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TABLE I.-Primary and Secondary Education in the Cities and Torns of Norway, January 1, 1868.

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17

3, 920
4. 706
12, 923

3, 846
4,181
11, 416

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369
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13.989 6, 289

12, 961
6,758

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573 3, 622

215
2, 405

12,331
301 873
5, 276

22, 212
1,076 3,727
1, 0.35 3,910
1, 413 5, 436
217

380
400) 961
187 517

172 480
1,340

2, 983
801

2, 2:26
166 306
319 630
188 1, 407
367 1,981

234 500
1,112 2.-19
1,038

2, 676 479

1, 432
974

1, 802
149
489 1, 278
275 485
5.12 1, 368
151 3.10
108 623
325

1,742
175 338
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840
6:36 1,871
2, 560 5, 379

471 4, 165

333 2, 5:26 13,871

2, 409

32
12,331

5: 6
22, 212
3,77
3, 159
4, 801

387
937
518

480
2,983
2,226

306

638
1,311
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500
2,721
2,394
1, 270
1, 862

4:39
1, 278

467
1,368

300

621
1,023

338

810
1,77
5,578
3, 4:38

979
12, 075

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51
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109 9

3, 700
2, 45.3
1,070
1,380

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1, 220
2, 321

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6, 186 10,647 4,783 8, 374

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1,048

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10G 129

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4, 610 9,379

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City or town.

Population.

1. Aalesund.
2. Arendal.
3. Bergen...
4. Brevig
5. Chrisuania
6. Christiansand
7. Christiansund
8. Dranimen
9. Drobak
10. Egersund
ll. Fauna
12. Flekkefjord
1:3, Frederickshald
14. Frederickstad
15. Grimstad
16. daminer
17, Hammerfest..
18. Haugerund
19. Holinestrand
20. Horten.
21. Kongsberg
22. Kragero
23. Laurvig
24. Levanger
5. Mandal ...
2ti. Molde.....
27. Moss....
28. Namsos
29, Oesterns er
30. Porsgrund..
31. Sandnces.
32. Sarpsborg
33. Skien
34. Stavanger
35. Tönsberg.
36. Trom 60
37. Troudhjem

3, 432
33, 635
27, 703

2. 162
57. 3-2
10, 810

5,709
13, (32

), 602
2, 143
1, 416
1, 6:2
9,219
4,820
1, 301
1,008
1, 547
3,:21
2. 084
6, 192
5, 011
7,089
6, 3:7
1,017
3,812
1, 691
4,129
), 189
2,337
2,774
1, CIO
2,989
4,7703
16, 017
4,511
4,673
19,227

* Burgher schools with r al cl.insey.

1 Gymnasia and real schools.

* In specie dalers $ha

TabLE. Statistics of Popular Schools in Sweden1867–68.

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Skara........

Upsala......

232 51,736 314 81 298 399 19 62 218 452 33,667 4,956 20,911 18,084 16,636 19,863 6,484 8,357 7,972 2,878 19,516 19,882 12,275 9,174 1,735
Linköping... 188 53,578 183 138 210 413 35 62 126 281 37,595 5,369 19,782 17,474 17,338 18,504 8,956 5,244 3,85€ 1,787 17,465 17,828 12,383 7,307 1,746

.224 56,912 203 67 244 338 54 114 160 358 38,154 4,832 17,965 14,582 13,973 14,656 4,889 6,157 5,673 2,343 12,644 16,791 12,585 9,486 2,256
Strengnas.. 134 41,281 211 61 184 166 33 119 126 316 23,589 3,144 17,894 13,677 13,527 16,968 4,113 8,278 4,822 2,108 14,495 17,395 6,484 5,408 1,521
Westeros.....

108 52,424 172 60 574 123 20 18 107 305 35,682 3.172 13,854 12,259 11,939 13,234 3,000 5,591 5,294 2,119 12,096 13,201 11,207 6,514 1,549
Wexio.. 164 50,523 44 159 320 508 12 37 103 182 25,911 8,452 11,081 10,887 10,973 11,050 1,513 4,877 7,016 1,321 10,238 10,802 8,421 4.666 892
Lund.

417 102,410 603 57 484 278 24 84 221 896 78,245 4,371 43,064 36,612 35,082 31,483 14,579 15,029 11,409 3.860 30.886 37,388 15,011 12,238 1,847
Goetheborg ... 202 67,039 187 140 408 704 69 127 66 444 46,82 6,977 20,801 23,352 22,831 18,0-26 5,841 8,153 7,139 2,586 22,551 23,914 8,862 6,129 1,168
Kalmar....... 64 24,970 53 32 92 60

31
45 3,546 1,634
268 284 8 7 88 61 14 287 256 200

140 128 Karlstad..... 135 73,858 27 247 302 1619 25 55 134 285 47,662 20,770 19,64) 16,071 14,883 14,418 5,223 4,019 3,059 606 11,439 19,173 14,902 5,718 357 Hernoesand. 142 60,974 101 118 252 465 99 144 100 226 18,960 5,971 8,385 6,907 7,082 8,246 2,306 2,950 1,954 728 6,537 7,562 5,253 2,260 243 Wisby 74 7,312 74 1 21 10 i 18 45 105 5,366 99 4,398 3,120 3,074 4,397 809 1,312

904 328 4,370 4.386 3,154 1.617 494 Total. 2084 643,019 2172 1161 3389 5085 391 8401437 3898 395,205/68,113 199,410 173.293 167,622 170,860 58,620 70,085 59.161 20,778 162,524 188,578 110,739 70,657 13.936

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ENGLISH PEDAGOGY_OLD and New: or, Treatises and Thoughts on Education, the School, and the Teacher in English Literature. Second Series. Republished from Barnard's American Journal of Education.

$3.00. 1873.

628 pages.

CONTENTS.

223

PAGE. INTRODUCTION

1-16 CONTENTS AND INDEX OF FIRST SERIES...

3 ART. I. WILLIAM OF WYKEUAM AND THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS..

17-128 1. WILLIAM OF WYKEHAM, Bishop and Chuncellor-1324-1404.

19 2. PUBLIC OR ENDOWED Schools....

23 3. St. Mary's COLLEGE, Winchester--1387–1865..

49 4. REPORT OF ROYAL COMMISSIONERS ON THE GREAT Public Schools.... 81 5. ACTION OF PARLIAMENT AND COMMISSIONERS.....

118 II. DEAN COLET, AND St. Pauls School, London..

129-160 III. CARDINAL WOLSEY.-1471-1530.....

161-164 PLAN OF STUDIES For Ipswich GRAMMAR SCHOOL, 1528.

161 IV. Sir THOMAS ELYOT.—1497-1535....

165-178 THE GOVERNOR, or Training for the Public Weal, 1564.

167 V. RICHARD MULCASTER.-1531-1611....

179-190 Positions respecting the Training of Children, 1981..

179 VI. Joux BRINSLY_WEBSTER-CHRISTOPHER WASE..

185-190 VII. CHARLES IIOOLE.-1616–1666.......

191-324 OBJECT TEACHING AND PICTORIAL ILLUSTRATIONS, 1661..,

192 The New DISCOVERY OF THE OLD ART OF TEACHING, 1658.

195 THE PETTY School....

195 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL.. SCHOLASTIC DISCIPLINE.

293 VIII. ABRAHAM COWLEY-1618-1677.

325-336 PLAN OF A PhilosopICAL COLLEGE, 1661..

325 IX. ALEXANDER POPE-ROBERT SOUTII-SIR RICHARD STEELE... 337–346 THOUGHTS ON EDUCATION.....

337 X. OLIVER GOLDSMITII.-1731–1774.

347–358 ESSAY ON EDUCATION

347 XI. SAMUEL JOHNSON.-1708-1784.

359-361 PLAN OF STUDIES AND DETACHED THOUGHTS..

359 XII. SAMUEL PARR.—1747-1825..

365-368 CHARITY SCHOOL SERMON

365 XIII. PEDAGOGY OF TIIE 19TH CENTURY ..

369-455 THOMAS K. ARNOLD.--1795-1842

369-410 MEMOIR AND EDUCATIONAL LABORS..

369 DETACHED THOUGHTS ON STUDIES AND EDUCATION.

417-544 1. TEMPLE-LOWE-GLADSTONE-DONALDson-Hodgson..

417 MARTINEAU-VAUGHAN-De Morgan-MULLER-Smith.

448 2. FARADAY-HERSCHEL-WHEWELL-HAMILTON......

449 3. ACLAND-AIRY-HENFREY-HOOKER-HUXLEY.....

465 LYELL-OWEN-PAGET-TYNDALL-WILSON.......

481 4. MILL-FROUDE-CARLYLE, on University Studies.....

497 5. MACAULAY-NEWMAN, on the University of Books and Life....

529 XIV. ART AND SCIENCE IN ENGLISH Education..

545-592 XV. MECHANIC INSTITUTIONS AND POPULAR EDUCATION..

593-628

ENGLISH PEDAGOGY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.

FREDERICK WILLIAM TEMPLE.

FREDERICK W. Temple, D. D., was born Nov. 30, 1821, and educated at the Grammar School at Tiverton, and Oxford (Balliol College), where he took his degree in 1842 as a double first class. He was elected Fellow and Tutor, and after his ordination in 1846, became Principal of the Training College for masters of Pauper Schools at Kneller Hall in 1848. This post he resigned in 1855, to become Inspector of Schools, in which he continued till 1858, when he was made Head Master of Rugby School, from which high position he was promoted to the See of Exeter, to succeed Bishop Phil. potts. His evidence and opinions on the studies of secondary schools had great weight with the Public Schools Commission, which reported to Parliament in 1864. He was the author of the first of the seven “ Essays and Reviews " which caused some controversy as to his orthodoxy at the time (1860), and of a volume of Sermons Preached in Rugby Chapel in 1858-60.

Greek and Roman Language and Literature.* I can not suggest any change in our system of education. By degrees the present system may be much improved. But I understand the Commissioners to ask whether I wish to suggest, not such alterations as we can make for our. selves, and I trust are endeavoring to make, but such as would require superior authority to introduce: the total or partial surrender, for instance, of the classics as the staple of instruction. Such alterations I can not advise.

The studies of boys at school fall under three heads, literature, mathematics, and physical science. For every branch of each of these studies very strong arguments may be adduced. A boy ought not to be ignorant of this earth on which God has placed him, and ought therefore to be well acquainted with geography. He ought not to walk in the fields in total ignorance of what is growing under his very eyes, and he ought therefore to learn botany. There is hardly an occupation in which he can be employed where he will not find chemistry of service to him. Mathematics rule all other sciences, and contain in themselves the one perfect example of strict logic. It is absurd that an English youth should be ignorant of the history of England; equally absurd

* Extract from communication to the Public Schools Commission, 1864.
27

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that he should not be well acquainted with its noble literature. So each study in its turn can give reasons why it should be cultivated to the utmost. But all these arguments are met by an unanswerable fact-tbat our time is limited. It is not possible to teach boys every thing. If it is attempted, the result is generally a superficial knowledge of exceedingly little value, and liable to the great moral objection that it encourages conceit and discourages hard work. A boy who knows the general principles of a study, without knowing its details, easily gets the credit of knowing much, while the test of putting his knowledge to use will quickly prove that he knows very little. Meanwhile he acquires a distaste for the drudgery of details, without which drudgery nothing worth doing ever yet was done.

It is therefore necessary to make a choice among these studies, to take one as the chief and to subordinate all others to that. It is an aecident, but I think a most fortunate accident, that in England the study thus chosen to take the lead in our highest education has been that of the classics. I should not be prepared to maintain that the only possible system of education for all ranks in this country is one based on the classics. But I assume that the schools commonly called public schools are to aim at the highest kind of education; and to give that education, I think the classics decidedly the best instrument. When we have to choose between literature, mathematics and physical science, the plea advanced on behalf of the latter is utility. They supply a man with tools for future work. Man's chief business, it is said, is to subdue nature to his purposes, and these two studies show him how. Those who use this plea seem to forget that the world in which we live consists quite as much of the men and women on its surface, as of the casts of its constituent materials. If any man were to analyze his own life he would find that he would bave far more to do with his fellow-men than with any thing else. And if

, therefore, we are to choose a study which shall preëminently fit a man for life, it will be that which shall best enable him to enter into the thoughts, the feelings, the motives of his fellows.

The real defect of mathematics and physical science as instruments of education is that they have not any tendency to humanize. Such studies do not make a man more human, but simply more intelligent. Physical science, besides giving knowledge, cultivates to some degree the love of order and beauty. Mathematics give a very admirable discipline in precision of thought. But neither of them can touch the strictly human part of our nature. The fact is that all education really comes from intercourse with other minds. The desire to supply bodily needs and to get bodily comforts would prompt even a solitary human being—if he lived long enough-to acquire some rude knowledge of nature. But this would not make him more of a man. That which supplies the perpetual spur to the whole human race to continue incessantly adding to our stores of knowledge that which refines and elevates and does not merely educate, the moral nor merely the intellectual faculties, but the whole man, is our communication with each other, and the highest study is that which most promotes this communion, by enlarging its sphere, by correcting and purifying its influences, by giving perfect and pure models of what ordinary experience can for the most part only show in adulterated and imperfect forms.

The same thing is said in another way when we assert that that study is the chief instrument of education which makes a man in the fullest sense a Chris

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