could very well do without it. The mediaeval schools employed logic as an educational mean more than any other body of men has done, and they chiefly succeeded in its misapplication. I say chiefly, for I think few will deny, after reading a few pages of the “Summa Theologiae’ of St. Thomas, that he, at least, made an intellectual use of it that should place him on a pinnacle infinitely higher than can justly be assigned to any man of science alive to-day, simply considered as to mental quality and reach, A great deal of nonsense may also be pointed to, no doubt; but can we suppose that the same thing cannot be said of the tall talk of science of to-day? Ten lustra hence how much of it will remain unmodified? whilst much will be absolutely contradicted.

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tinctly carried the far greater number of all its votaries into the subtle vagaries so much laughed at since as “the trivialities of the schoolmen,” can hardly be said to have answered its intention of eradicating a mental defect. Logic has failed, for little men cannot rise to a right use of it, and truly great men do not want it at all. Still, a man like Coleridge cannot write on a subtle and abstruse theme, however devoid of good fruit and useless the theme may be in itself, without dropping pearls and diamonds of light crystallized by the way; he is the diamond-clad Esterhazy, and where he steps diamonds drop; so that whatever he may have left us will repay our looking after it before it is too late. Oblivion is always a gaping chasm, and night is on our track. I do not think he has reconciled Aristotle and Bacon ; but his paper on the subject is full of jewels none the less.

C. A. WARD. Chingford Hatch, E.

FIRst ENGLISH THEATRICAL CoMPANY IN AMERICA.—In a recent review of Mr. Belville S. Penley's ‘The Bath Stage,’ I, noticed that the Athenaeum, in speaking of Lewis Hallam, pointed out incidentally that this actor, in 1752, “took over the first English company for the purpose of acting in America.” This, I know, is the gospel according to Dunlop ; but it may not be altogether idle to draw attention to the statement in Col. T. Allston Brown's voluminous records of ‘The Theatre in America,’ wherein it is affirmed that a company of English actors crossed over to New York in the winter of 1749, and remained there for some time. According to the latter-day his torian “it consisted of Messrs. Smith, Daniels. Douglas, Kershaw, and Morris, and their wives, and Miss Hamilton, the last mentioned playing the leading business.” W. J. LAwkENCE.

Comber.

FRANCIs LENNARD, FourTEENTH LoRD DACRE: —Notwithstanding his opposition to the trial of Charles I., he must afterwards have submitted to the Protectorate, for we find him elected to Cromwell's second Parliament—1654–55—as one of the nine members for Sussex. His death occurred on May 12, 1662 (vide G. E. C.’s “New Peerage,’ sub “Dacre”). This will serve as a slight addition to the particulars given in vol. xxxiii. of the ‘Dict. Nat. Biog.” W. D. PINK.

NewsPAPER CUTTING AGENCIES.—Subject to correction, I believe that the idea of these agencies, now indispensable to author, artist, and politician, originated with M. J. Blum, grandson of a German immigrant in Paris, formerly assistant professor of French at Trinity College, Dublin, and now teacher of languages in Paris. His relations with actors (he is not related however, to the dramatist, Ernest Blum) had shown him their curiosity as to “outlandish" opinions, and in 1875, styling himself “l'Interprète,” he undertook to communicate to French celebrities notices of their achievements appearing in foreign papers. He did things on a small scale, usually sending not cuttings, but written copies. He was speedily imitated and supplanted by a M. Chérie, who dubbed himself “l'Argus de la Presse,” and London and New York followed suit. M. Blum must feel chagrined yet flattered at having sown a seed which has proved so productive—for others. Sic vos non vobis. J. G. ALGER. Paris.

“Quot LINGUAs calles ToT Homines vaLEs.” —An inquiry regarding the above adage in “N. & Q.” (7th S. iii. 129), proposed by the present writer, has remained thus far unanswered. He will, therefore, state that he has found these Latin words as the motto at the head of a chapter of Vámbéry's book of far eastern travel when he went as a disguised pilgrim. Vámbéry, however, gives no intimation whence he derived the saying. As I have nowhere seen a translation, I will give one of my own, till a better one shall take its place :

Discourse in ten tongues if you can, I'll reckon you ten times a man. The Latin rhyme must have suggested analogous sayings attributed to the Emperor Charles W. and others. Will some one rich in mediaeval lore show us early uses of this notable utterance? JAMEs D. BUTLER. Madison, Wis., U.S.A.

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Nat. Biog’ vol. xxxii. p. 365), says of the ‘Rival Queens; or, the Death of Alexander the Great': “The piece was published, with a fulsome dedication to the Duchess of Portsmouth.” In 1879 I bought a copy of the first edition from John Kinsman, Penzance, complete except as to the first page of the Epistle Dedicatory, but from its terms one would imagine that Mr. Lee is wrong. It ends thus:–

“And I can affirm to your Lordship, there is nothing transports a Poet, next to Love, like commending in the right place. Therefore, my Lord, this Play must be yours; and Alexander, whom I have rais'd from the dead, comes to you with an assurance. answerable to his Character and your Wirtue. You cannot expect him in his Majesty of two thousand years ago, I have only to put his illustrious ashes in an Urne, which are now offer'd with all observance to your Lordship By, my Lord, your Lordships most humble, obliged and devoted Servant, Nat. Lee.” To whom was the play then dedicated, if Mr. Lee is in error? Had it two dedications ! I may add that the list of “Some Books Printed this Year, 1677, for J. Magnus and R. Bently,” which follows the prologue, contains entries of three other plays, 1677 editions of which are not mentioned by Mr. Sidney Lee; but perhaps the publishers then, like some publishers now, regarded the date in a Pickwickian sense, and did not mean that the year 1677 was actually responsible for the books mentioned in a 1677 list.

WILLIAM GeoRGE BLACK. Glasgow.

THE NAME BELINDA (See 8th S. ii. 354).-In his note on Clarinda at the above reference, MR. Pickford says the name Belinda is found in Martial, and quotes the following verses in

roof:— p Nolueram, Belinda, tuos violare capillos, Sedjuvat, hoc precibus me tribuisse tuis, I regret to find your esteemed correspondent in error. He has evidently copied the verses from some edition of Pope. Belinda is a name of Pope's substitution. In the text of Martial (xii. 84) the hexameter line reads:– Nolueram, Polytime, tuos violare capillos. • F. ADAMs.

THE GRAMMAR Schools of King Edward VI. —In looking through the original Charter of Edward VI. (“Twenty-eighth day of June in the Seventh Year of the Reign of King Edward the Sixth") granted to the Borough of Stratford-onAvon, I find the following curious and interesting clause. Is there any similar clause in any of the other charters granted during the same reign?—

“And moreover know ye that we being induced by the singular Love and Affection which we bear towards the unripe Subjects in our Kingdom in the same our County of Warwick we do not a little lay it to heart that hereafter from their cradles they may be seasoned in polite Literature (which before our Days was neglected

when they attained to a more advanced age) going on to be more learned and increasing in Number to be useful Members in the English Church of Christ which on earth we do immediately preside over so that both by their Learning as well as prudence they may become of Advantage and an Ornament to [the] whole Dominions We do by virtue of these presents create erect found ordain make and establish a certain Free Grammar School in the said Town of Stratford upon Avon to consist of one Master or Pedagogue hereafter forever to endure And so we will and by these presents command to be established and for ever inviolably to be observed, And that the said School so by us founded created erected and established shall for ever be commonly called named and stiled The King's New School of Stratford upon Avon.” Este.

REstoration of A PARish REGISTER: PRESTox CANDover, HANTs.-The annexed entry in Baigent and Millard's ‘History of Basingstoke,” 1889, p. 103 n., records the restoration to lawful custody of a missing register of marriages in the parish of Preston Candover:—

“There was until the year 1881, preserved among the Parish Registers [of Basingstoke] a fragment of a small Register Book consisting of six leaves of parchment (the leaves measuring no more than about ten inches in length, and four in width), containing entries of Marriages from 1584 to 1692, which apparently did not belong to Basingstoke. The result of a careful examination proved that it belonged to the Parish of Preston Candover. The leaves were then flattened and bound up in stiff covers to prevent further injury or loss, and with the consent and approbation of the Archdeacon of Winchester banded over [by Mr. Francis Joseph Baigent] to the custody of the Vicar of Preston Candover.”

DANIEL Hipwell. 17, Hilldrop Crescent, N.

DERIVATION of THE SURNAME TURNER.— Lower, in his ‘Patronymia Britannica,’ derives the name Turner “from the occupation. One of the most common of surnames, “out of all proportion,” Mr. Ferguson [“English Surnames'] alleges, “to the number of persons engaged in the trade,’ of the lathe.” Now it seems that many of the families named Turner bear arms in which enters the fer de moline, otherwise called ink-moline, and millrind. This is a piece of iron of a peculiar shape, which, though shown with some variation in books on heraldry, may be described as resembling the sign for Pisces in the Zodiac, with the addition of a square or oblong link in the plane of the figure, rigidly connecting the two curves in the centre of the figure. It seems to have been let into the centre of the under surface of the upper millstone. Probably it was intended, among other purposes, to distribute the pressure of the driving axis upon the stone, and so to lessen the risk of splitting the stone. This cognizance seems to point to the turning not of a lathe, but of a mill, as the origin of the name; and its frequency would thus be accounted for. The flour-mills of the Greeks and Romans were often turned by slaves, and the turn

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ing of mills by men may probably have continued in later times. I find in Littré that tourneur is used in French for “celui qui tourne une meule,” though he gives no examples. I have not, however, come across this use in English. The etymology of the words ink in ink-moline and rind (sometimes spelt rynd) in mill-rind, is not given in any book I have seen. The dictionaries vary as to the pronunciation of rind, some making it rhyme with mind, others with sinned. Perhaps some one will throw a light upon the names, and also upon the actual use and purpose of the thing. J. Power HICKs.

631stries. We must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only privato interest to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that the answers may be addressed to them direct.

Thomas NEALE.-What is known of Thomas Neale beyond the allusions in the Pepys and Evelyn diaries His Venetian lottery and the Seven Dials make him a Londoner of some interest ; to Americans he is of some account for the Post-Office patent he obtained in 1691/2 for all English settlements in North America and the West Indies. The patent was to run for twentyone years, or until February 17, 1712/13, but expired under the the Post-Office Act of 1710. It appears, also, that in or before 1703, Neale assigned his post-office rights and debts to his American deputy, Postmaster-General Andrew Hamilton. Hamilton was a remarkable man, who conducted a post from Virginia to New Hampshire, and induced the principal colonies to pass a similar Post-Office Act. More than anything else this was instrumental in uniting the colonies, just as the dismissal of Franklin, in 1774, united the states, or led to the United States, the post office under American authority being established in 1775 for that purpose. The American post office, using the word in a national or imperial sense, is two hundred years old, and Neale is its father; whence this inquiry. With due reserve, I may add that the “Dictionary of National Biography’ is not partial to postal matters. Under William and Mary Sir Robert Cotton and Sir Thomas Frankland were the English PostmastersGeneral, and under the next reign John Evelyn succeeded Cotton; but the ‘Dict. Nat. Biog.’ is silent on these points. All the same, the history of your people is the history of your Post Office, and the history of your Post Office is very largely the history of your Postmasters-General. So they deserve attention, and Thomas Neale may repay an inquiry; our Massachusetts archives call him the Governor of the Post Office of North America. No doubt a case of lucus a non lucendo. His

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