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SCHOOLS FOR THE MILITARY AND COMMERCIAL MARINE.
1. Military Marine. There are in Austria several kinds of naval schools, as follows: One each for sailor boys, for marines, for quartermasters, for naval pupils of the first class, for naval pupils of the second class, a theoretical school for naval cadets, and a superior establishment for naval officers.
i. The school for sailor boys is intended to train, as petty officers for the navy, young men from the Slave and German provinces, admitted between 12 and 14 years of age into the naval service. The instruction lasts until the pupil has attained the age for the conscription; he is then entered as a sailor and becomes a petty officer as soon as he gets sufficiently used to the sea. The highest post he can attain is that of upper boatswain (Hochbootsmann.)
2. The schools for marines (Zeugscorps) receive men drawn from different corps of the army. They are trained as petty officers, and a part receive the uniform. Those who are fit to become officers receive their promotion when they leave their corps to enter the school.
3. The school for naval cadets of the first class is kept on board a war vessel selected for the purpose. The object is to prepare for the naval service youths of 16 or 18 years of age, who, on entering the school have already received a complete civil technical education. The teaching here consists, therefore, chiefly of practical seamanship, and also of the application of previously acquired scientific knowledge to navigation and nautical astronomy. The course occupies a year; on leaving, the pupil is received as a naval cadet. After passing two or three years at sea these cadets enter the theoretical school for naval cadets.
4. The school for naval cadets of the second class is intended solely to prepare them to become officers. In this school, beside the pupils placed there at the cost of the State, there are others maintained by endowments, and also others who pay for their instruction. The sons of officers and State functionaries are entitled to enter this school at the public expense, and any Austrian subject who has the necessary qualifications is admitted on payment. Foreigners are also admissible as paying pupils, provided they can obtain authorization from their own government to enter the Austrian service. To be admitted, candidates must be between 12 and 14 years of age, of sound health without bodily defect, and able to pass a previous examination. The instruction is given in accordance with a determined plan, on board a vessel prepared expressly to receive the pupils. After three years' instruction the pupils leave the school as naval cadets and are sent to sca. At the end of two or three years' active service the cadets are ad Initted to the theoretical school. This school receives from 40 to 50 pupils. The chaplain on board is charged with the religious instruction; the other teaching is given by professors from the hydrographic schools. The naval officers of the school-ship give the instruction in practical seamanship,
5. The theoretical school for naval cadets is on shore, and its course occupies a year, after which the pupil undergoes the examination prescribed for his commission as an officer. On leaving this theoretical school the pupils are still naval cadets, but become officers when appointed to a ship.
6. The superior school for naval officers is intended for the further improve ment in mathematical and hydrographic studies, of such young men as have shown decided talent and taste for those sciences.
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111. GERMAN EMPIRE. The jurisdiction of the German Empire, by treaty concluded at Versailles, and ratified by the Diet of North Germany Dec. 10, 1870, embraces among other national interests, the Army and Navy, and the protection of German navigation.
The war-fleet of the Empire, which embraces all that had been constructed by Prussia since 1848, consisted in June, 1870, of 38 steamers and 7 sailing vessels, with 42,415 tonnage, and 480 guns.
Tonnage. 5 Iron-clads, ......
15,846 9 Steam Frigates and Corvettes, 3,200
14,210 First class Gunboats,..
5,858 14 Second "
28 5,858 1 Yacht,..
445 2 Paddle-Steamer Corvettes,
13 1,750 3 Frigates (sailing vessels),
114 3,736 4 Brigg,
46 1,927 The German navy was officered and manned by 1 admiral, 1 viceadmiral, 1 rear-admiral, 27 captains and 217 lieutenants, and 3,283 seamen and boys, besides 2,760 in the marine corps. The sailors of the fleet and the marine corps are recruited by conscription, from the seafaring population, which numbers 80,000. The provision for naval expenditure in 1870, was forMinistry of Marine,
81,250 thalers. Administration officers,..
65,557 Pay of seamen and marines,
1,086,990 Repairs of ships,...
890,000 Marine hospitals,
71,820 War material,..
179,796 Total ordinary expenses..
3,596,730 Extraordinary expenditure, .
4,403,460 Grand total,..
8,000,190 The artificial harbor and dry-docks at Wilhelmshaven, in the Bay of Jade, on the North Sea, which was opened by the King of Prussia in June, 1869, have cost over $10,000,000.
The system of professional training for officers of the Imperial Navy is not yet matured. The Naval School at Kiel is still recognized. Aspirants enter as naval cadets after passing an examination equivalent to the requirements of a gymnasial maturity certificate, which in general education is superior to the requirements of graduation of either our Naval or Military Academy. Before entering on their professional studies, the cadet is first sent on a cruise to test his aptitude for sea-service. He then studies eight months at school and one year at sea, to pass as midshipman; and one year more at school, and three years at sca, to become sub-lieutenant.
MARINE ACADEMY AT KIEL.
The German Marine Academy established in 1872, at Kiel, is designed not for the education of cadets, but for the professional training and improvement of officers already in the naval service of the empire—and is of the same character as the Staff School of Berlin for officers of the army. Those only will be received az pupils, whose conduct and talents seem to qualify them for superior scientific attainments, and, hereafter, for the filling of the most inportant posts. These officer-pupils will be required to give proofs of their diligence and progress by the production, from time to time, of theses and dissertations on scientific subjects given to them by the professors. At the same time, all naval officers will be permitted to attend the courses of instruction when their professional duties do not call them away.
The course of study is to occupy two terms, cach of twelve months' duration, with a vacation of three months for practical exercises.
The subjects for the first term are :—Mathematics, natural philosophy, chemistry, the theory of naval war in all its branches, military tactics in as far as disembarkations are concerned, coast surveying, the theory of the formation of coasts, coastal defenses, field fortification, the constitution of military courts, the principles of international, military, and naval law, the system of administration, sanitary science, especially with reference to life aboard ship and in different climates, the elements of logic, ethics, &c.
The following subjects will be included in the second term :Nautical astronomy, geodesy, theory of maps and charts, the history of war, with especial reference to naval war, artillery, shipbuilding, the construction of steam-engines (with practical exercises), the position and construction of naval ports, physical geography, the elements of geology, marine botany and zoology, and the general history of modern literature and civilization, &c.
SCHOOL AND TEACHER IN ENGLISH LITERATURE.
ALEXANDER POPE.-1688-1744. ALEXANDER Pope was born in Lombard street, London, May 22, 1688. Both his parents were respectably connected—the father was a linen merchant, who amassed, even under the disadvantages which then environed a Roman Catholic trader, a moderate fortune, and the mother was of an ancient family,“ as well born,” said the son in his defiant letter to Lord Harvey, as well born and educated as that lady whom your lordship made choice of to be the mother of your own children ”—and both assiduous and affectionate in their care and nurture of an only son born to a delicate and sickly frame. His education, partly owing to the disabilities and prejudices which were attached to a Catholic pupil in the public schools and universities of England at that time, was mainly domestic. He was for a while under the tuition of a priest, who taught him the rudiments of Latin and Greek together, and subsequently, between 10 and 12 years of age, at a celebrated Catholic seminary at Twyford, near Winchester, where he read Homer and Ovid, in translations. From the age of twelve to nineteen he educated himself mainly through books, and natural scenery-getting not much grammatical training of the language, but familiarizing himself with the best authors in Latin, Greek, French and Italian literature—Homer, Virgil, Tasso, and Racine, through the original, in some, and translations in others, and not at the same time keeping himself ignorant of English poets. With Dryden, and all the niceties of his versification he was early familiar, and when he was only twelve years old, he was taken to town by a friend, specially to be introduced to that great master of vigorous English style. We shall not attempt even a reference to his works in which the flexibility, terseness and cadence of the English language are so wonderfully exhibited, but only introduce a picture of the education of his day, which has been pronounced "not too severely true.”
PICTURE OF THE SCHOOLS AND THE UNIVERSITIES.
The Third Book of the Dunciad closes with a prophetic vision of the Progress of Dullness over the land, and a glimpse of her sons' ascendant in the seats of Arts and Sciences.
Proceed, great days! till learning fly the shore,
The Fourth Book announces the completion of the prophecies by introducing the advent of the goddess coming in her majesty to destroy order and science, and to substitute the kingdom of the Dull upon earth. How she leads captive the sciences, and silences the muses; and what they be who succeed in their stead. All her children, by a wonderful attraction, are drawn about her; and bear along with them divers others, who promote her empire by connivance, weak resistance, or discouragements of arts; such as halfwits, tasteless admirers, vain pretenders, the flatterers of dunces, or the patrons of them. All these crowd around here; one of them offering to approach her, is driven back by a rival, but she commends and encourages both. The first who speak in form are the geniuses of the schools, who assure her of their care to advance her cause by confining youths to words, and keeping them out of real knowledge. Their address, and her gracious answer; with her charge to them and the universities. The universities appear by their proper deputies, and assure her that the same method is observed in the progress of education. The speech of Aristarchus on this subject. They are driven off by a band of young gentlemen returned from travel with their tutors; one of whom delivers to the goddess, a polite oration, an account of the whole conduct and fruits of their travels; presenting to her at the same time a young nobleman perfectly accomplished. She receives him graciously, and endures him with the happy quality of want of shame. She sees loitering about her a number of indolent persons abandoning all business and duty, and dying with laziness, to whom she recommends proper employments—to this the amusement of the an. tiquary, to that, of the virtuoso, and to others, the study of butterflies, shells, &c., with special caution not to proceed beyond trifles to any useful or extensive view of nature, or the Author of nature.