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you have been telling the other side about? Oh," he replied airily, "there aren't any really, you know. I was just dealing with this case like we do the ones at the office."

MAINTENANCE OF PROCEEDINGS.-This difficulty has been foreseen and to some extent avoided by a provision that if any insured person appearing to be entitled to compensation or damages unreasonably refuses or neglects to take proceedings to enforce his claim it shall be lawful for the society or committee concerned either (1) At their own expense to take proceedings-in which case the society or committee will run the risk of being ordered to pay costs; (2) withhold payment or benefit; or (3) to pay benefit by way of advance pending the settlement of the claim for compensation or damages. It is thought that the last mentioned will be the most likely course for general adoption in actual practice. Friendly societies and insurance committees will have quite enough to do without conducting litigation for other people at their own expense. Withholding of sick benefit will cause trouble and

dispute.

ADVANCE OF INSURANCE BENEFIT.-Therefore, benefit will be given by way of advance, to be repaid if and when any compeneation or damages shall be obtained. As notice of any settlement must be given, there is a much better chance of recovery than otherwise would be the case. But it is evident that the receipts should state clearly that benefit is being received by way of advance, and that it is to be repaid if the insured person receives or recovers compensation or damages in respect of the same injury or disease. Otherwise, by accepting insurance benefit, the injured person may be held to have relinquished his rights under the present law, or, if he does in fact recover anything, it may not be possible for repayment to be enforced.

or

NATIONAL INSURANCE ACT 1911 (1 & 2 Geo. 5, c. 55). Sect. 11.-(1) Where an insured person has received recovered or is entitled to receive or recover, whether from his employer or any other person, any compensation or damages under the Workmen's Compensation Act 1906, or any scheme certified thereunder, or under the Employers' Liability Act 1880, or at common law, in respect of any injury or disease, the following provisions shall apply: (a) No sickness benefit or disablement benefit shall be paid to such person in respect of that injury or disease in any case where any weekly sum or the weekly value of any lump sum paid or payable by way of compensation or damages is equal to or greater than the benefit otherwise payable to such person, and, where any such weekly sum or the weekly value of any such lump sum is less than the benefit in question, such part only of the benefit shall be paid as, together with the weekly sum or the weekly value of the lump sum, will be equal to the benefit: (b) The weekly value of any such lump sum as aforesaid may be determined by the society or committee by which the sickness and disablement benefits payable to such person are administered, but, if the insured person in aggrieved by such determination, the matter shall be settled in manner provided by this part of this Act for settling disputes between insured persons and societies or committees (c) Where an agreement is made as to the amount of such compensation as aforesaid, and the amount so agreed is less than ten shillings a week, or as to the redemption of a weekly payment of a lump sum, under the Workmen's Compensation Act 1906, the employer shall, within three days thereafter, or such longer time as may be prescribed, send to the Insurance Commissioners, or to the society or committee concerned, notice in writing of such agreement giving the prescribed particulars thereof, and proviso (d) to par. (9) of the second schedule of the Workmen's Compensation Act 1906 (which relates to the powers of registrars of County Courts to refuse to record memoranda of agreements and to refer the matter to the judge) shall, in cases where the workman is an insured person, apply to agreements as to the amount of compensation in like manner as to agreements as to the redemption of weekly payments by lump sums. (2) Where an insured person appears to be entitled to any such compensation or damages as aforesaid and unreasonably refuses or neglects to take proceedings to enforce his claim, it shall be lawful for the society or committee concerned, either (a) at its own expense, to take in the name and on behalf of such person such proceedings, in which case any compensation or damages recovered shall be held by the society or committee as trustee for the insured person; or (b) to withhold payment of any benefit to which apart from this section such person would be entitled. In the event of the society or committee concerned taking proceedings as aforesaid and failing in the proceedings, it shall be responsible for the costs of the proceedings as if it were claiming on its own account. (3) Nothing in this section shall prevent the society or committee paying to an insured person benefit by way of advance pending the settlement of his claim for compensation or damages, and any advance so made shall, without prejudice to any other method of recovery, be recoverable by deductions from or suspension of any benefits which may subsequently become payable to such person.

THE LORD HIGH ADMIRAL.

Mr. J. A. HOWARD WATSON (Liverpool) was not able to be present, and the paper he had prepared on "The Office and Jurisdiction of the Lord High Admiral" was taken as read.

“The jurisdiction of the Lord High Admirall is verie antiente." "That there had been an admirall time out of minde... is most manifest." -(2 Co. Litt.)

The cult of the sea and its appurtenances is ingrained in all citizens of this empire, but in none more so than in those of ancient

seaports such as Cardiff and Liverpool. The eager interest with which the progress of the Titanic inquiry and report has been followed, and the comparisons which have been instituted between modern American Senatorial methods and our own sedate manner of conducting such a far-reaching inquiry, may render a brief retrospect wholly free from controversial matter of the rise and early history and jurisdiction of our Admiralty of something more than antiquarian moment.

High antiquity has always been claimed for our national maritime Interests, and the emblematic miniature silver oar, placed before the presiding judge of the Admiralty Division, stands for a great deal, as does the inscription on the Admiralty seal before the Judicature Acts, Ab Edgare vindico.

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Whilst, undoubtedly, the old Saxon kings, especially Edgar and Alfred, were the first to attempt the organisation of a fighting force on sea, and also, as appears from the Black Book of the Admiralty, to lay down naval ordinances and articles of war, yet their efforts were somewhat spasmodic and directed merely to cope from time to time, as the occasion arose, with specific periods of danger from foreign encroachment.

Under the Norman kings nothing appears to have been dons towards the establishment of a standing naval force, but matters progressed in that direction during the Crusades and in Richard I.'s and John's reigns, and the former added to the maritime law of his kingdom by the introduction of a code whose origin is obscure (probably a transcript of the Rhodian laws), but whose fundamental principles are both interesting and important. This code is known as the laws of Oléron, because, Coke says, Richard I. promulgated them first, in that small Bay of Biscay island, on the way, with his considerable fleet, to the Crusades.

It is of interest here to recall that it was King John who first imposed ship money (on maritime counties only) for the upkeep of the navy, and that the attempted extension of this tax to al counties led to one of the most celebrated constitutional crises in our history that of John Hampden's protest-and eventually to the establishment of the Commonwealth.

The bulk of the Black Book referred to (which though sometimes, as by Selden, announced as discovered was really lost to use for centuries prior to 1873, owing to the former lack of system in housing and cataloguing national archives) was probably compiled originally in Edward III.'s reign, but it incorporates many enactments and ordinances from the four previous reigns and also was added to in later reigns. This compilation serves to show that the growth of national naval affairs, though low and gradual, was none the less distinctly making itself felt.

The reign of Edward III. saw the initiation of the Hundred Years' War, and that martial monarch, appreciating our insularity, turned that natural feature to profitable account by organising his fighting forces on sea and winning the naval battle of Sluys in 1340. This date practically marks the birth of the navy, but it remained for the Tudor sovereigns, two centuries later, to place it on a firmer basis by wresting the supremacy of the sea from Spain, when the celebrated Lord Howard of Effingham was the Lord Admiral.

To return to the civil aspect of the movement. Edward I., the English Justinian, was not too occupied with the wars to neglect the laws of his kingdom, and thus we find him turning his attention to the sea, and appointing a high officer of State, variously known as "the admiral" (which is derived from the Arabic word, inverted, Amir or Emir, meaning a chief or leader) and as custos, maris or locum tenens regis super mare. The first holder of the office was William de Leybourne, in 1286, but in Edward I.'s reign three or four admirals were appointed, each more or less temporarily, and during the King's pleasure, to supervise different portions of the coast, such as the north, west. &c. The Cinque Ports always had one for themselves, and to this day possess their own Lord Warden. The office increased in importance until Henry IV.'s half-brother, Sir Thomas Beaufort, was appointed for life sole Admiral of England and Ireland and also of Aquitaine and Picardy (for these considerable portions of France were then still English dependencies).

The actual title "Lord Admiral" appears to have been conferred or used in Henry VIII.'s reign, but, unlike most, if not all, other high State appointments, there seems to have been nothing to prevent the reigning sovereign (who, of course, is himself head equally of the navy as of the army) from leaving the office in abeyance, or appointing the holder for life, or for any less period, ard, until some eighty years ago, there was no fixed rule or practice in this respect thus sometimes the reigning sovereign retained the office himself, sometimes he put the office in commission, and occasionally made the office an entire sinecure by an appointee too young or wholly ignorant of the duties; bat in general the appointment was reserved for a near relation of the reigning sovereign, it being considered the best appointment in the gift of the Crown, and it not being considered at all derogatory to the dignity of the Lord High Admiral that his emoluments were mostly derived from prize of war, derelicts, salvage, &c. This remuneration, indeed, reached such large proportions (especia v in warlike times) that, in Queen Anne's reign, Parliament made a bargain with her husband, Prince George, the then Lord H 24 Admiral, by which all perquisites were surrendered and made accountable to the public funds, in consideration of an annual fixed income, which is now divided amongst the commissioners or Lands of the Admiralty. The duties of the Lord Admiral or Lord High Admiral were partly executive and partly judicial, and, in regard

The SHIPWRECKED Fishermen and
MARINERS'

Royal Benevolent SOCIETY (Over 640,000 persons relieved since its institution in 1889) The Shipwrecked are instantly cared for on the spot and sent home. The Widow and Orphan are immediately sought out and succoured. The Mariner and Fisherman, under Provident Section, are directly encouraged in self-help.

Patron-HIS MAJESTY THE KING.
President-The Right Hon. The EARL CADOGAN, K.G.
Chairman-Admiral W. F. S. MANN.
FUNDS URGENTLY NEEDED.
Secretary-GERALD E. MAUDE, Esq,

26, Suffolk Street, Pall Mall East, London, S.W.

"WARSPITE" TRAINING SHIP.

MARINE SOCIETY (Instituted 1758).

PATRON: H.M. THE KING.
President: THE EARL OF ROMNEY.
The first Training Ship in this or any other
country was founded by this Society in 1786.

On board the "Warspite" 240 boys of good character and physique only are annually trained exclusively for the sen services. This number could be increased to 300 if funds were forthcoming.

Roys are clothed, trained, and maintained until fit for the sea services free of all expense to parents and guardians. From 1756 to 1912 over 66,300 boys have been sent to sea, and of these 28,700 joined the Royal Navy Legacies & Annual Subscriptions much needed.

H. T. A. Bosanquet, Lieut., R.N., Secretary. MARINE SOCIETY, Clark's Place, Bishopsgate, E.C.

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The Royal Alfred Aged Merchant
Seamen's Institution

APPEALS FOR your kind help to maintain its many
Inmates and Out-Pensioners, and to relieve the
HUNDREDS OF POOR AND AGED
APPLICANTS.

Patron: HIS MAJESTY THE KING.
Bankers-Williams, Deacon's Bank Limited, Birchin
Lane, E C. Secretary-J. Bailey Walker
Office-58, FENCHURCH STREET, E.C.

GENERAL BOOTH

EARNESTLY ASKS FOR HELP-DONATIONS,
SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND LEGACIES-FOR THE
GREAT WORK OF THE SALVATION ARMY.

1384 Centres of Religious Work, and 180 Branches
of Social Work are established in the United
Kingdom alone.

Some 8000 Poor are Housed Nightly, and
Thousands found Work Daily. At Home and
Abroad 10,065 Centres of work are in operation.

Help is urgently needed for Men's Homes. Women's
Homes, Girls' Homes, Boys' Homes, Slum Settle-
ments, Nursing Brigades, Maternity Hospitals,
Land Colonies, Inebriate Homes, Aged People's
Homes, Emigration Bureaux, Industrial Homes,
Relief of Distress, Evangelistic and Missionary
Work, &c., &c.

£150,000 NEEDED ANNUALLY FOR
THE ARMY CENTRAL FUNDS ALONE.

Balance-sheets sent upon application. Auditors
Messrs. Knox, Cropper, & Co., 16, Finsbury Circus,
E.C.

Please cross cheques Bank of England, Law
Courts Branch," and address to

GENERAL BOOTH,

101, Queen Victoria Street, London. E.C.

SPURGEON'S ORPHANAGE,

CLAPHAM ROAD, LONDON, S.W.
Seaside Home Branch: CLIFTONVILLE, MARGATE.
President, THOMAS SPURGEON.
Vice-President, CHARLES SPURGEON.
Treasurer, W LLIAM HIGGS.

A HOME and CHOOL for 500 FATHERLESS
CHILDREN, and a Memorial of the Beloved Founder,
C. H. Spurgeon. No votes required The most needy
and deserving cases are selected by the Committee of
Management.

Contributions should be sent to the Secretary, F. G. LADDS, Spurgeon's Orphanage, Clapham-road, London, S.W

NOTICE TO INTENDING BENEFACTORS.-Our last Annual Report,containing a Legal Form of Bequest, will be gladly sent on applic tion to the ecretary.

FOUNDED 1758.

THE ORPHAN WORKING SCHOOL AND
ALEXANDRA ORPHANAGE,
Maitland Park, Haverstock Hill, London, N.W.
Convalescent Home, Magate.
Patron-HIS MAJESTY THE KING.
Treas. Sir HORACE B. MARSHALL, M.A., LL.D., Ald.
Bankers: The London Joint Stock Bank, Princes-
street, E.C.

Ma ntains and educates 500 fatherless children Boys and girls are admitted from infancy to 11 years of age, aud retained till 14 or in special cases 15

Depends upon Voluntary Contributions. Legacies, Donations, and Annual Subscriptions are greatly needed. Secretary, ALEXANDER GRANT, to whom all communications should be addressed. Offices: 78, Cheapside, London, E.C

CITY OF LONDON CHEST
HOSPITAL.

Adjoining the Park of 217 acres and popularly known as
VICTORIA PARK HOSPITAL, E.

170 beds, and 40,000 attendances of
Out-Patients Annually.

Its remoteness from the West End, to which it must necessarily look principally for support, handicaps the Hospital seriously. PLEASE HELP WITH DONATION OR LEGACY.

ROYAL BLIND PENSION SOCIETY. Friendless

Patron: HIS MAJESTY THE KING.

President: HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF GRAFTON, K.G.

This Charity seeks to supplement the sparse earnings of the Industrial Blind and save from destitution those who have lost their sight in mature years by granting them Pensions at their Homes.

£9000 Annually Required to Meet Existing Pensio s. SUBSCRIPTIONS AND LEGACIES ARE EARNESTLY

SOLICITED.

JOHN C. BUMSTED, Esq., Treasurer.

237, SOUTHWARK BRIDGE ROAD, LONDON.

Bankers: BANK OF ENGLAND.

NATIONAL HOSPITAL for the

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London Female Preventive and Reformatory Institution.
Office: 200, EUSTON ROAD, LONDON, N.W.
Bequests are chiefly devoted to Permanent Extensions of Work.
SIX HOMES and an
OPEN-ALL-NIGHT REFUGE
Are Dependent upon Voluntary Contributions,
£15 is required daily (£105 weekly) for maintenance.
The benefits are free, irrespective of creed, class, or country.
Nearly 43,000 Young Women and Girls have been assisted.
Bankers-London County & Westminster Bank, 2, Hampstead Road, N.W.

THE

PARALYSED and EPILEPTIC. London Orphan Asylum

(ALBANY MEMORIAL.) Incorporated by Royal Charter.

Queen Square, Bloomsbury.
PATRON: H.M. THE KING

The oldest and largest Hospital in the world for
the treatment of diseases of the Nervous System.
The Charity is forced to rely to some extent upon
Legacies for maintenance.

Contributions will be most thankfully received by Bankers: COUTTS & Co., Strand.

Secretary, GODFREY H. HAMILTON.

THE

ARCHBISHOPS' WESTERN
CANADA FUND.

Helps to provide our English Settlers in
Western Canada with the Services of the
Church.

THE ARCHBISHOPS PLEAD FOR FUNDS TO CARRY
ON THIS IMPORTANT WORK.
Contributions may be sent to the SECRETARY,
Archbishops' Western Canada Fund, The Church
House, Westminster, S.W.

WATFORD formerly at CLAPTON.

PATRONS:

HIS MAJESTY KING GEORGE V.
HER MAJESTY QUEEN MARY.
HER MAJESTY QUEEN ALEXANDRA.

500 Fatherless Children of respectable descent from every part of the British Empire are maintained and educated and provided when necessary with situations on leaving.

Over 7160 Fatherless Children have been received since the year 1813.

£15,000 ARE REQUIRED FROM VOLUN-
TARY SOURCES EACH YEAR, AND HELP
IS GREATLY NEEDED.

Bankers: GLYN, MILLS, CURRIE, & Co.
Office: 3, Crosby Square, Bishopsgate, E.O
E. H. BOUSFIELD, Treasurer.
A. P. BLATHWAYT, Chairman.
HENRY ARMIGER, Secretary.

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Solicitors, Trustees, Executors, and others, having Money for Distribution amongst deserving Charities, will, it is hoped, find the List which appears on this Inset useful.

All Applications respecting Advertising on this Inset should be addressed: Messrs. HOOPER & BATTY, Advertising Contractors, 15, Walbrook, London, E.C. See also other Appeals on the Inside Back Page.

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All Applications respecting Advertising on this Inset should be addressed: Messrs. HOOPER & BATTY, Advertising Contractors, 15. Walbrook, London, E.C.

to the former, it fell to him to build, provision, and man ships of war and to appoint officers, until later times, when these duties passed into other hands.

The title of the chief of the Admiralty was changed-though with slight variations-with bewildering frequency, so that since the time of the Commonwealth there have been only four "" Lords High Admirals," so called-namely, the Duke of York, under Charles II.; the Earl of Pembroke, under William of Orange; Prince George of Denmark, husband of Queen Anne; and the Duke of Clarence, under George IV.; but the last named was controlled or assisted by a Council of State; whilst, since 1827, the office has constantly been in commission, which means that all such powers as were formerly vested in the autocratic Lord High Admiral, amenable to none but his sovereign, are now transferred to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty for exercising the office of admiral.

to the

In practice, the administrative powers are intrusted Admiralty Board, whilst the judicial powers, in civil cases, are exercised (since 1854) by the Admiralty Division of the High Court, which is still incongruously herded together with probate and divorce, the sole connecting link being their common nection with the old days of the civil law and the temporal and legal powers of the Archbishop of Canterbury.

con

The authority of the Crown, through its court of the admiral, to administer justice in cases of piracy, contraband, spoil, or offences committed on sea or in tidal waters was firmly established by Edward III.'s time, but it is clear that originally and for a long time the jurisdiction was only a criminal one.

When the Crown began to depute its rights and perquisites, the right to hold a court also devolved on the admiral appointed, who invariably deputed these functions to a deputy, as judge, sometimes called the lieutenant, who was the appointee of the Lord High Admiral, and not of the Crown, until William and Mary's reign, when Lord Pembroke was appointed to the office, for life, by patent under the Great Seal. From this there inevitably arose an assumption or usurpation of jurisdiction, in civil matters, extending to a large variety of causes, and sometimes, where the cause of action arose, not, strictly, at sea. Such an extension caused dissatisfaction amongst the judges of the King's Court at Westminster, who resented the intrusion of a competitor in their sphere of influence, and were not so immersed in their legal studies and duties as not to display human jealousy in regard to these encroachments. This culminated in two statutes: one 13 Ric. 2, St. 1, c. 5, and the other an amending Act, Ric. 2, c. 3, which closed the loopholes of the former, because it had been flouted by the Admiralty Court. In the next reign (Henry VI.) these Acts were followed by one which gave a right of action on the case, for damages, to any party who was aggrieved by proceedings in that court, in excess of its jurisdiction, or which otherwise were ultra vires. Again, writs of prohibition were frequently and successfully taken out to prevent the admiral's court from proceeding to hear and determine causes; and between 1389 and 1409 eight petitions were presented in Parliament against the admiral for similar reasons, all of which serves to show how virile the court had become, and how it held what it had.

The quaint preamble of the first recorded legislative effort towards keeping Admiralty pretensions in their place is of such interest as to be set out, possessing as it does the weighty, if sententious, approval of Sir Matthew Hale.

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'An Act concerning what things the admiral and his deputy shall meddle with" recites that " 'great and common clamour had been made for that the admirals and their deputies held sessions, accroaching [sic] to them greater authority than belonged to their office, in prejudice of the King and the common law of the realm and in destruction and impoverishing of the common people.' enacts "That the admirals and their deputies shall not meddle from henceforth of anything done within the realm, but only of a thing done upon the sea, as it has been used in the time of our noble Prince, King Edward, grandfather of Our Lord the King that now is.'

It

From Richard II. to Henry VIII.'s reign the deputy (i.e., judge) of the admiral exercised his judicial powers, but in the last-mentioned reign the jurisdiction was vested in commissioners appointed under the Great Seal, one of whom, however, was the Admiralty judge. Nevertheless, the conflict between this court and the common law courts as to the limit of Admiralty jurisdiction was not terminated until, by an Act of William IV., the former's civil powers were defined and narrowed down to collision. piracy, salvage, bottomry, &c., and wages, and kindred subjects arising out of flotsam, jetsam and ligan, and similar droits (or perquisites) of Admiralty; the latter are now taken charge of by an official of the Board of Trade called the Receiver of Wreck; and, generally speaking, all these matters are governed by the statutory provisions of the Admiralty Acts of 1840 and 1861 and the Merchant Shipping Act 1894. Indeed, it is remarkable that almost all the present powers of the Admiralty Division have been conferred by comparatively recent statutes, and do not rest for their foundation upon the old common law, whose jurisdiction has been lost almost entirely. The criminal side of that jurisdiction had long been swept away, for two excellent reasons (1) as the navy expanded it was both impracticable and unnecessary to try minor offences in this court, as the object would be summarily achieved by courts-martial afloat; whilst (2) as to the graver offences, the jurisdiction ran counter to an essential and cherished principle of the common law (aided by one of the provisions of

Magna Carta)-—namely, trial of an accused person by a jury of his peers; for in this court there was no provision for trial save by a single judge, and thus the liberty of the subject was intrusted to the judgment of one individual. The statute 28 Hen. 8, c. 15, transferred this criminal jurisdiction to the ordinary King's courts, and thus swept away an anomaly which had been considered contrary to the spirit of the English people. Formerly the courts of the vice-admiral were of some importance; these were tribunals established for the trial of causes and crime amongst English colonists abroad, but these courts have now been superseded by consular courts in foreign countries (unless for grave cases, for these are sent home) and by the self-governing colonies' own courts. Although, it will be noted, there is little in common between the old order of conducting Admiralty affairs, either in its executive and administrative aspect or on its judicial side, with modern practice, yet undoubtedly the great prestige and authority at the present day of both aspects of the jurisdiction are largely the fruit of the long and honourable past history and dignity of the office and court of the Lord High Admiral.

FESTIVITIES.

The Lord Mayor and the Lady Mayoress received the president, council, and members of the society and the ladies accompanying them at the City Hall on Monday evening, and afterwards there was dancing until 1 a.m.

A banquet was held at the Park Hall on Tuesday evening, Mr. Ivor Vachell presiding. In proposing the toast of "The Law Society," he referred to the great progress it had made, remarking that it now numbered 10,000 members. He urged that its membership should be largely increased, for it was the bulwark of the Profession, and it was of the very greatest importance that its membership and influence should be strengthened. The President, in returning thanks, said the society represented and voiced the solicitors throughout the country, and the council could do nothing without the support of the rank and file of the whole Profession. He then submitted the toast of "The City of Cardiff," to which the Lord Mayor and Mr. North Lewis responded. Mr. Trower gave the toast of "The Provincial Law Societies," which was acknowledged by Mr. A. Tarbolton (Manchester).

A reception and musical entertainment were given on Thursday evening in the Park Hall. Two excursions were arranged for Thursday, the first to Symond's Yat and Tintern, and the second by steamer to Ilfracombe. Clubs and golf courses were opened to the visitors, an invitation was given by Lord Merthyr to inspect Cardiff Castle, and everything was done to render the visit to the city as successful as possible.

SOLICITORS' BENEVOLENT ASSOCIATION.

ANNUAL MEETING.

THE annual meeting of this association was held at the University College, Cardiff, on Wednesday, Mr. R. Ellett (Cirencester), chairman of the board, presiding. The annual report of the directors stated that the association had now 3951 members, of whom 1177 were life and 2774 annual subscribers. Seventy-one of the life members were also annual subscribers. The annual subscribers showed an increase of thirty-nine over last year. Among the receipts were legacies of £250 under the will of the late Mr. W. W. Kirkman; £100 under the will of the late Sir George Lewis, Bart.; and £200 under the will of the late Mr. James Cook. The fifty-second anniversary festival held in June, at the Law Society's Hall, when the chair was taken by the president of the Law Society (Mr. W. J. Humfrys), resulted in an addition to the funds of £794. The total relief granted during the year amounted to £6298 68. 8d. This sum very largely exceeded the income from annual subscriptions and dividends, and was made up as follows: Two hundred and twentyeight grants were made from the general funds, amounting to £5425 10s. £150 was paid to annuitants out of the income derived from the late Miss Ellen Reardon's bequest; £28, £30, and £30 respectively to the recipients of the three Hollams Annuities; £30 to the recipient of the "Victoria Jubilee Annuity (1887)"; £36 16s. 8d. to the recipient of the " Henry Morten Cotton Annuity"; £30 to the recipient of the "Christopher Annuity"; and £30 to the recipients of the "Humfrys Annuities." £240 was paid to pensioners from the "Victoria Pension Fund"; £208 to annuitants under the Kinderley Trust; and five grants, amounting to £60, were made from the Special Relief Fund connected with the "Kinderley Trust." The Chairman, in moving the adoption of the report, stated that the late Mr. J. S. Beale had left a legacy to the association of £1000.

66

STEPHENSON'S DIGEST FOR THE INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION OF THE LAW SOCIETY.-Second Edition. Demy 8vo. Price 12s. 6d., post free.-HORACE Cox, "Law Times" Office, Windsor House, Bream'sbuildings, E.C.-[ADVT.]

LAW STUDENTS' JOURNAL.

To SECRETARIES.-Reports of meetings should reach the office not later than first post Thursday morning to ensure insertion in the current number.

STUDENTS' SOCIETIES.

NEWCASTLE. The annual meeting of the Newcastle Law Students' Society was held in the Law Library, Pilgrim-street, on the 18th inst., under the presidency of Mr. Alfred Appleby. The report of the hon. secretaries (Messrs. T. M. Harbottle and C. N. Levin) stated that the membership was 231. Mr. H. L. Benson had won the first prize in the speaking competition, and Mr. N. S. Robson the second. The subject for the annual examination was "The Law of Contract," and Mr. Edgar Meynell set the papers and gave a special prize of a guinea. Mr. M. T. Samuels was first, and Messrs. J. Charlesworth and T. M. Harbottle were equal second. The report was adopted on the motion of the president, seconded by Mr. H. Jacks. The officers for the ensuing year were elected as follows: Hon. president, His Honour Judge Greenwell; president, Mr. W. S. Burton; vice-president, Mr. Horace J. Criddle; hon. treasurer, Mr. V. F. Stewart; hon. auditor, Mr. M. A. M. Dillon; hon. secretaries, Messrs. M. S. Robson and H. R. Telford; committee, Messrs. H. L. Benson, T. M. Harbottle, H. Jacks, P. A. Forster, J. A. Angus, and D. A. Williamson; sports committee, Messrs. R. Morrison, H. L. Benson, and H. R. Telford. Two new members were elected, and the retiring officers were thanked for the services of the past year, an especially hearty vote of thanks being accorded Mr. Appleby for his services in the presidential

chair.

PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. Information intended for publication under the above heading should reach us not later than Thursday morning in each week, as publication is otherwise delayed.

Mr. FRANK HERBERT COLLER has been appointed Chief Justice of the Island of Saint Lucia. Mr. Coller was called to the Bar by Lincoln's-inn in 1893.

Mr. H. A. JONES-LLOYD, solicitor, Pembroke Dock, has been appointed Clerk to the Justices for the borough of Pembroke. Mr. Jones-Lloyd was admitted in 1884.

NOTES AND QUERIES.

This column is intended for the use of members of the Legal Profession, and therefore queries from lay correspondents cannot be inserted. Under no circumstances are editorial replies undertaken. None are inserted unless the name and address of the writer are sent, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of bona fides.

Queries

21. FREE CONVEYANCES AND CONTRACT AND AUCTION FEES. -Property is offered for sale by auction. One of the special conditions of sale provides that the purchaser of any lot who shall agree to accept the vendor's title shall be entitled to have the property purchased by him conveyed to him by the vendor free of all costs, fees, and charges whatsoever other than the stamp on the conveyance. Another special condition provides that each purchaser shall immediately after the sale pay to the auctioneer a fee of £1 1s. per cent., and a like fee to the vendor's solicitors, unless he shall take advantage of the last conditionin other words, unless he shall agree to accept the vendor's title. Free conveyances are objectionable, but unfortunately they are not uncommon, especially in the case of building estates. Injthe case under consideration, however, the purchaser who elects to have the vendor's title investigated by his own solicitor is actually fined £2 2s. per cent. on the amount of his purchase money if he does not actually accept the vendor's title and take a free conveyance. This goes beyond anything in our experience, and we are writing to inquire whether any of your readers have had similar experience. We are inclined to doubt whether (altogether apart from the very doubtful propriety of such practice) the purchaser would not be entitled to recover the fees to the auctioneer and the solicitor which he has to pay merely because he does not agree to accept the vendor's title. In this particular case it was not a question of the purchase of a small building lot, but the purchase of a farm, and it should be added that the vendor's title is not one which is at all well known in the locality. WEST COUNTY SOLICITOrs.

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CORRESPONDENCE.

This department being open to free discussion on all Professional topics. the Editor does not hold himself responsible for any opinions or statements contained in it.

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BARNET FAIR PIE POWDER (?) COURT.-At this "silly season the Times has found, and you (at p. 460 ante) have hatched, a mare's nest, in the reference to the continued existence of the old Pie Powder Court at Barnet Fair. The alleged quaint survival" of this "startling feature" of the fair is too ludicrous for words. Far from the local Bench being "submerged in temporary oblivion" by any such imaginary court, it is to aid the Bench and prevent an undue accumulation of minor cases at the usual weekly petty sessions on a Wednesday that I have always arranged, during the more than thirty-one years I have occupied my present position, that two justices should attend at this office each fair day at 5 p.m. to deal with such cases as may arise. These justices are simply sitting as an occasional court under sect. 20 of the Summary Jurisdiction Act 1879, the limitation of punishment by that section prescribed being usually ample, saving in such felonies as it may be necessary to remand. It was for the convenience that day of the workhouse officials that the "Barnet casual" spoken of as failing "to reduce the granite masses at the workhouse, and so bringing himself within the purview of the Vagrancy Act 1824, chanced to be dealt with at one of these occasional courts. You may be surprised to hear we really are familiar with this Act under which refractory paupers are convicted and sent for seven or fourteen days' "hard" from here nearly every week! It it is no doubt pleasant at times to grovel in the dust of the past, and I deem it a compliment that it should be suggested that justice is administered at Barnet "as rapidly as dust can fall from the foot," though not (as I have shown) in the ancient and obsolete court of pie poudre first giving rise to that expression.

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W. OSBORN BOYES, Magistrates' Clerk.

Barnet, Herts, 25th Sept. 1912.

THE LAW SOCIETY'S MEETING.-COUNSEL'S CLERKS' FEES. -I was glad to observe that the president in his recent address at Cardiff, as reported in the Times, while condemning the exces sive fees now paid to counsel, referred with scorn to the practice of also having to pay fees to their clerks. A busy counsel's clerk has much responsible work to do, requiring tact, patience, and good conduct he deserves and should be paid adequate remunera. tion; but why should the client pay for the very necessary services rendered by the clerk to his employer? After all, as the president said in his address, litigants and their solicitors have only themselves to blame for the exorbitant fees now demanded by and paid to eminent counsel, and, moreover, there are many quite competent men who will do the work well for much more moderate fees, but the obligation of having to pay a clerk's fees as well, though relatively a small matter, has always struck me as quite indefensible. In no profession can so large an income be made with so little outlay as by a successful barrister. Beyond rent of chambers (mostly paid in the case of a "big man by his subtenants) and travelling expenses, if he goes circuit, he has nothing to pay, though his income is reckoned in thousands. In our profession I think I am within the mark in saying that at least 40 per cent. or 50 per cent. goes in rent, salaries, stationers bills, &c.; no consulting physician, surgeon, engineer, architect, or expert of any kind expects his clients to pay his clerk's fees. why on earth should a barrister be the only exception. I firmly believe that, if the question were taken in hand by the Law Society, the Bar Council would, out of very shame, have to submit to the payment of their clerks' wages by their clients being discontinued.

SOLICITOR.

THE COUNTY COURTS CHRONICLE AND GAZETTE OF BANKRUPTCY. — To enable it to treat more completely of the many matters on which the Judges, Officers, and Practitioners require to be kept regularly informed and to give to it the importance which, as the Journal of the County Courts, and their long-established official organ, it entitled to assume, it has been greatly improved and enlarged in accordance with the extension of the Jurisdiction of the County Courts under 30 & 31 Vict. c. 142, 46 & 47 Vict. c. 52, 51 & 52 Vict. c. 43, and 53 & 54 Vict. c. 63. The Reports of Cases relating to County Courts Law decided by the Superior Courts are in octavo form, as more convenient for citation in Court. Communications are specially invited to the department of "Queries," which is designed to do for the County Courts what the "Justice of the Peace does for the Magistrates' Courts. N.B.-The "County Courts Chronicle" was commenced with the County Courts. It is recognised as the official organ of the Courts. Monthly, price 1s. 6d. -HORACE Cox, "Law Times' Office, Windsor House, Bream'sbuildings, E.C.-[ADVT.]

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