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rental Affection, “ I must educate my boy; that £50 saved from my income is the cost of his education." "Is it so? Can all the schoolmasters in Europe teach him a pobler lesson than that of a generous thrift, a cheerful and brave self-denial? If the £50 be really the sum which the boy's schooling needs, and you can spare nothing else from your remain. ing £250, still save and lay by for a year, and, during that year, let the boy study at home, by seeing how gladly you all are saving for him.
He who has saved for one year, finds the security, pleasure, and pride in it a luxury so great that his invention will be quickened to keep it. Lay by! lay by! What makes the capital of nations ? Savings; nothing else. Neither nations nor men are safe against fortune, unless they can hit on a system by which they save more than they spend. When that system is once established, at what a ratio capital accumulates ! What resources the system gradually develops! In that one maxim is the secret of England's greatness! Do you think it mean to save more than you spend? You do in that what alone gives your country its rank in the universe. The system so grand for an empire cannot be mean for a citizen.
Earn More than you Spend. Whatever your means be, so apportion your wants that your means may exceed them. Every man who earns but 10s. a week can do this if he please, whatever he may say to the contrary; for if he can live upon 10s, a week, he can live upon 9s. 11d.
In this rule mark the emphatic distinction between poverty and neediness. Poverty is relative, and, therefore, not ignoble; neediness is a positive degradation. If I have only £100 a year, I am rich as compared with the majority of my countrymen. If I have £5,000 a year, I may be poor compared with a majority of my associates ; and very poor compared to my next-door neighbor. With either of these incomes, I am relatively poor or rich; but with either of these incomes I may be positively needy, or positively free from neediness. With the £100 a year, I may need no man's help; I may at least have “my crust of bread and liberty.” But with £5,000 a year, I may dread a ring at my bell; I may have my tyrannical masters in servants whose wages I cannot pay; my exile may be at the fiat of the first long-suffering man who enters a judgment against me; for the flesh that lies nearest to my heart, some Shylock may be dusting his scales and whetting his knife. Nor is this an exaggeration. Some of the neediest men I ever knew, have a nominal £5,000 a year. Every man is needy who spends more than he has; no man is needy who spends less. I may so ill manage my money that, with £5,000 a year, I purchase the worst evils of poverty-terror and shame; I may so well manage my money that, with £100 a year, I purchase the best blessings of wealth--safety and respect.
POWER OF MONEY WELL MANAGED.
You have got money—you have it; and with it, the heart and the sense and the taste to extract from the metal its uses. Talk of the power of knowledge! What can knowledge invent that money cannot purchase ? Money, it is true, cannot give you the brain of the philosopher, the eye of the painter, the ear of the musician, nor that inner sixth sense of beauty and truth by which the poet unites in himself, philosopher, painter, musician; but money can refine and exalt your existence with all that philosopher, painter, musician, poet, accomplish. That which they are, your wealth cannot make you; but that which they do is at the command of your wealth. You may collect in your libraries all thoughts which all thinkers have confided to books; your galleries may teem with the treasures of art; the air that you breathe may be vocal with music; better than all, when you summon the Graces, they can come to your call in their sweet name of Charities. You can build up asylums for age, and academies for youth. Pining Merit may spring to hope at your voice, and “Poverty grow cheerful in your sight.” Money well managed deserves, indeed, the apotheosis to which she was raised by her Latin adorers; she is Diva Moncta-a Goddess.
Motives for Acquisition and Economy. The first object connected with money is the security for individual freedom--pecuniary independence. That once gained, whatever is surplus becomes the fair capital for reproductive adventure. Adhere but to this rule in every speculation, however tempting; preserve free from all hazard that which you require to live on without depending upon others.
1. It is a great motive to economy, a strong safeguard to conduct, and a wonderful stimulant to all mental power, if you can associate your toil for money with some end dear to your affections. I once knew a boy of good parts, but who seemed incorrigibly indolent. His her, a professional man, died suddenly, leaving his widow and son utterly destitute. The widow resolved to continue the education of her boy, however little he had hitherto profited by it, engaged herself as teacher at a school, and devoted her salary to her son. From that moment the boy began to work in good earnest. He saw the value of money in this world ; he resolved to requito his mother—to see her once more in a home of her own ; lie distinguished himself at school ; he obtained, at : he age of sixteen, an entry in a mercantile house. At the age of twenty, his salary enabled him to place his mother in a modest suburban lodging, to which he came home every night. At the age of thirty he was a rich man, and, visiting him at his villa, I admired his gardens. He said to me, simply, “I have no taste for flowers myself, but my mother is passionately fond of them. I date my first step in life from my resolve to find her a home ; and the invention in my business to which I owe my rise from a clerk to a partner, could never have come into my brain, and been patiently worked out, if, night and day, I had not thought of my mother's delight in flowers."
2. A common motive with a young man is an honest love for the girl whom he desires to win as his wife. Nay, if no such girl yet has been met on the earth, surely she lives for him in the cloudland of Fancy. Wedlock, and wedlock for love, is the most exquisite hope in the innermost heart of every young man who labors; it is but the profligate idlers who laugh at that sacred ideal. But it is only the peasant or mechanic who has a right to marry on no other capital than that which he takes
from nature in sinews and thews. The man whose whole condition of being is in his work from day to day must still have his helpmate. He finds his helpmate in one who can work like himself, if his honest industry fail her. I preach to the day laborer no cold homilies from political economy. The happiness and morality of the working class necessitate early marriages; and for prudent provision against the chances of illness and death, there are benefit clubs and societies, which must stand in lieu of jointure and settlement. But to men of a higher grade in this world's social distinctions, Hymen must generally contrive to make some kind of compromise with Plutus. I grant that your fond Amaryllis would take your arm to the altar, though you have not a coat to your back ; but Amaryllis may have parents, who not unreasonably ask, “How,
young Strephon, can you maintain our daughter? and if your death demolish all those castles in the air, which you are now building without brick and mortar, under what roof will she lay her head ?”
And suppose that no parents thus unkindly interpose between Ama ryllis and you, still it is a poor return to the disinterested love of Ama. ryllis, to take her, thoughtless child, at her word. Amaryllis proves her unselfish love; prove yours, my friend Strephon. Wait, hope, striveher ring is on your finger; her picture, though it be but a villainous photograph, hangs by your bedside ; her image is deep in the deepest fold of your heart. Wait till you can joyously say, “ Come, Amaryllis ; Plutus relaxes his frown; here is a home which, if humble, at least is secure ; and, if death suddenly snatch me away, here is no castle in air for my widow. Amaryllis shall never live upon alms ! ”
How your love will deepen and strengthen in that generous delay; and with your love, how your whole nature, mental and moral, will deepen and strengthen! Here, indeed, is an object for climbing the rough paths on to fortune; and here the first friendly opposition of Plutus only serves to place upon surer foundations the blessings promised by Hymen. Con. stancy in love necessitates patience and perseverance in all efforts for fortune; and, with patience and perseverance, a man of fair average capacities is the master of fortune.
3. The taste for books, and the desire to collect them, are no mean tests of a school-boy's career as man.
One of the most distinguished personages in Europe, showing me his library-which is remarkable for its extent and its quality (it was formed on the principle of including all works that treat, directly or indirectly, on the human mind, and thus necessarily includes almost every book worth the reading)—said to me: “Not only this collection, but my social successes in life, I trace back to the first franc I saved from the cake-shop to spend on the book-stall. When I was a young man, and received an invitation to a ball, not being then rich, I calculated what it would cost me in kid gloves and coach hire, and, refusing the ball, bought a book with the money. The books I bought, I read; the books I read influenced my career.” Perhaps this eminent person might have thought of the balls thus refused in his early youth, when, being still, young, he gave his own first ball as prime minister.
4. In the management of money, there are some things we do for show
—wisely, if we can afford it. Money is station, as well as character and power.
For a young man of a gentleman's station and a cadet's incoine, the only show needed is that which probably pleases himself the most the effect produced by his own personal appearance. Dress will, therefore, not unreasonably, and by no means frivolously, demand some of his thoughts and much of his money. To the station of a young aspirant of fashion in the polite world, who is known not to be rich, it matters nothing what he pays for his lodging ; he can always give his address at a club or hotel. No one cares how much or how little he pays for his din.
No fine lady inquires if he calls at her house on foot or in a car. riage. But society expects him to dress as much like a gentleman as if he were a young duke; and, fortunately, as young dukes nowadays do not wear gold lace and miniver, this is no unreasonable exaction on the part of society. A gentleman's taste in dress is, upon principle, the avoidance of all things extravagant. It consists in the quiet simplicity of exquisite neatness; but, as the neatness must be a neatness in fash. ion, employ the best tailor; pay him ready money, and, on the whole, you will find him the cheapest.
Mere dandies are but cut flowers in a bouquet,-once faded, they can never reblossom. In the drawing-room, as everywhere else, Mind, in the long run, prevails. And, 0 well-booted Achaian! for all those substan. tial good things which money well managed commands, and which, year after year, as you advance in life, you will covet and sigh for,-yon sloven, thick-shoed, and with cravat awry,-whose mind, as he hurries by the bow-window at White's, sows each fleeting moment with thoughts which grow not blossoms for bouquets, but corn-sheaves for garners will, before he is forty, be far more the fashion than you. He is commanding the time out of which you are fading. And time, O my
friend, is money! time wasted can never conduce to money well managed.
Note-LORD LYTTON was originally known to fame, in this country, as Edward Lytton Bulwer, and our people had hardly got used to the honorable title which Queen Victoria conferred on him and the astronomer Herschel, as the best representatives of the literature and science of her kingdom at the date of her inanguration (1838), when, in 1844, by royal license, and in pursuance of his mother's will, by which he succeeded to the Lytton estate of Knebworth, the popular anthor Bulwer was apparently lost in the less familiar designation of Sir Edward Bulwer Lyttor, and again as Lord Lytton (since 1866), when, on the recommendation of the Premier (Lord Derby), in whose cabinet te bad a seat as Secretary for the Colonies, he was elevated to the peerage as Baron Lyt. ton; thenceforth we find his name recorded as the Rt. Hon. Lord Edward George Earle Bulwer Lytton. By whatever name he or the Queen or the Herald's College may choose to designate the author of the Caxtons,' his numerous works will be treasured as valu. able contributions to the literature of the English language.
STUDIES AND CONDUCT.
THOUGHTS AND OPINIONS OF A STATESMAN. William von HUMBOLDT, from whose Letters to a Lady, in whose loss of fortune incident to the German war with Napoleon I. he became interested as Envoy of Prussia to the Congress of Vienna, and whose disappointment he afterwards sought to alleviate by delicate pecuniary assistance, and friendly correspondence, was born in 1761, and died in 1835. Although less known out of Germany than his brother Alexander, his reputation, as a wise statesman, in Gerinany is second to no man of his time. These letters were published after his death, and an English edition appeared in 1850, in the series of Small Books on Great Subjects, by Pickering, under the secondary title given above. The English translator says: “ Never was religion shown in a more amiable light than in the outpourings of his benevolent, yet firm mind. We see it as his. guide and his support under all circumstances, and yet so unostentatiously so, that but for the publication of these Letters, probably none but his intimates would have known Wilhelm Von Humboldt than that he was a profound scholar, and an able statesman: and the moving spring of all his actions would have remained concealed: till the day when the secrets of all heart shall be made known. It is well for the world that this has not been so: it is well to see the nobleman and the minister of state gathering from Christianity the rule of his life, and depending on its promises with the child-like confidence so acceptable to God.”
BIBLE-OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT-ENGLISH AND GERMAN VERSION. When the human race was nearer its origin, men seem to have had more greatness, more simplicity, more depth and nature in their thoughts and feelings, as well as in the expression of them. It is true we must arrive at the full and clear sight of this by laborious, and often by mechanical acquirements; but in this very labor there is a charm; or even if not, it is at least soon over when we are accustomed to application. Among the strongest, purest, and finest tones in which the voice of antiquity has reached us, may be reckoned the books of the Old Testament; and we can never be enough thankful that in our