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The following Articles in this volume are copyrighted in the United States of America, viz.—
ALBERT GALLATIN. Copyright, 1879, by HENRY CABOT LOdge.

GALVESTON. Copyright, 1879, by A. & C. BLACK.

GARRISON: an Outline of his Life. Copyright, 1879, by CHarles Scribner'S SONS.

GEORGIA: its History, Condition, and Resources. With Map. Copyright, 1879, by CHArles Scribner's Sons.

The Article GERMANY (PART II., HISTORY) is Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada, in the year 1879,
by Adam & Charles Black, Edinburgh, Scotland, in the office of the Minister of Agriculture.

Repl. 272603

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1878

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ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA.

G

Grepresents the sound of Gamma, the third letter of the originally brigg and rigg, and are still so in the north of

England.

alphabet; but in the Latin alphabet, and in the alphabets derived from the Latin (including our own), it holds the place which Z held in the different Greek alphabets. The history of this remarkable change is well known. It has been already stated (see letter C) that in the 5th century before our era, the distinction between the k-sound and the g-sound became lost at Rome: apparently the surviving sound was g; but, at all events, the symbol K went out of use, being retained only in a few familiar abbreviations, and C (which was the Latinized form of the Greek T) remained. Thus in the column of Duillius we find C representing the original surd in castreis, cepet, &c., but the sonant in macistratos, leciones, ceset (i.e., gessit), &c. When, in the 3d century, the two sounds were again distinguished, two symbols were again required; but the was not taken again to represent the surd; C, the old symbol for the sonant, was put to that use. A new symbol was therefore necessary for the sonant g-sound, and it was found by modifying C into G. This G should then have replaced C as the third letter of the alphabet, where it would have stood, as before, between B and D, the sonants of the labial and dental classes respectively. But this was not done. The symbol C was left in its old place with its new value of k. The new symbol G was set in the seventh place of the alphabet, which had been vacated by Z, the representative of a sound not used by the Romans of that day. G is found for the first time in the inscription on the tomb of Scipio Barbatus. Its invention is attributed to Spurius Carvilius.

It is noteworthy how a g-sound made its appearance in French at the beginning of words which originally began with the w-sound. An example is guerre, a borrowed word from the Teutonic; we see it in Old High German as werra, a quarrel. The Gauls apparently found a difficulty in producing the initial German sound, and (there being no difference in the position of the back of the mouth for g and w, except that the passage between the back-palate and the tongue is entirely closed for g, but left slightly open for w) they did not keep the w pure, but sounded a g before it by unintentionally closing the oral passage for a moment. The same thing is seen in guérir, which corresponds to Gothic varjan; in garant, which we have in English warKrant; garnir corresponds to Anglo-Saxon warnian. In a few instances the word so modified seems to have been originally Latin, as gaîne, a sheath, the Latin vagina.

This French change has led to a curious result in England. Many words were introduced by the Normans into England in their French form, which were already existent there in their Teutonic form. Thus we have such pairs as wile and guile, wise and guise, warranty and guarantee, wager and gage, and many others. It is strange that in so many cases each of the pair of words should have remained in use, and with so little change of meaning.

GABELENTZ, HANS CONON VON DER (1807-1874), a distinguished linguist and ethnologist, born at Altenburg, October 13, 1807, was the only son of Hans Karl Leopold von der Gabelentz, chancellor and privy-councillor of the duchy of Altenburg. From 1821 to 1825 he attended the gymnasium of his native town, where he had Matthiæ (the eminent Grecist) for teacher, and Hermann Brockhaus and Julius Löbe for schoolfellows. Here, in addition to ordinary school-work, he carried on the private study of Arabic and Chinese; and the latter language continued especially to engage his attention during his undergraduate course, from 1825 to 1828, at the universities of Leipsic and Göttingen. In 1830 he entered the public service of the duchy of Altenburg, where he attained to the rank of privy-councillor in 1843. Four years later he was chosen to fill the post of "landmarschall" in the grand-duchy of Weimar, and in 1848 he attended the Frankfort parliament, and represented 780 X.

I

There can be no doubt that the sound of G in Latin, as of F in Greek, was always the sonant guttural-which we hear in gate, &c. It was not the sonant palatal, which it represents in gem or gin. This sound began to supplant it about the 6th century of our era, but only when it preceded e or i-the two vowels which require a position of the tongue nearer to the palatal than to the guttural consonants. We find this change of sound in French and in Italian. In the Latin part of our vocabulary there is naturally the same weakening; whereas, in words of English origin, the original guttural is generally preserved, even before e or i, as in get and give. Sometimes it has been weakened at the end of a word, as in bridge and ridge, which were

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the Saxon duchies on the commission for drafting an imperial constitution for Germany. In November of the same year he became president of the Altenburg ministry, but he resigned office in the following August. From 1851 to 1868 he was president of the second chamber of the duchy of Altenburg; but in the latter year he withdrew entirely from public life, that he might give undivided attention to his learned researches. He died on his estate of Lemnitz, in Saxe-Weimar, on the 3d of September 1874. In the course of his life he is said to have learned no fewer than eighty languages, thirty of which he spoke with fluency and elegance. But he was less remarkable for his power of acquisition than for the higher talent which enabled him to turn his knowledge to the genuine advancement of linguistic science. Immediately after quitting the university, he followed up his Chinese researches by a study of the Finno-Tataric languages, which resulted in the publication of his Elémens de la Grammaire Mandchoue in 1832. In 1837 he became one of the promoters, and a joint-editor, of the Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, and through this medium he gave to the world his Versuch einer mordwinischen Grammatik and other valuable contributions. His Grundzüge der syrjänischen Grammatik appeared in 1841. In conjunction with his old school friend, Julius Löbe, the Germanist, he brought out a complete edition, with translation, glossary, and grammar, of Ulfilas's Gothic version of the Bible (Leipsic, 1843-46); and from 1847 he began to contribute to the Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft the fruits of his researches into the languages of the Suahilis, the Samoyeds, the Hazaras, the Aimaks, the Formosans, and other widelyseparated tribes. The Beiträge zur Sprachenkunde (Leipsic, 1852) contain Dyak, Dakota, and Kiriri grammars; to these were added in 1857 a Grammatik u. Wörterbuch der Kassiasprache, and in 1860 a treatise in universal grammar (Ueber das Passivum). In 1864 he edited the Manchou translations of the Chinese Sse-shu, Shu-king, and Shi-king, along with a dictionary; and in 1873 he completed the work which constitutes his most important contribution to philology, Die melanesischen Sprachen nach ihrem grammatischen Bau und ihrer Verwandschaft unter sich und mit den malaiisch-polynesischen Sprachen untersucht (Leipsic, 1860-73). It treats of the language of the Fiji Islands, New Hebrides, Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, &c., and shows their radical affinity with the Polynesian class. He also contributed most of the linguistic articles in Pierer's Conversations-Lexicon.

GABII, an old, and at one time important, city of Latium, on the Via Prænestina, or road to Præneste, between 12 and 13 miles E. of Rome. Long before the foundation of Rome, Gabii appears to have been one of the largest of the Latin cities; and, according to an old tradition noticed by Dionysius and Plutarch, Romulus and Remus were educated there. During the greater part of the regal period of Rome Gabii maintained its ground, and it only fell into the hands of Tarquin the Proud through a stratagem contrived by his son Sextus, who was afterwards slain by the inhabitants, when, on the expulsion of his family from Rome, he sought refuge in the town. After this period Gabii always appears in history as the ally or dependent of its more powerful neighbour, and it gradually fell into such a state of decay as to become a proverb of desolation-Gabiis desertior. The fame of its cold sulphurous waters gave new life to the place in the reign of Tiberius; and the emperor Hadrian, one of whose favourite residences was not far distant, at Tivoli, appears to have been a very liberal patron, building a town-house (Curia Elia Augusta) and an aqueduct. After the 3d century Cabii practically disappears from history, though its "bishops " continue to be mentioned in ecclesiastical documents till the close of the 9th. The

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principal relic of the ancient city is a ruined temple (probably of Juno) on a hill now crowned by the ruins of the mediæval fortress of Castiglione. It is a hexastyle structure of uncertain date, uniting the characteristics of Greek and Italian architecture; but the fragments of the pillars are not sufficient to show whether it belonged to the Ionic or the Corinthian order. Its length is about 48 English feet. Since 1792, when explorations were commenced by the Prince Borghese, a large number of minor antiquities have been discovered at Gabii, and the sites of the forum and a theatre have been ascertained. The statues and busts are especially numerous and interesting; besides the deities Venus, Diana, Nemesis, &c., they comprise Marcus Agrippa, Tiberius, Germanicus, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Trajan and Plotina, Hadrian and Sabina, Aurelius Antoninus, L. Septimius Severus, Septimius Geta, Gordianus Pius, &c. The inscriptions relate mainly to local and municipal matters. In the neighbourhood of Gabii were valuable and extensive quarries of an excellent building stone, known as the lapis Gabinus, which was largely used by the Romans. It was a hard and compact variety of volcanic tufa, and closely resembled the lapis Albanus, to which, however, it was superior. The name of cinctus Gabinus was given by the Romans to a peculiar method of girding the toga, with one end thrown over the head and the other fastened round the waist, which was employed by the founder of a new town, or by the consul when he "declared war in the name of the Roman people, or devoted himself to death for his country."

See Ciampini, Monumenta Vetera (which contains a plan and elevation of the temple); Gallatti, Gabii antica città di Sabina scoperta, 1757; Fea, Lettere sopra la scoperta delle rovine della città di Gabio, 1792; Visconti, Monumenti Gabini della villa Pinciana, Rome, 1797, new edition, Milan, 1835; Gell, Rome and its vicinity; Nibby, Contorni di Roma; and Canina, Storia e topographia di Roma antica. An interesting comparison of the temple of Juno with the similar building at Aricia was contributed by Abeken to the Annali dell. instit. di corr. arch., Rome, 1841.

GABLER, GEORG ANDREAS (1786-1853), a German philosophical writer of the school of Hegel, was born at Altdorf, in Bavaria, where his father was professor, on the 30th of July 1786. In 1804, when his father was translated to Jena, he accompanied him to that university, where he completed his studies in philosophy and law, and became one of the most enthusiastic of the hearers and disciples of Hegel. After holding successive educational appointments at Weimar, Nuremberg, and Ansbach, he, in 1817, became one of the masters in the gymnasium at Baireuth. In 1821 he was appointed rector, and in 1830 general superintendent of schools. In 1827 he brought out the first volume of a Lehrbuch der philosophischen Propädeutik als Einleitung zur Wissenschaft, in which his design was to give a popular exposition of the Hegelian philosophy, which he himself regarded as fitted to give "absolute satisfaction to the faculties of thinking and knowing." In 1835 he succeeded Hegel in the Berlin chair. His other works were a treatise De veræ philosophiæ erga religionem Christianam pietate (1836), and Die Hegel'sche Philosophie, a defence of the Hegelian philosophy against Trendelenburg, which was published in 1843. He died at Teplitz, September 13, 1853.

GABLER, JOHANN PHILIPP (1753-1826), a learned Protestant theologian of the school of Griesbach and Eichhorn, was born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, June 4, 1753. He had already acquired an extensive acquaintance with the ancient languages and their literatures, as well as with the philosophy of Wolf and the theology of Baumgarten, when, in his nineteenth year, he entered the university of Jena as a divinity student. In 1776 he was on the point of abandoning theological pursuits, when the arrival of Griesbach inspired him with new ardour. After having

hold a position of considerable social influence, and maintain a secret society of their own. The men are excellent makers of canoes, and, within the present generation, they have learned to build boats of considerable size after the European model. From childhood both sexes are habitual smokers of tobacco or hemp-the tobacco being imported from America, although it might be readily cultivated in the country. A baptismal rite, almost identical with the Christian ceremony, is administered to the new-born child. The language of the Mpongwa has been reduced to writing by the American missionaries. As early as 1847 they published a grammar and vocabu lary at New York; and in 1859 the American Bible Society brought out a Mpongwa translation of the books of Proverbs, Genesis, part of Exodus, and the Acts. The language belongs to the same family as the Sechwana, the Zulu, &c., and is characterized, says Captain Burton, by inflexion, by systematic prefixes, a complex alliteration, and the almost unparalleled flexibility of the verb, which can be modified in several hundred different ways. M. Catteloup describes it as "riche, criard, imagé, et compliqué." It has been adopted by the Pahouins, the Bakalai, and the Boulous as a kind of commercial lingua franca, and bids fair to become the dominant language of the coast, if it does not give way before English or French, which have both become familiar in a corrupted form to a large number of the maritime population.

been successively repetent in Göttingen and teacher in the public schools of Dortmund (Westphalia) and Altdorf (Bavaria), he was, in 1793, appointed second professor of theology in the university of the last-named city, whence he was translated to a chair in Jena in 1804. At Altdorf he published (1791-93) a new edition, with introduction and notes, of Eichhorn's Urgeschichte; this was followed, two years afterwards, by a supplement entitled Neuer Versuch über die mosaische Schöpfungsgeschichte. He was also the author of several original works which were characterized by much critical acumen, and which had considerable influence on the course of German thought on theological and biblical questions. From 1798 to 1811 he was editor of the Theologisches Journal, first conjointly with Hänlein, Ammon, and Paulus, and afterwards unassisted. He died at Jena, February 17, 1826.

GABLONZ, the chief town of a circle in Bohemia, is situated in a hilly country on the river Neisse, about 61 miles S.E. of Reichenberg. It possesses a Catholic and a Protestant church, a city school, a hospital, and a fine new town-house. Its principal industry is the manufacture of glass, the export of which reaches an annual value of over 6 million guilders. It has also net and cloth factories. The population in 1869 was 6752.

The Fan, whose name appears under the various forms of Fanwe, Panwe, Phaouin, and Paouen, are new comers to the Gaboon district, having, it is said, appeared there for the first time in 1842. They are described as of mean height, chocolate complexion, and Their reputation as cannibals is eviremarkably regular features. dently well founded; but they seem to partake of human flesh rather as a ceremonial observance than as an ordinary means of nourishment, and both Winwood Reade and Captain Burton speak in favourable terms of their general characteristics. They are skilful workers in iron, and manufacture cross-bows which discharge

sexes, and the women often stain the whole body red or yellow. The tribe has come very little into contact with Europeans, but it is moving towards the coast, and will probably before long be the dominant race in the Gaboon.

GABOON RIVER, or RIO DE GABAO, called Olo' Mpongwe by the Mpongwe natives, and Aboka by the Fan, is, in reality, not a river but an estuary on the west coast of Africa. It lies immediately north of the equator, disem-poisoned darts 40 or 50 yards. Tattooing is practised by both boguing in 0° 21′ 25′′ N. lat. and 9° 21′ 23′′ W. long. At the entrance, between Cape Joinville, or Santa Clara, on the N., and Cape Pangara, or Sandy Point, on the S., it has a width of about 18 English miles. It maintains a breadth of about 7 miles for a distance of 40 miles inland, when it contracts into what is known more correctly as the Rio Olambo, which is not more than 2 or 3 miles from bank to bank. Two rivers, the Nkomo or Como and the Mbok wa or Bokoe, discharge into the upper portion of the Rio Olambo, both taking their rise in the country of the Sierra dal Crystal. The former, which far exceeds the other in the length of its course, has its head waters, according to M. Genoyer (1862), in that part of the range which is known to the natives as Anenguenpala, or the "Water-jug." Mr Winwood Reade reached the rapids in 1862, and Mr R. B. N. Walker, one of the traders in the Gaboon, has ascended for about 30 miles up the river, which had still 2 fathoms of water. Captain Burton, who in 1870 sailed up the Mbokwa as far as Tippet Town or Mayyan, a little way beyond the confluence of the Londo, found it there some 50 feet broad," with a tidal rise of nearly 7 feet. There are a great number of other streams that fall into the Gaboon, but only two are worthy of special mention, the Remboa, which, rising like the Nkomo and Mbokwa in the Sierra dal Crystal, enters the estuary at its south-east corner, and the Eko or Cohit, which is the largest of the right hand affluents. Though the whole estuary is studded with islands, reefs, and shoals, none of the islands are of great extent except Coniquet, or King's Isle, at the mouth of the Cohit, and Embeneh, or Parrot Island, in the middle of the channel.

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The four principal tribes in the country of the Gaboon are the Mpongwa, the Fan, the Bakalai, and the Boulous. The first of these tribes, usually called Gabons or Gabonese by French writers, is distributed along both banks of the "river," occupying the villages of Kringer, Quaben, Louis, Libreville, and Glass on the right side, and those of George Town and Denis on the left. According to Captain Burton, they are now one of the most civilized of African tribes, displaying a keen interest in trade, and great ease and urbanity of manner. There are three grades or quasi-castes among them-1st, those of pure blood, who rejoice in the title of Ongwá Ntye or sons of the soil"; 2d, the children of freemen by slaves; and, 3d, the slaves themselves. Marriage is by purchase, and polygamy is the rule, but the women

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The Gaboon was early visited by the Portuguese explorers, and it became one of the chief seats of the slave trade. It was not, however, till well on in the present century that Europeans made any more permanent settlement than was absolutely necessary for the maintenance of their commerce. In 1839 Captain Bouet of the "Malouine" obtained for France the right of residence on the left bank, and in 1842 he secured better positions at Louis and Quaben on the right bank. The chief establishment, called Le Plateau, at Libreville, was founded in 1845, and gradually acquired considerable importance. In 1867 the troops numbered about 1000, and the civil population about 5000, while the official reports about the same date claimed for the whole colony an area of 8000 square miles, and a population of 186,000. A large building with arcades at Libreville served as Government house, and there were pretty extensive warehouses, a hospital, and a small dockyard, as well as gardens, and a nursery for coffee plants and fruit trees. At some little distance off a convent was founded in 1844 by Mgr. Bessieux. In consequence of the war with Germany the colony was practically abandoned in 1871, and the establishment at Libreville is now maintained only as a coaling depôt. There are numerous English trading ports along the shores of the estuary, as at Glass Town and Olemi; and even when the French influence was at its greatest almost the whole commerce of the Gaboon was in English hands. The chief articles of export are ivory and beeswax; to which may Mission stations are be added caoutchouc, ebony, and camwood. maintained by French, English, American, German, and Portuguese societies.

See Bowditch, Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee, &c., 1819; E. BouetWillaumez, Descr, nautiques des côtes de l'Afrique Occidentale, 1846; Pigeard "Rapport addressé a M. Montagnies de la Roque," in Annales maritimes, 1847; J. L. Wilson, Western Africa, 1856; Winwood Reade, Savage Africa, 1863; Annales des Voyages, 1866; Du Chaillu, Journey to Ashangoland, 1867; "Notice d'une Carte," in Bull, de la soc. géog. 1869; Catteloup, in Revue maritime et coloniale, 1874; Burton, Two Trips to Gorilla Land, 1876; Coello's map in Boletin de la soc. geogr. de Madrid, 1878.

GABRIEL (ie., man of God, Taßpinλ) is the name of the heavenly messenger (see ANGEL) who was sent to Daniel to explain the vision of the ram and the he-goat, and to communicate the prediction of the Seventy Weeks (Dan. viii. 16; ix. 21). He was also employed to announce the birth of John the Baptist to Zechariah, and that of the Messiah to the Virgin Mary (Luke i. 19, 26). Both Jewish and Christian writers generally speak of him as an archangel-a habit which is readily accounted for when Luke i 19 is compared with Rev. viii. 2, and also with Tobit xii. 15. In the apocryphal Book of Enoch (c. ix.) he is spoken of as one of "the four great archangels," Michael,

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Uriel, and Suriel or Raphael being the other three. name frequently occurs in the Jewish literature of the later post-Biblical period. Thus, according to the Chaldee paraphrase of Pseudo-Jonathan, the man who showed the way to Joseph (Gen. xxxvii. 15) was no other than Gabriel in human form; and in Deut. xxxiv. 6 it is affirmed that he, along with Michael, Uriel, Jophiel, Jephephiah, and the Metatron, buried the body of Moses. In the Targum on 2 Chr. xxxii. 21 he is named as the angel who destroyed the host of Sennacherib; and in similar writings of a still later period he is spoken of as the spirit who presides over fire, thunder, the ripening of the fruits of the earth, and similar processes. In the Koran great prominence is given to his function as the medium of divine revelation, and, according to the Mahometan interpreters, he it is who is referred to by the appellations "Holy Spirit" and "Spirit of Truth." He is specially commemorated in the calendars of the Greek, Coptic, and Armenian churches.

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GAD (7) in Hebrew and Chaldee means "luck"; hence, in the Phoenician and Babylonian cultus, the god of luck, who is mentioned in Isa. lxv. 11 (where for "that troop" should be read "Gad "), and whose name appears in several names of places, such as Baal-Gad (Josh. xi. 17, xii. 7); possibly also in Dibon-Gad, Migdol-Gad, and Nahal-Gad. Gad was the name given by Leah, the wife of Jacob, to the patriarch's seventh son, the first-born of Zilpah, her maid; see Gen. xxx. 11, where the Hebrew K'tib is 7, and the K'ri 78. The former is adopted by the LXX., and rightly rendered év Túx? (Vulgate feliciter); the latter reading is adopted in the Targums and Peshito, which translate "luck is come," and by the Samaritan and Ven., which interpret the expression as meaning a troop (or army) is come." This last rendering has doubtless been influenced by Gen. xlix. 19, where the name is played on as if it were 77, "a plundering troop"; "Gad, a plundering troop shall plunder him, but he shall plunder at their heels." Of the personal history of Gad nothing is related. According to Gen. xlvi. 16, he had seven sons when he went down to Egypt along with Jacob; and in Num. xxvi. 15 these appear as seven families, one of the names, however, being changed (Ozni for Ezbon). At the Exodus the tribe numbered 45,650 fighting men (Num. i. 25); but they declined to 40,500 during the forty years' wandering in the wilderness (Num. xxvi. 18). During the subsequent period the fortunes of this tribe were very closely connected with those of the tribe of Reuben. At the division of the country a portion in the trans-Jordanic territory was, at their special request, allotted to them by Moses (Num. xxxii. 33), and this arrangement was carried out by Joshua; but considerable difficulty arises when the attempt is made to define the precise limits of the district thus assigned. It is certain that Gad never extended further west than the Jordan; but in different passages we find its northern, eastern, and southern boundaries stretched as far as to the Sea of Galilee, Salkah in the desert, and the river Arnon respectively. In the book of Numbers (xxxii. 34) the cities of Gad appear to lie chiefly to the south of Heshbon; in Joshua xiii. 24-28 they lie almost wholly to the north; while other texts present discrepancies that are not easily reconciled with either passage. That Gad, at one time at least, held territory as far south as Pisgah and Nebo would follow from Deut. xxxiii. 21, if the rendering of the Targums, revived by Ewald and Diestel, were to be accepted-" and he looked out the first part for himself, because there was the portion of the buried lawgiver;" it is certain, however, that, at a late period, this tribe was localized chiefly in Gilead, in the district which now goes by the name of Jebel Jilad. Possibly some cities were common to both Reuben and Gad, and perhaps others more than once changed hands. Both tribes were pastoral

and warlike; but the latter seems to have excelled in bravery and force of character, and indeed there are indications that the tribe of Reuben had been absorbed, or become extinct, at a somewhat early date. David's men of Gad (1 Chr. xii. 8) are famous, and Jephthah and Elijah seem to have belonged to that tribe. It followed Jeroboam in the great revolt against the house of David; and a genealogy, as at the time of Jeroboam II., is given in 1 Chr. v. 11-16, where the names are in every case different from those in Numbers. The tribe was "carried into captivity" by Tiglath Pileser in the 8th century B.C. (i Chr. v. 26; comp. 2 Kings xv. 29), and at this point it wholly disappears from history.

GAD is also the name of a "prophet" or "seer," who was probably a pupil of Samuel at Naioth, and a companion of David, to whom he early attached himself. It is not known to which tribe he belonged. He is first mentioned in 1 Sam. xxii. 5 as having joined David while he was "in the hold ;" and he afterwards became a member of his regal court, where he seems to have held an official position, being occasionally designated as "the king's seer." He assisted in organizing the musical service of the "house of of God" (2 Chr. xxix. 25), and also wrote a "book of the acts of David," which is referred to in 1 Chr. xxix. 29. GADÂMES, GHADAMES, or RHADÂMES, the chief town of an oasis of the same name, in that part of the Sahara which belongs to the regency of Tripoli, not far from the frontier of Algeria. According to Dr Rohlfs, the last form of the word more correctly represents the Arabic pronunciation; but the other forms are more usual in European books. The whole oasis is surrounded by & dilapidated wall varying in height from 12 to 20 feet, and it requires about an hour and a half to make the circuit of the enclosure at an ordinary walking pace. In the town. proper the streets are narrow and tortuous, and they are usually covered in overhead to keep out the heat. Its public buildings comprise six mosques and seven schools; and it is worthy of note that all the inhabitants can read and write, and that those who cannot pay for their children are allowed to send them to school free of charge. The Gadamsi merchants have been known for centuries as keen and adventurous traders, and their commercial establishments are to be found in many of the more important cities of northern and central Africa, such as Kano, Katsema, Timbuctoo. Gadames itself is the centre of a large number of caravan routes, and it is calculated that, on an average, about 30,000 laden camels enter its markets every year. At the time of Richardson's visit in 1845 the total population was estimated at 3000, of whom about 500 were slaves and strangers, and upwards of 1200 children; but it now amounts in round numbers to 7000 or even 10,000. The natives are mainly of Berber descent, although their blood has from generation to generation been mingled with that of Negro slaves from various parts of Africa. It is evident, from the remains that are still extant, that the oasis of Gadames was formerly inhabited by people whose architecture was of Roman origin; and it is not unlikely that the Romans themselves may have been attracted to the spot by the presence of the warm springs which still rise in the heart of the town, and spread fertility in the surrounding gardens. An identification has been made with Cydamus, a town mentioned by Pliny. See Largeau in Bull. de la soc. géogr. de Paris, 1877.

GADARA, an ancient city of Syria, in the Decapolis, about 6 miles S.E. of the Sea of Galilee, on the banks of the Hieromax. The site, now called Um Keis, is marked by extensive ruins, which are quite in keeping with the statements of Josephus and Polybius that Gadara was the capital of Peræa, and one of the most strongly fortified places in the country. The walls can still be traced in a

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