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cent of the men are in the classes under $10 per week, 87-5 per cent of the total number of women are found in the rates below that figure, and all the children are in the classifications under $8 per week.
Table No. 8 gives for each industry and for all industries, the average number of days in operation during the year; the average daily and weekly working hours of employes; the number of establishments reporting overtime, and the number of extra hours worked by each industry and by "all industries.” The aggregate average number of days in operation during the year 1909, is shown by the table to be 287.38; for 1908, the average was 278.53; the increase for 1909, is therefore 8.85 days, or 3.2 per cent. The industry reporting the lowest working time is “brick and terra cotta,” which was operated only 227-54 days; the highest is the manufacture of "pig iron," 338.50 days of 12 hours duration. Fifteen general industries report having been in operation for 300 days and over during the year, and of the remainder, none worked less than 227 days. The greatest increase in working time is shown by the "pig iron” industry, which in 1908 was in operation only 250 days, as against 338.50 days in 1909.
The aggregate average number of working hours per day for all industries is 9.71, a small fraction over that for 1908, when the figures were 9.66; this slight difference is significant only because it continues the tendency to increased working hours shown by these statistics for the past four years. Average working hours per day as they appear on this table should be regarded as not applying to Saturday, it being apparent from the average working hours per week as reported—55.64, that in all but a few establishments, the Saturday half holiday throughout the entire year is now firmly established. Twelve industries including 238 establishments and employing 27,132 operatives, work ten hours per day; with a few exceptions however, the working hours per week are not in excess of 55.
Overtime as it appears on this table, is computed on the basis of the actual number of hours worked, multiplied by the number of operatives engaged in it. By this means, if one hundred men in an establishment worked one hour beyond the usual limit of a day's work, the overtime credited to that plant would be 100 hours; if the same number put in two hours extra duty, the credit would be two hundred hours overtime. As will be seen on this table, 341 establishments representing 74 of the 89 general industries have been obliged to resort to overtime at some period of the year in order to meet demands for their products which
could not be supplied otherwise. The aggregate number of hours worked as overtime is 1,305,050. In 1908, the overtime reported was 811,080 hours; the increase in 1909, is therefore 493,970 hours, or 60.9 per cent; reduced to days of average length—9.71 hours, the overtime reported would be equal to the labor of 467 wage earners, working 287.38 days, which is the average time in operation during the year for all establishments considered.
The industries showing the largest amount of overtime are: “Shipbuilding,” 252,318 hours; “rubber goods—hard and soft," 162,880 hours; "electrical appliances,” 150,332;
"lime and cement, 139,373; “chemical products,” 119,868; "boilers," 87,712; "machinery,” 77,264; and “smelting and fefining precious metals,” 51,840. Only fifteen. of the eighty-nine general industries reported no overtime.
Table No. 9 shows the average “proportion of business done" for each of the eighty-nine industries, and the same for all industries. The purpose of this table is to show how nearly actual operation of each industry measured by the volume of products, approached full productive capacity—full capacity being indicated by 100 per cent—and also to show the amount of productive power not called into activity by the business demands of the year. The proportion of business done is reported by each of the 2,291 establishments considered, on the basis of its actual output of goods for the year compared with what it might have been had it been necessary to use all the existing facilities of the plant.
The aggregate average “proportion of business done" by all industries during the year 1909, as shown by the table, is 74.38 per cent, which is 25.62 per cent below full capacity. In 1908, the proportion was 66.80 per cent for all industries, or 5.88 per cent less than in 1909. The principal significance of these figures representing the “proportion of business done" is in their showing that the enormous output of manufactured goods during the year, could have been increased to the extent of more than twenty-five per cent, without in any way adding to existing facilities for manufacture. As a matter of fact, every industry group included in the presentation has a number of individual establishments that were operated not only to full capacity, but were also obliged to work overtime. The “proportion of business done” reported by these is 100 per cent, but the larger number fell far enough below maximum operation to produce the averages shown on the tables. In the following table comparisons are made of the proportion of business done in 1909 and 1908, as reported by the “twentyfive selected industries, and also for "other industries" and for "all industries.'
.05 + 13.56
6.25 + 16.32
4.38 7.47 5.39
8.63 + 14.23
3.78 + 8.95 + 1.76
9.84 6.49 5.14
5.22 + 35.21
9.72 1.75 5.21
8.05 + 11.12
The table shows only one industry, the manufacture of “men's hats,” that has not increased its proportion of business done in 1909, as compared with 1908; in the presentation of last year this state of things was exactly reversed, there being then only one industry, "oil refining,” that reported an increase over the year 1907, and that a small one—a fraction more than one per cent. The falling off in "men's hats" in 1909, was doubtless due to partial disorganization of business following the great strike which extended into the first quarter of the year.
The "twenty-five selected industries" show an increase of 7.53 per cent; "other industries” an increase of 8.20 per cent; and "all industries” combined, an increase of 7.58 per cent in 1909, compared with 1908.
Table No. 10, the last of the series included in this statistical presentation, shows the power used in New Jersey manufacturing
plants, its character, and quantity of each variety measured by horse power units. These are: Steam engines, gas and gasoline engines, turbine water wheels and other water motors, electric motors, and motors operated by compressed air. A comparison is made on the following table of the motors and horse power used in 1909 and 1908, showing also such increases or decreases as have occurred during 1909.
The totals appearing on the above table show very great increases both in the number of steam engines and the horse power which they produce; a large increase is also shown in the number and power of electric motors. The only species of power that shows a falling off is turbine water wheels, of which in 1909, three less were used than in 1908.
The total number of motors and power generating devices of all kinds in use in 1908 was 13,306, and their aggregate horse power, 550,713; in 1909, the total number of motors reported is 16,061, and the horse power 710,819. The gain for the year is, of motors, 2,701, and horse power, 160,106.
TABLE No. 1.-Private
Firms and Corporations, Partners and Stockholders.-By Industries, 1909.