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Table No. 5 shows the average number of persons employed by months, classified as men, women and young persons under 16 years of age. The figures of monthly employment are given separately for each industry, and for the entire 2,291 establishments included in "all industries.” The purpose of this table is to show the fluctuations, if any, that take place in the working force of each industry, and to do so in a manner that indicates the months when they occurred. The industries follow each other on the table in alphabetical order, and the periods of greatest and least activity are shown to be the months during which, respectively, the greatest and the least number of wage earners were employed.

The last subdivision of Table No. 5 is a condensed summary in which the number of persons employed—men, women and children, is given for the entire 2,291 establishments included in "all industries.”. Employment is shown by this summary to have been lowest in the month of January, when a total of 269,051 wage earners were employed; February shows a gain over that total of only 169 employed, but beginning with March, the increase is both large and steadily maintained until in the month of November, when the maximum number—293,701 is reported on the pay rolls of our workshops and factories. The difference between the maximum and minimum number of wage earners is 24,650.

The month of highest employment for men, and also for women and children, was November, when 213,796; 73,537 and 6,378, respectively, were employed. The month of least employment for men was February—194,042, and for women and children, January—68,752 and 5,813, respectively. The reduction in working force between periods of greatest and least employment was for men, 19,754, or 9.2 per cent.; for women, 4,786, or 6.5 per cent., and for children, 565, or 8.8 per cent. These percentages show practically the same fluctuation in employments of men and children, the difference between them being only fourtenths of one per cent. The variation for women—6.5 per cent., is the least of the three classes of labor, showing that the industries in which they are employed were operated on a basis of more nearly uniform activity than the others.

Table No. 6 shows the total amount paid in wages by each of the eighty-nine industries, and also the aggregate amount paid by all industries included in the compilation. This table also includes the average yearly earnings per individual wage worker for each industry and the average per wage earner for all industries.

The aggregate amount paid in wages for labor during the year is $144,304,773, and the average yearly earnings per employee is $516.57. These figures relate only to actual wage workers, and do not include the salaries paid to company or corporation officers, managers, superintendents, bookkeepers, agents, salesmen and others, whose compensation is based on a yearly amount which is not subject to deduction on account of time lost through sickness or other causes. Officials such as these are classed as non-producers in industry for the reason that while their services are indispensable in effective business organization, they are not directly applied to the processes by which finished products are evolved from raw material. In considering the average yearly earnings per employee here presented, it should be borne in mind that the figures include earnings of women and children as well as those of men, and also that the averages are not calculated on the basis of any given weekly or daily wage rate, but on the amounts reported by individual establishments in each industry as having been paid to wage earners—either piece workers or day workers after all deductions on account of lost time or other causes had been made.

The industries that paid out the largest amounts in wages are, in the descending order of gradation, “Machinery,” $11,110,145; “silk—broad and ribbon," $11,062,996; "woolen and worsted goods,” $5,171,278; "oil refining,” $4,773,921, and “foundryiron," $4,743,312. The pay tolls of eleven other industries are over $3,000,000, but under $4,000,000; nine are $2,000,000, but under $3,000,000; sixteen are $1,000,000 but under $2,000,000, and all others are under $1,000,000.

The average yearly earnings per employee for "all industries,” including all classes of wage workers, men, women and children, skilled and unskilled, is, as before noted, $516,41; the increase of yearly earnings in 1909, is therefore, $16.16, or 3.2 per cent. Taking the three classes of labor separately, the average yearly earnings of men 16 years old and over, including skilled and unskilled, is $643.76; for women, $376.94; and children, $211.80. By far the largest earnings as shown by the table, are enjoyed by brewery workmen, whose average for the year is $912.08, and the makers of straw hats, with earnings amounting to $825.24. Next after these come the workmen in "varnish," $789.04; "cornices and skylights," $750.79; "furnaces, ranges and heaters," $722.77; “inks and mucilage," $706.43; “shipbuilding," $700.43, and “pottery,” $700.29. Fifteen industries show average yearly earnings ranging between $600 and $700; thirty-one report earnings between $500 and $600; twenty-one between $400 and $500;


thirteen between $300 and $400, and one industry, in which 95 per cent. of the employees are women or young girls, reports yearly earnings of $292.82.

In the industries reporting earnings of less than $500 per year, the labor employed is largely that of women and children, as will be seen by referring to table on page 21; in all the exclusively man industries, even those in which a large proportion of unskilled labor is employed, average yearly earnings are above that figure. The occupations employing more skilled than unskilled labor, are, of course, the best paid, in these, average yearly earnings are not less than $600.

The following table gives yearly earnings per employee for 1909, in comparison with the same of 1908, for the "twenty-five selected industries," for "other industries," and for "all industries.” Such increases and decreases as there may be, are given in absolute amounts and by percentages.


Sixteen of the industries named on the above table show increases in average yearly earnings, ranging from 0.9 per cent. in chemical products, to 18.9 per cent. in “steel and iron forgings.” Numerically the increases range from $4.64 in the first, to $104.58 per year in the second of these industries. Nine industries show decreases ranging from $1.40, or 0.2 per cent. in “furnaces and ranges,” to $23.16, or 5.7 per cent. in “drawn wire and wire cloth.” In several of the industries showing reductions, the extent of the falling off is so slight as to be merely nominal; in the case of one industry it is only $1.40, and in another only thirty-one cents.

The average yearly earnings for the “twenty-five selected industries" is shown by the table to have been $524.28 in 1908; in 1909 it is $538.25, an increase of $13.97, or 2.7 per cent. Earnings in "other industries" have increased $18.53, or 4.0 per cent., and "all industries," including the entire 2,291. establishments considered, show an advance over the previous year, of $16.16, or 3.2 per cent. While this increase over the earnings of the disastrous year 1908 is very gratifying, the figures—$516.57, are still sixtyseven cents less than the average of 1907, which was $517.24.

Table No. 7 contains the classified weekly earnings of all wage workers—men, women and children, by industries. On this table is shown for each industry and for all industries, the actual number of wage earners who, during the week of highest employment in each of the establishments considered, received the several amounts which appear in the classification, beginning with "under $3 per week,” and advancing one dollar or more through the various grades up to $25 per week and over. As the table shows for each industry the actual number of the three classes of wage earners, men, women and children, who received the amounts specified therein, as weekly earnings, the subject cannot be made clearer by extending the explanation or analysis further.

The final division of this table is a summary giving the classification of weekly earnings for "all industries” in the same form as that employed for each of the individual industries. This condensed presentation shows clearly the range of weekly earnings in the factory industries of the State, dividing as it does, the entire force of operatives into thirteen groups, each of them including only those whose weekly earnings are practically the same. The division is carried out for men, women and children. so that the investigator may see at a glance the number of wage earners receiving any given amount of weekly compensation, thus arriving at a much clearer understanding of the question of actual earnings than could by any possibility be conveyed through the medium of averages. Although the use of averages in statistical presentation cannot be dispensed with, they are at times liable to be quite misleading because of the wide dissimilarity of the units from which they are derived; a case in point is the wage statistics now under consideration, in the discussion of which the average yearly earnings of men are shown to be $643.76; those of women, $376.94, and of children, $211.80, while the general average for all three classes of labor combined is $516.57. Although these figures correctly represent the average earnings of all employes, they are still so far below the averages for men separately, and above those for women and children, as to suggest no approximate standard of earnings for either of the three classes of labor.

The number of wage earners for which classified weekly earnings are given in this summary, is 224,789 men; 76,819 women; and 6,811 children. A calculation based on this summary shows the average weekly earnings of men to be $12.53; women, $7.25; and children, $4.07 after all deductions had been made.

The percentages of each of the three classes of wage earners who receive the various specified wage rates, are given for all industries in the following table :

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Reading the percentages above with the summary of wage classifications which forms the concluding part of Table No. 7, and on which these percentages are based, will convey an absolutely correct understanding of current weekly earnings in manufacturing industry. It will be noted that while only 24.2 per

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