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years earlier.

Here I am conscious that I demand nothing from others, of which a higher spirit, reading my soul, could reproach me with ever having done the reverse. This scrupulousness, combined with my conception of what a philologer can and ought to be, if he comes before the world, and with my reverence for great scholars, made me so reluctant, long after I had attained to manhood, to appear with any work. Though often urged to do so, not without reproaches, by my friends, I felt that my hour was not yet come; which, had my life taken another course, might have come several

From a young man, were it merely as an exercise of honesty, I demand the most scrupulous truth in literature, as in all other things, absolutely and without exception; so that it may become an integral part of his nature; or rather, that the truth, which God planted in his nature, may abide there. By it alone can we fight our way through the world. The hour when

Marcus should

say an untruth, or give himself the show of a merit which he had not, would make me very unhappy.

I come now to another part of my task of giving you advice. I wish you were not so fond of satires, even of Horace's. Turn to those works which elevate the heart, in which you see great men and great events, and live in a higher world: turn away from those which represent the mean and contemptible side of ordinary relations and degenerate ages. They are not fitted for the young; and the ancients would not have let them fall into your hands. Homer, Æschylus, Sophocles, Pindar,—these are the poets for youth, the poets with whom the great men of antiquity nourished themselves; and as long as literature shall give light to the world, they will ennoble the youthful souls, that are filled with them, for life. Horace's Odes, as copies of Greek models, are also good reading for the young ; and I regret that it is become the practice to depreciate them, which only a few masters are entitled to do, or can do without arrogance. In his Epistles, Horace is original, and more genial; but he who reads them intelligently, reads them with sorrow; they can not do good to any one. We see a man of noble disposition, but who, from inclination and reflection, tries to adapt himself to an evil age, and who has given himself up to a vile philosophy, which does not prevent his continuing noble, but lowers all his views. His morality rests on the principle of suitableness, decorum, reasonableness: he declares expediency (to take the most favorable expression) to be the source of the idea of right (Sat. I. iii. 98.) Bazeness discomposes him, and excites him, not to anger, but to a slight chastisement. That admiration for virtue, which constrains us to scourge vice, and which we see not only in Tacitus, but also in Juvenal,-in the latter disgustingly,-is not found in Horace. Juvenal, however, you must not read yet, with the exception of a few pieces: nor is this any loss; for even if you might be allowed to read him, it would not be wholesome at your age, to dwell on the contemplation of vice, instead of enriching your mind with great thoughts.

To these poets, and among prose writers to Herodotus, Thucy dides, Demosthenes, Plutarch, Cicero, Livy, Cæsar, Sallust, Tacitus, I earnestly entreat you to turn, and to keep exclusively to them. Do not read them to make esthetical remarks on them, but to read yourself into them, and to fill your soul with their thoughts, that you may gain by their reading, as you wonld gain by listening reverently to the discourses of great men. This is the philology which does one's soul good : learned investigations, when one has attained to the capacity of carrying them on, still are only of secondary value. We must be accurately acquainted with grammar, according to the ancient, wide acceptation of that term: we must acquire all branches of archæology, so far as lies in our power. But even though we were to make the most brilliant emendations, and could explain the most difficult passages off hand, this is nothing but mere trickery, unless we imbibe the wisdom and the magnanimity of the great ancients, feel like them, and think like them,

For the study of language, I recommend you, above all, Demosthenes and Cicero. Take the speech of the former for the Crown, that of the latter pro Cluentio, and read them with all the attention you are master of. Then go through them, giving account to yourself of every word, of every phrase. Draw up an argument: try to get a clear view of all the historical circumstances, and to arrange them in order. This will give you an endless work; and hence you will learn how little you can, and consequently do yet know. Then go to your teacher, --not to surprise him with some unexpectedly difficult questions (for in the speech for Cluentius there are difficulties with regard to the facts, which, even after the longest familiarity with it, can only be solved by conjectures, such as will not occur to the best scholar at the moment) but that he may

have the kindness to consider the passages, and to consult the commentators for you, where your powers and means are at fault. Construct a sketch of the procedure in the accusation against Cluentius. Make a list of the expressions, especially epithets and the nouns they are applied to, and mark the key of the metaphors. Translate passages; and a few weeks after, turn your translation back into the original tongue.

Along with this grammatical exercise, read those great writers, one after the other, with more freedom. But after finishing a book, or a section, recall what you have been reading in your memory, and note down the substance as briefly as you can. Note also the phrases and expressions which recur to you the most forcibly; aud you should always write down every new word you meet with immediately, and read over the list in the evening.

Leave the commentators and emendators for the present unread. The time will come, when you may study them to advantage. A painter must first learn to draw, liefore he begins to use colors : and he must know how to handle the ordinary colors, before he decides for or against the use of ultramarines. Of writing I have already spoken to you. Keep clear of miscellaneous reading, even of the ancient authors: among them too there are many bad ones. Æolus only let the one wind blow, which was to bear Ulysses to his goal: the others he tied up: when let loose, and crossing each other, they occasioned him endless wanderings.

Study history in two ways, according to persons, and according o states. Often make synchronistical surveys.

The advice which I give you, I would give to any one in your place. The blame I should have to give to very many. Do not fancy that I don't know this, or that I do not willingly take account of your industry according to its deserts.

The study which I require of you will make no show, will advance slowly: and it will perhaps discourage you to find that many years of studentship are still before you. But, my friend, true learning and true gain are the real blessings of speculative life; and our lifetime is not so short. Still, however long it may be, we shall always have more to learn : God be praised that it is so !

And now, may God bless your labors, and give you a right mind, that you may carry them on to your own welfare and bappiness, to the joy of your parents and of us all, who have your virtue and respectability at heart.

“A bad handwriting ought never to be forgiven. Sending a badly written letter to a fellow-creature is as impudent an act as I know of. Can there be any thing more unpleasant, than to open a letter which at once shows that it will require long deciphering? Besides, the effect of the letter is gone, if we must spell it. Many applications for aid, positions, and coöperation are preju. diced and even thrown aside, merely because they are written so badly."

“ Writing seems to me just like dressing; we ought to dress well and neat; but as we may dress too well, so may a pedantically fine hand show that the writer has thought more of the letters than the sense."- Conversation-in Liebe er's Reminiscences of Niebuhr.

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Sore in their discourse desire rather commendation of wit, in being able to hold all arguments, than of judgment, in discerning what is true, as if it were a praise to know what might be said, and not what should be thought. Some have certain common places and themes wherein they are good, and want variety ; which kind of poverty is for the most part tedious, and when it is once perceived-ridiculous. The honorablest part of the talk is to give the occasion, and again to moderate and pass to somewhat else, for then a man leads the dance. It is good in discourse and speech of converration to vary and intermingle speech of the present occasion with arguments, tales with reasons, asking of questions with telling of opinions, and jest with earnest, for it is a dull thing to tire, and as we say now, to jade (over-ride or drive) anything too far. As for jest, there be certain things which ought to be privileged from it-namely: religion, matters of state, great persons, any man's present business of importance, and any case that deserveth pity; yet there be some that think their wits have been asleep except they dart out somewhat that is piquant, and to the quick-that is . a vein which would be bridled

“Parce puer stimulus, et fortius utere loris.” (Boy, spare the spur, and more tightly hold the reins.-Ovid Met. ii. 127).. And, generally, men ought to find the difference between saltness : and bitterness. Certainly, he that hath a satirical vein as he maketh others afraid of his wit, so he had need be afraid of other's memory. He that questioneth much shall learn much, and content much, but especially if he apply his questions to the skill of the persons whom he asketh, for he shall give them occasion to please themselves in speaking, and himself shall continually gather knowledge; but let his questions not be troublesome, for that is fit for a poser (ner nice examiner), and let him be sure to leave other men their turns to speak; nay, if there be any that would reigp, and take up all the time, let him find means to take them off, and, bring : others on, as musicians used to do with those that dance too long galliards (merry measure). If you dissemble, sometimes your knowledge of that (that which) you are thought to know, you shall be thought another time to know that you know not. Speech of man's self ought to be seldom, and well-chosen. I knew one was wont to say in scorn, “ He must needs be a wise man, he speaks so much of himself,” and there is but one case wherein a man may commend himself with a good grace, and that is in commending virtue in another, especially if it be a virtue whereunto himself pretendeth (lay claim to). Speech of touch (particular application towards others should be sparingly used, for discourse ought to be as a field, without coming home to any man. I knew two noblemen of the west part of England, whereof the one was given to scoff, but kept ever royal cheer in his house; the other would ask of those that had been at the other's table, “Tell truly was there never a flout (jeer) or dry blow given ?" To which the guest would answer "Such and such a thing passed." The lord would say, "I thought he would mar a good dinner.” Discretion of speech is more than eloquence, and to speak agreeably (in a manner suited) to him with whom we deal, is more than to speak in good words and in good order. A good continued speech, without a good speech of interlocution, shows slowness, and a good reply, or second speech, without a good settled speech, showeth shallowness and weakness. As we see in beasts, that those that are weakest in the course are yet nimblest in the turn, as it is betwixt the greyhound and the hare. To use too many circumstances (non-essential particulars) ere one come to the matter is wearisome; to use none at all is blunt.

Archbishop Whately in his annotations to the above Essay remarks :

Among the many just and admirable remarks in this essay on " Discourse,” Bacon does not notice the distinction—which is an important one-between those who speak because they wish to say something, and those who speak because they huve something to say: that is, between those who are aiming at. displaying their own knowledge or ability, and those who speak from fulness of matter, and are thinking only of the matter, and not of themselves and the opinion that will be formed of them. This latter Bishop Butler calls (in reference to writings) "a man's writing with simplicity and in earnest.” It is curious to observe how much more agreeable is even inferior conversation of this latter description, and how it is preferred by many—they know not whywho are not accustomed to analyse their own feelings, or to enquire why they like or dislike.

Something nearly coinciding with the above distinction, is that which some draw between an "unconscious" and a “conscious” manner, only that the latter extends to persons who are not courting applause, but anxiously guarding

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