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forces of nature. The final object of physiology is to deduce the facts of morphology on the one hand, and those of distribution on the other, from the laws of the molecular forces of matter.

My own impression is, that the best model for all kinds of training in physical science is that afforded by the method of teaching anatomy, in use in the medical schools. This method consists of lectures, demonstrations, and examinations.

The object of lectures is, in the first place, to awaken the attention and excite the enthusiasm of the student; and this, I am sure, may be effected to a far greater extent by the oral discourse and by the personal influence of a respected teacher, than in any other way. Secondly, lectures have the double use of guiding the student to the salient points of a subject, and at the same time forcing him to attend to the whole of it, and not merely to that part which takes his fancy. And lastly, lectures afford the student the opportunity of seeking explanations of those difficulties which will arise in the course of his studies. *

But for a student to derive the utmost possible value from lectures, several precautions are needful.

I have a strong impression that the better a discourse is, as an oration, the worse it is as a lecture. The flow of the discourse carries you on without proper attention to its sense; you drop a word or a phrase, you lose the exact meaning for a moment, and while you strive to recover yourself, the speaker has passed on.

The practice I have adopted of late years, in lecturing to students, is to condense the substance of the hour's discourse into a few dry propositions, which are read slowly and taken down from dictation; the reading of each being followed by a free commentary, expanding and illustrating the proposition, explaining terms, and removing any difficulties that may be attackable in that way, by diagrams made roughly, and seen to grow under the lecturer's hand. In this manner you, at any rate, insure the co-operation of the student to a certain extent. He cannot leave the lecture-room entirely empty if the taking of notes is enforced ; and a student must be preternaturally doll and mechanical, if he can take notes and hear them properly explained, and yet learn nothing.

What books shall I read ? is a question constantly put by the student to the teacher. My reply usually is, " None: write your notes out carefully and fully; strive to understand then thoroughly; come to me for the explanation of anything you cannot understand; and I would rather you did not distract your mind by reading.”

But, however good lectures may be, and however extensive the course of read. ing by which they are followed up, they are but accessories to the great instrument of scientific teaching—demonstration. If I insist unweariedly, nay fanatically, upon the importance of physical science as an educational agent, it is because the study of any branch of science, if properly conducted, appears to me to fill up a void left by all other means of education.

All that literature has to bestow may be obtained by reading and by practical exercise in writing and in speaking ; but I do not exaggerate when I say, that none of the best gifts of science are to be won by these means. On the contrary, the great benefit which a scientific education bestows, whether as training or as knowledge, is dependent upon the extent to which the mind of the student is brought into immediate contact with facts-upon the degree to which he learns the habit of appealing directly to Nature, and of acquiring through his senses concrete images of those properties of things, which are, and always will be, but approximatively expressed in human language.

The great business of the scientific teacher is, to imprint the fundamental, irrefragable facts of his science, not only by words upon the mind, but by sensible impressions upon the eye, and ear, and touch of the student, in so complete a manner that every term used, or law enunciated, should afterwards call up vivid images of the particular structural, or other facts which furnished the demonstration of the law, or the illustration of the term.

What is the purpose of primary intellectual education? I apprehend that its first object is to train the young in the use of those tools wherewith men extract knowledge from the ever-shifting succession of phenomena which pass before their eyes ; and that its second object is to inform them of the fundamental laws which have been found by experience to govern the course of things, so that they may not be turned out into the world naked, defenceless, and a prey to the events they might control.

A boy is taught to read his own and other languages, in order that he may

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have access to infinitely wider stores of knowledge than could ever be opened to him by oral intercourse with his fellow men; he learns to write that his means of communication with the rest of mankind may be indefinitely enlarged, and that he may record and store up the knowledge he acquires. He is taught elementary mathematics, that he may understand all those relations of number and form, upon which the transactions of men, associated in complicated societies, are built, and that he may have some practice in deductive reasoning.

But, in addition, primary education endeavors to fit a boy out with a certain equipment of positive knowledge. He is taught the great laws of morality; the religion of his sect; so much history and geography as will tell him where the great countries of the world are, what they are, and how they have become thus.

The system is excellent, so far as it goes. But if I regard it closely, a curious reflection arises. I suppose that, fifteen hundred years ago, the child of any wellto-do Roman citizen was taught just these same things; reading and writing in his own, and, perhaps, the Greek tongue; the elements of mathematics ; and the religion, morality, history, and geography current in his time. Furthermore, I do not think I err in affirming, that, if such a Christian Roman boy, who had finished his education, could be transplanted into one of our public schools, and pass through its course of instruction, he would not meet with a single unfamiliar line of thought; amidst all the new facts he would have to learn, not ono would suggest a different mode of regarding the universe from that current in his own time. And yet surely there is some great difference betwoen the civili. zation of the fourth century and that of the nineteenth, and still more between the intellectual habits and tone of thought of that day and of this.

Modern civilization rests upon physical science; take away her gifts to our own country, and our position among the leading nations of the world is gone to-morrow; for it is physical science only, that makes intelligence and moral energy stronger than brute force.

Physical science, its methods, its problems, and its difficulties, will meet the poorest boy at every turn, and yet we educate him in such a manner that he shall enter the world as ignorant of the existence of the methods and facts of science as the day he was born. The modern world is full of artillery; and we turn out our children to do battle in it, equipped with the shield and sword of a gladiator.

It is my firm conviction that the only way to remedy. it is, to make the elements of physical science an integral part of primary education. I have endeavored to show you how that may be done for that branch of science which it is my business to pursue ; and I can but add, that I should look upon the day when every school-master throughout this land was a centre of genuine, how. ever rudimentary, scieotific knowledge, as an epoch in the history of the country.

Sir CHARLES LYELL, the eminent geologist, in his evidence, remarks substantially respecting physical science and natural history:

These branches of knowledge have been ignored in our educational system. Their neglect in the schools is owing to the fact that the chief rewards, prizes, and honors of the universities are given for proficiency in other studies, where preparatory work must be done in the schools, and all the instruction in these institutions is based on the idea that these pupils are all to go to the universities, whereas a majority of these pupils do not, but pass at once into business without any special preparation therefor. The teachers, too, of the public schools, have all been trained in the universities, and are themselves ignorant of the sciences which touch all the mechanical and mercantile interests of the state, and do not appreciate even their educational worth.

The universities do not, relatively, give as much attention to these subjects now as they did two hundred years ago, and this grew out of the revolution in the academical system at the time of the Reformation, when the separato colleges, each with an inadequate teaching force, were forced each to undertake the whole work of the university, and they have not since been able to keep up with the progress of the new sciences.

If these subjects are ever to go into the universities with advantage, the grammar of each must be matured in the schools. The amount may be moderate, but the elements must be mastered, and the tastes for one or more developed, if it is afterward to be pursued with a strong option.

The time can be gained by diminishing the quantity of Latin and Greek, except with those to whom these branches are to be specialties.


RICHARD OWEN, F. R. S., and Superintendent of the Natural History Department of the British Museum, and author of works of high reputation in comparative anatomy, paleontology, and kindred subjects, in his evidence before the Public School Commission, says:

I have long felt a great desire to see the time arrive when our larger educational establishments for youths, particularly the great public schools, to which the sons of the wealthy and territorial families in England are sent, should possess the means of imparting to them the elements and methods of natural history, either in botany or zoology, or both.

I am not aware of any arrangement or organization for a systematic instruction of the youths in those elements and methods at our great public schools, nor that they receive the smallest amount of natural history instruction. If I were to select a particular group it would be the governing and legislativo class, which, from the opportunities I have had of hearing remarks in conversation or debate, appears to be least aware of the extent of many departments of natural history science, of the import of its generalizations, and especially of its use in disciplining the mind, irrespective of its immediate object of making known the different kinds of animals, plants, or minerals. Grammar and classics, arithmeuc and geometry, may be the most important disciplinary studies; we know the faculties of the mind they are chiefly calculated to educe; but they fail in bringing out those which natural history science more especially tends to improve. I allude now to the faculty of accurate observation, of the classification of facts, of the coördination of classes or groups; the arrangement of topics, for example, in their various orders of importance in the mind, giving to a writer or public speaker improved powers of classifying all kinds of subjects. Natural history is essentially a classificatory science. Order and method are the faculties which the elements and principles of the science are best adapted to improve and to educe.

Natural history would represent, zoology, relating to animals; botany, to plants; mineralogy, to minerals. Of course it branches off into collateral subjects, as anatomy; some knowledge of that, indeed, would be necessarily acquired, because boys could not learn the classification of animals without getting some idea of the general principles of their construction. And so with regard to the classification of plants. Zoology and botany are both based on anatomy, or that which relates to the construction of animals and plants. With respect to geology, that would be too complex, and not necessary, I apprehend,

I for the main aim in view. All the disciplinary effect would be got by the lectures on natural history, which might be limited to one of the three classes, but I would recommend the branch relating to vegetables or animals.

Chemistry is a good subject to be taught. It induces, in the first instance, dexterity and nicety in the use of the tingers, besides caution in making a comparison of experimental results. No doubt there are useful faculties of the mind brought out well by chemistry. At the same time, there are the practical difficulties of the apparatus for experiments, and if I were to refer to age in regard to the teaching of natural science, I should be induced to raise the age in reference to the applicability of chemistry as a disciplinary science. The elder boys would be more careful and less mischievous, and therefore more likely to obtain a benefit from the laboratory in chemical teaching, without being so subject to its accompanying evils.

The modern languages I should be disposed to place first in importance, natural history next, chemistry last. With regard to astronomy and mechanics, these, I think, are already in part provided for in the illustrations of geometrical and algebraic teaching.

I think the uniform practice in the continental schools where natural sciences are taught is, to begin with natural history. The students learn the elements of zoology or botany tirst before going to chemistry and higher sciences.

I should be sorry to advocate natural history to the entire exclusion of chemistry or natural philosophy; but I do not think it would be wise to omit natural history in any great school and consider chemistry as its substitute chiefly on the grounds before stated; and partly for this reason, that in every community of two hundred or more youths, there must be some few, the constitution of whose minds is specially adapted to the study of natural history, to the work of observation and classification, who, consequently, are impelled by innate aptitude to that kind of study, but who are not at present afforded the slightest opportunity of working their minds in that way; so that it may happen that the faculty or gift for natural history, if it be not actually destroyed by exclusive exercise in uncongenial studies, is never educed. What is the result? in all our great natural history movements, we have looked in vain, since the death of Sir Joseph Banks, for any man having a sufficient standing in the country to fraternize with us, to understand us, to help us in debate or council on questions most vital to the interests of natural history. It has often occured to me to ask how such should be the case, and my answer has been, that in the education of the noblemen and gentlemen, the great landed proprietors of England, of thosc destined to take part in the legislation and government of the country, there has been complete absence of systematic imparting of the elements of natural history, no demonstration of the nature and properties of plants and animals, no indication of the aims and importance of natural history, no training of the faculties for which it affords the healthiest exercise; colisequently they have not been educed. I cannot doubt that this must have been the effect of the present restricted system. There must have been, by nature, many Sir Joseph Banks since he died, but they have been born, have grown up, and passed away without working out their destined purpose; their peculiar talent has never becii educed, their attention has never been turned to "hose studies, but they have been wholly devoted to classics. It must be remembered that minds of this class are usually very averse to classical studies and inere exercises of memory and composition; they never take to them; they get through them as well or ill as they can, doing little or nothing to the purpose, and they fail to achieve that for which they are naturally fitted from the want of having their special faculties educed. I consider it a loss to the nation that, in our great educational establishments for youths, there should be no arrangements for giving them the chance of knowing something of the laws of the living world and licw they are to be studied.

Prof. Jukes, in opening the business of the Geological Section of the British Association, over which he presidled at Cambridge, remarks:

"The natural sciences are now considered as worthy of study by those who have a taste for them, both in themselves and as a means of mental iraining and discipline. In my time, however, no other branches of learning were recognized than classics and mathematics, and I have with shame to confess that I displayed but a truant disposition with respect to them, and too often hurried from the tutor's lecture room to the river or field to enable me to add much to the scanty store of knowledge I had brought up with me. Had it not been, then, for the teaching of Professor Sedgwick in geology, my time would have been wasted."

So that it was just the accident, so to speak, of one short course on a branch of natural history, grafted through an old bequest upon the main studies of his university, that led Professor Jukes to his appreciation of the method of study and value of the science which owes so much to his labors. I could also, with your permission, adduce a higher authority on the main point, and that is Baron Cuvier's, who, in the preface to the first edition of liis clementary book on Natural History, expresses himself as follows:

“The habit necessarily acquired in the study of natural history, of mentally classifying a great number of ideas, is one of the advantages of this science, which is seldom spoken of, and which, when it shall have been generally introduced into the system of common education, will perhaps become the principal one; it exercises the student in that part of logic which is termed method, as the study of geometry does in that which is called syllogism, because natural history is the science which requires the inost precise methods, as geometry is that which demands the most rigorous reasoning. Now, this art of method, when once well acquired, may be applied with infinite advantage to studies the most foreign to natural history. Every discussion which supposes a classification of facts, every research which requires a distribution of matters, is performed after the same manner, and he who has cultivated this science merely for amusement is surprised at the facility it affords for disentangling all kinds of affairs. It is not less useful in solitude; sufficiently extensive to satisfy the most powerful mind, sufficiently various and interesting to calm the most agitated soul; it consoles the unhappy, and tends to allay enmity and hatred. Once elevated to the contemplation of the harmony of nature, irresistibly regulated by Providence, how weak and trivial appear those causes which it has been pleased to leave dependent upon the will of man! How astonishing to behold so many fine minds consuming themselves so uselessly for their own happiness and that of others in the pursuit of vain combinations, the very traces of which a few years suffice to obliterate! I avow it proudly, these ideas have always been present to my mind, the companions of my labors, and, if I have endeavored by every means in my power to advance this peaceful study, it is because, in my opinion, it is more capable than any other of supplying the want of occupation which has so largely contributed to the troubles of our age.”

ON THE STUDY OF PHYSIOLOGY. Prof. George E. Paget, in a Lecture before the British Medical Association at Cambridge in 1864, advocates this study as fol. lows:

The advantages to be expected from the general teaching of Physiology may be grouped in two classes : the first, including such as would tend to the promotion of the science; the second, such as would belong to the students.

By a wider diffusion of the knowledge of physiology its progress would be accelerated, as that of any other science would, by the increased number of the competent observers of its facts.

But a large advantage, and one which, I think, physiology needs more than any other science does, would arise in this,—that the communication would be easier, which is now so difficult, between those who are engaged in it, and those who especially devote themselves to other sciences that might assist it. Almost every process in the living body involves the exercise of mechanical and chemical-perhaps, also, of electrical forces, whose effects are mingled with those of the more proper vital force; and although this special force may modify, and in some sort vail, the effects of the others, yet must their efforts be reckoned and allowed for, in nearly every case we have to study. Therefore, the complete solution of any new physiological problem must require such a master of all these sciences of dead and living matter as cannot now, I believe, be found, or else it must have the coöperation of many workers, each skilled in some simple science, and able to communicate with all the rest.

I believe that a moderate acquaintance with the principles of physiology, acquired in early life, would benefit a man, with regard to both his body and his mind; and that it would do this by guiding him in the maintenance and improvement of health, by teaching him the true economy of his powers, whether inental or corporal, by providing worthy materials for thought, and by cultivating peculiar modes, and suggesting, peculiar ends, of thinking.

I would not have its teaching limited to a bare declaration of the use and exact fitness of each part or organ of the body. This, indeed, should not be omitted; for there are noble truths in the simplest demonstrations of the fitness of parts for their simplest purposes, and no study has been made more attractive than this by the ingenuity, the acuteness, and eloquence of its teachers. But I would go beyond this, and, striving, as I said before, to teach general truths as well as the details of science, I would try to lead the mind to the contemplation of those general designs, from which it might gather the best lessons for its own guidance.

It must be an object of all education to supply, in early life, those studies from which, in later years, may arise reflections that may mingle happily with the business-thoughts of common days; that may suggest to the reason, or even to the imagination, some hidden meaning, some future purpose, some noble end, in the things about us. Reflections such as these, being interwoven with our common thoughts, may often bring to our life a tone of joy which its general aspect will not wear; liké brilliant threads shot through the texture of some sombre fabric, giving lustrc to its darkness.

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