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at the above addresses before that date; to effect which they now offer it in its entirety at a

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The above Terms will be continued until March 1st, 1893, when they will be withdrawn.

The attention of the Committees and Librarians of Public and Free Libraries, Colleges, Schools, and Bookbuyers generally, is strongly called to the present CLEARANCE SALE as an opportunity rarely occurring of selecting from the whole of an UNRIVALLED STOCK OF BOOKS, Secondhand, New, and Finely Bound, at an unrestricted Discount, from Prices already low, of TWENTY PER CENT. The large number of fine Sets of Standard Works, long Series of Scarce Publications and Transactions of Learned Societies, Rare Volumes in Old or Modern English Literature, and all the diverse collectanea of long years of Bookbuying, should make the present Sale an opportunity to Bookbuyers and Collectors of every class which has not hitherto occurred.





W. C.

Telegraphic address, Bookmen, London,

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HISLEHURST (near the Railway Station, and residue of Lease (six years unexpired), a SUPERIOR RESIDENCE. with spacious and lofty Reception and Billiard Rooms, Nine Bed and Dressing Rooms, Stabling, Lodge Entrance, Glass Houses, &c., and all the adjuncts of a Gentleman's first-class establishment, surrounded by 14 acres of perfectly charming (though inexpensive) Pleasure Grounds, Gardens, Wilderness, and Pasture. Original rent, 360l. per annum. No premium.-Detailed particulars, &c., may be had at Inglewood, Chislehurst, Kent; or from Mr. DAVID J. CHATTELL, of 29▲ (corner of), Lincoln's Inn-fields and Chislehurst, who strongly recommends the property.



YORK and GAME PIES; also


TURTLE SOUP, and JELLY, and other


Caution.-Beware of Imitations. Sole Address




The Crown having acquired Nos. 4 and 22, Took's Court, the Printing and Publishing Departments are now REMOVED to the New Offices at Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane.

WANTED to PURCHASE, Early and Illumi

nated Manuscripts-Fine Specimens of Bookbinding-Books Printed on Vellum-Miniatures - Enamels-Ivories-Fine Old Sèvres, Dresden, or English China-Old Wedgwood Plaques and VasesMajolica, Arms, Armour, and fine old Steel work-Bronzes-Early Prints, Etchings, Engravings, and Drawings-Old Stone Cameos.Rev. J. C. JACKSON, 12, Angel-court. Throgmorton-street, E.O.


-Till now quite a Novelty in the Market. They represent Landscapes, Hunting Scenes, Religious, Worldly, and other subjects, and are lit up the whole night as if by electric light. They are wonderfully adapted for scientific purposes Dealers would find these celebrated Fire Pictures a very remunerative speculation. Great results so far. Three Sample Pictures, 10s. cash. Easily resold for 11. 108. E. SCHNEIDER, Scientific Office, Luxembourg, Gare av. 14.


by a PRACTICAL BINDER at moderate prices. Estimates furnished; large or small quantities; Libraries Bound or Repaired; Binding for the Trade-SHELLEY, 81, Carter-lane, Broadway, Ludgatehill, E.C.-Established 1861.

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and QUERIES. Published the 15th of each month. First Number published Oct. 15th Price 6d. net, or 4s. 6d per annum. post free, if prepaid. Remittances and Orders may be sent to Frank Murray, Moray House, Derby; Frank Murray, Regent House, Nottingham Frank Murray, Stuart House, Leicester; Frank Murray, Shakespeare's Head, Leicester; and Marshall Brothers, Keswick House, Paternoster-row, London, E.C.

Or may be ordered of any Bookseller.


(Annuaire de la Noblesse de Russie.) Princes, Counts, Barons, and Untitled Nobility of the whole Empire, including Poland, Finland, the Baltic, and the Caucasus.


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"A very intteresting contribution to the biographical and social history of the great medical school of the north, full of telling anecdote and

HOLLOWAY'S PILLS.-There is nothing in the genial personal detallare-Tierk

whole Materia Medica' like these medicaments for the certainty of their action in lumbago, sciatica, tic douloureux, and all flying or settled pains in the nerves and muscles. Diseases of this nature originate in bad blood and depraved humours, and until these are corrected there can be no permanent cure. The ordinary remedies afford but temporary relief, and in the end always disappoint the sufferer. Holloway's Ointment penetrates the human system as salt penetrates meat, and the Pills greatly assist and accelerate its operation by clearing away all obstructions and giving tone to the system generally. The prophylactic virtues of Holloway's remedies stand unrivalled.

"Very delightful are her sketches of the primitive doctor and of Aberdeenshire a hundred years ago....The book is a cleverly written and admirable record of the rise of the Northern Medical School, and of the brilliant services rendered by its graduates at home and abroad " Dundee Advertiser.

"Will be found to throw much new light on the early history of medicine in the north.... We would fain have given a few quotations from the chapter on The Country Doctors,' one of the most delightful in the book."-N.B. Daily Mail.

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London.

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We have seen that Dürer's friend, Bilibald Pirckheimer, is known to have had a plate of this kind."

This refers to his remarks in a note to p. 31 of his Introduction, where he says that "Dürer also engraved a likeness of Pirckheimer which (we have it on the authority of Mr. Wheatley) was also used as a book-plate. This is an interesting example of the portrait class." Now the armorial

CONTENT 8.-N° 58. NOTES:-Portraits as Book-plates - A French Critic on Shakspeare, 81-Lowell's Early Writings-Historic Hearts, 83-Rev. W. Harte-Assembly Rooms at Kentish TownJewish Humour, 84-The Rev. B. Pope-"Both"-A Past Philanthropist-"Five astounding Events," 85-The Yeomen of the Guard-"Three stirs and a wallop"-Sir J. Mennes" Hariole"-Sir R. Leveson-" Windful "-The Followers of Bruce, 86-Jerrold's Letters, 87. QUERIES:-Croydon-"Whitechapel Needles"-John Pal-book-plate which it is quite certain Pirkheimer

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mer-The Centurion-Hats in the House of Commons

Caraccioli's Chapel-Heraldic, 87-"Goodening"-Heraldic of Parliament "-Robert de Keldeleth-Ossington- William of Tyre." 88-The Life of St. Labre-Steinfeld-Pamphlet-Lemgo, 89. REPLIES:-The Poets Laureate, 89-John Hall-Mistaken Derivation-Heraldic-Life of Daniel Defoe'-Ingulph's Croyland Chronicle,' 91-"He that runs may read”Imitation of Christ'-Ana-A French Stonehenge, 92The "New London Tavern"-Persse Family-Months and Days as Surnames-Luce-Tennyson and The Gem,' 93The Siege of Belgrade'-Thunderstorm-"What cheer?" -Plainness versus Beauty-Z. Cozens-Wesley and the Microscope-St. Thomas's Day Custom, 94-Sir G. Downing-Poets in a Thunderstorm-"Jagg"-Bale-Portraits of Burns, 95-Legend of St. Ffraid-Grotto at Margate"The Zoo"-Course of Time, 96-Macaronic VersesMiniatures by G. Engleheart-Book-plate-JarndycePhilazer Leather Money, 97-Oxford Poets-Marino's

-Lamb's Residence in Dalston-Damask Rose-" Member

Sonnet-John Trumbull Crying the Notchell"-Arms

-Horace-Breaking on the Wheel, 98.
NOTES ON BOOKS-Barker and Stenning's Westminster
School Register-Brushfield's Church of All Saints, East
Budleigh Dowden's Works of Wordsworth'-Meyer's
Vision of Mac Conglinne'-Tuer's 'Old London Street




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used is well known. So is the beautiful portrait of this learned and genial man, also engraved by Dürer; but it is scarcely conceivable that he would use it himself as a book-plate, containing as it does a legend of high-toned solemn praise, "Vivitur ingenio cætera mortis erunt," above the date 1524. Moreover, in size and style it has a marked family resemblance to the small series of other portraits, of Melanchthon, of the Elector of Saxony, and of the Archbishop of Mainz, which were all engraved by Dürer within a few years of the same date. It has never been suggested that they too were used as book-plates.



An old portrait of John Vennitzer, a cutler of Nuremberg, in 1618, was described by Mr. Warren (now Lord De Tabley) in his 'Guide to the Study of Book-Plates' (1880), with the remark that "it would be difficult to find a more curious example in the whole range of book-plate lore." devoted a whole page to its description (p. 198). This portrait is of large size and would almost fill an octavo book page. And although the German verses subjoined to it, quaintly translated by Mr. Warren, are commemorative of, perhaps, the In the recently published interesting work by leading event of the life of Vennitzer-his gift of Mr. Egerton Castle on English Book-Plates' library to one of the parsons' houses of his native (pp. 107-9), portraits of Samuel Pepys and of city-nothing short of proof that it was really used Bilibald Pirkheimer are mentioned as old instances by him to paste inside the covers of his own books of the use of likenesses as book-plates. Mr. Castle ought to convince us that it ever served as a gives a very good reproduction of R. White's personal book-plate. In my own library it rests engraved portrait of Pepys after Kneller, supposed and citizens, so admirably engraved and so imwith portraits of Nuremberg and Augsburg pastors to have been used in that way. But when this engraving appeared, in 1690, it was not as a book-pressed with character and spirit, by the skilful plate, but as a frontispiece to Pepys's privately Kilians, Custos, and other eminent masters in printed edition of his Memoires relating to the portraiture. State of the Navy of England, for Ten Years, Determin'd 1688.' See my note respecting this in "N. & Q.,' Feb. 2, 1889. If it could be ascertained as a fact that this portrait was really pasted by Pepys in the books of his library, as well as employed by him, as is certain, for a frontispiece to his book above referred to, the discovery would be curious as well as convincing. It should not, however, be lost sight of that Robert White engraved other portraits, notably one of Charles II., in almost identical size and style, and that they have never been put forward as examples of bookplates, but only as book illustrations or frontispieces. Mr. Castle states:

"The idea of using a likeness of the owner as a personal mark in books is, on the whole, a very obvious

On the whole-whether, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, portraits simply were ever used or not, as their own personal book-plates, by actual possessors of private libraries-the above examples, notwithstanding they have been cited by the best English writers on book-plates as typical evidence of a custom, do not seem to would appear to be still not proven by the ordinary establish it. The affirmative of the proposition

laws of evidence.



In the discussion on the parallel passages in the respective careers of Shakspere and Molière MR.

CLARKE referred me to the "Grands Ecrivains " element is never altogether absent from the affairs of edition of Molière (vol. x.), containing the "Notice life, and he did not hesitate to introduce it into Biographique." I have found this work some- his tragedies. What a strange relief it seems in what difficult to read. It consists of 486 closely Macbeth,' after the murder of Banquo, to hear printed royal octavo pages, with notes still more the knocking at the gate and the vulgar remarks closely printed; the matter is not divided into of the porter; or in Hamlet' the moralizing of parts or chapters, so that there is no analytical the prince following close upon the buffoonery of table of contents and no index, while the running the gravediggers. And then, how natural are the titles at the head of each page do not consist of serious passages in the comedies, presenting as they dates, or other useful information, but of the title do the varied texture of human life. But the of the book, thus repeated hundreds of times. In French critic will have none of this; the draso important a work one ought naturally to expect matic usage of his country keeps the tragic and the better editing. In going through the text, I have comic muses as far apart as possible, the one not met with any statement that leads me to with- occupying an ideal, the other a real world. Hence, draw any opinions that I have expressed in on the French stage every one knows what is 'N. & Q.'; on the contrary I have found much to tragedy and what is comedy; but elsewhere there confirm them. is nothing but confusion and discord, from the attempt to make the two muses keep house together.

MR. CLARKE has also been so good as to refer me to another work, 'Molière et Shakespeare,' by Paul Stapfer, Professeur à la Faculté des Lettres de Bordeaux, a work that has been crowned by the French Academy.

This book affords an admirable example of the complacency with which a Frenchman regards himself, his country, his language, his literature, in short everything French, to the disparagement of everything that is not French. In the present case the audacity with which this writer criticizes Shakspere's comedies is so remarkable that I cannot refrain from placing a specimen of it before the readers of ' N. & Q.'

The following is the key-note of the book: "Nous avons l'honneur de compter dans notre littérature le plus grand de tous les poètes comiques." In the grand compositions of Molière, everything is true, profound, serious, not a single word is useless, not a single trait is out of place, whereas in Shakspere's comedies we find spiritual extravagances. These comedies seem to occupy some region between poetry and music, and were never intended for profound study. In them we must not look for any ideal perfection, for the poet never pretended to such. The man whose head was full of tragic ideas sometimes condescended to write those trifles which are styled comedies. The fact is the world has only produced one great comic poet, and his name is Molière.

It must, however, be admitted that Shakspere has written one play that agrees pretty well with the French idea of a comedy, and that is The Taming of the Shrew '; but it must be added that the plot and action of the piece are all borrowed. The Merry Wives of Windsor' might also be regarded as a comedy, only it was hastily and carelessly written, and the Falstaff in it is not the droll and witty rogue of Henry IV., but "un lourd coquin, sans esprit, sans invention, qui se laisse berner par deux femmes."

Leaving M. Stapfer for a moment, it may be remarked that Shakspere knew that the comic

Thus a comedy by Shakspere generally consists of a number of romantic adventures or of a fairy tale, in either case with a pair of lovers who soon get separated, and when the man regains his adored one she is disguised in man's clothes, and he does not recognize her. This state of things constantly repeated shows what the author can venture upon in the region of the improbable and the impossible. The chief actors in the piece have no other folly than love, and there is nothing ridiculous about it, since they are in earnest. Nor are Molière's lovers made ridiculous, but, unlike Shakspere's, they are kept in the background in order to make room for such characters as Harpagon, Chrysale, Orgon, Tartuffe, Argan, and M. Jourdain, with their varied eccentricities and vices, which especially attract and retain the attention of the audience. Whereas with Shakspere the interest is concentrated on a pair of young lovers; and in order to prevent them from becoming insipid he makes them indulge in a wit combat or play of words, which is very rarely to be found in Molière, but abounds in Shakspere. Accompanying these witty lovers is a group of idiots whose inane talk is out of all proportion to what is found in real life. Their imbecility consists mainly in mistaking one word for another, and these gross buffooneries constitute a second source of laughter in the Shaksperian comedy.

Chance or caprice plays an important part in these pieces. It is by a happy chance that the knot is untied in Much Ado about Nothing,' thereby giving a comedy ending to a tragical imbroglio. The principal characters are not fathers of families, good, bad, or ridiculous, but young and sympathetic lovers; so that these slight productions do not, as with Molière, have for basis the domestic hearth, but the illimitable spaces of the real or of the ideal world. Even the titles of the plays are vague, because there is lacking in every one of them a central figure that could give a

name to the work. For example, we have As You Like It," Twelfth Night, or What You Will,' ‘A Midsummer Night's Dream,'' Love's Labour's Lost.'

Such are the general features of the Shaksperian comedy. In fact the dramatist has only skimmed the surface of comedy. Being for the most part the productions of his youth, they are distinguished by an optimism that nothing disconcerts; the bad always become good, the unfortunate fortunate. "Long life to joy, youth, and love!" exclaims the happy poet. "( May their enemies be laid low, together with the whole race of puritans, Philistines, and pedants." In short, his gaiety is that of a child, and, as such, it amuses itself with trifles. "I beseech your grace, pardon me," says Beatrice, "I was born to speak all mirth, and no matter." Such is the epigraph that must be inscribed on the comedies of Shakspere.

The French critic admits that Shakspere can do something in tragedy as well as in poetry, but "les qualités qu'on a toujours le plus admirées dans le théâtre tragique de Shakespeare, la profondeur psychologique et morale, la vie des caractères, la puissante objectivité dramatique, la poésie, oui, la poésie, nous les retrouvons toutes dans Molière."

Bravo, Stapfer!

It would be an insult to the readers of 'N. & Q.' to offer any reply to the above astounding criticisms. When Napoleon was in Italy, and his enemies were proposing terms of peace, they offered first of all to declare the French Republic. "Strike that out," said the conqueror. "The French Republic declares itself." In like manner Shakspere declares himself; and such blindness as M. Stapfer exhibits is of the nature of party or sect, which can see no merit in rival party or sect; and it is lamentable that the critic of one nation cannot see that, however great one of his country's dramatists may be, the dramatist of another country may also be great, although adopting a different mode of treatment and inspired by a different genius. In short, the greatness of Molière cannot be exalted by any attempt to depreciate Shakspere. Highgate, N.



Hale, who was, I believe, a class-mate of Lowell's
at Harvard, is prefixed to the book, which states
that the following articles, in prose and verse, were
contributed by Lowell to the fourth volume of Har-
vardiana :—

A Voice from the Tombs (p. 53).

Chapters from the Life of Philomelus Prig (p. 169).
Hints to Reviewers (p. 113).

Hints to Theme Writers (p. 58).

An Obituary (p. 64).

Skillygoliana, Nos. 1 and 4 (pp. 119, 274).
The Old Bell (p. 74).


A Dead Letter (p. 317).
Dramatic Sketch (p. 39).

Extracts from a Hasty Pudding Poem (p. 343).
New Poem of Homer (p. 18).

Saratoga Lake (p. 111).

Scenes from an Unpublished Drama (p. 143).
Skillygoliana, Nos. 2 and 3 (pp. 157, 196).
To Mount Washington (p. 387).
Translations from Uhland (p. 352).

Mr. Hale concludes his letter by saying: "I
ought not to speak certainly, but my impression is
very strong that Lowell wrote nothing for the
earlier volumes of Harvardiana." If this im-
pression is correct, this volume contains, in all
probability, the earliest printed productions of this
distinguished writer, and the foregoing list is
therefore a valuable contribution towards the
bibliography of his works which will doubtless
some day see the light.
Mr. Lowell's short essays

in prose show that at that period of his life he
felt the influence of his countryman, Washington
Irving, very strongly, while it is also clear that he
was a student of Carlyle and Dickens. In 'Skilly-
goliana' may be seen sparks of the keen and
vigorous satire that culminated in the 'Biglow
Papers.' Immature as these efforts are, the volume
must always possess interest as containing the
first fruits of a poet, critic, and humourist of whom
it is difficult to say that America or England is
the prouder.
W. F. PRIDeaux.

9, St. James's Street, S.W.

HISTORIC HEARTS.-Under this title the World

of Dec. 14, 1892, printed a paper well worth the attention of such readers of N. & Q.' as interest themselves in historical bric-a-brac. The writer LOWELL'S EARLY WRITINGS.-There has lately appears to have been quickened by the fact that come into my possession a book which is probably the heart of Louis XVII., the Dauphin, had been new to the majority of English readers, and of advertised for sale by auction at the Hôtel Drouot, which it is not likely that many copies exist, even in Paris. This much-tried organ, it is alleged, in America. This is the fourth volume of Har- was abstracted from the body of its original owner vardiana, a college magazine, which was published by M. Pelletin, a surgeon, when taking part in the by John Owen, at Cambridge, in 1838. The pre-post mortem examination. He concealed the booty face to this volume, which is dated July, 1838, is signed by Nathan Hale, jun., Rufus King, George W. Lippitt, James R. Lowell, and Charles W. Scates, but it was probably written by Lowell, to whose pen is due a large number of contributions in the volume. A letter from Mr. Edward Everett

for twenty years, and then offered it to Louis XVIII., who refused to accept it as a gift. It was preserved for some time in the sacristy of the palace of the Archbishop of Paris, and rescued from a revolutionary mob by M. Pelletin's son, whose executors are the recent would-be vendors. We

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