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MUSKETRY, AND OTHER ARMY SCHOOLS.
SCHOOL OF MUSKETRY AT HYTHE.
The first School of Musketry was established in June, 1553, and was com. posed of detachments from regiments in the neighborhood, viz. : a sergeant, a corporal, and eight rank and file, from the first, second, and third battalion of the Grenadier Guards, Coldstream Guards, Scots Fusileer Guards, Rifle Brigade, etc., to the number of eleven sergeants, eleven corporals, and eighty. eight rank and file. In 1855, a permanent corps of instructors of musketry was organized, and in 1861 a second school was instituted at Fleetwood, which was discontinued in 1867, as one establishment was found sufficient for training an adequate number of officers of the regular army, and a due proportion of officers and sergeants of militia and the Rifle Volunteer Corps.
In connection with the establishment at Hythe, district inspectors are appointed to superintend the general system of musketry instruction throughout the army, viz., three in Great Britain, two in Ireland, five in the colonies, and ten in India.
The instruction embraces not only the practical use of fire-arms, but the details of construction, both of the weapon and ammunition, the theory of projectiles, and the comparative value of different arms for different services.
The staff of the School of Musketry at Hythe consists of 1 Commandant and Inspector-General of Musketry Instruction; 1 Deputy Assistant AdjutantGeneral; 1 Chief Instructor; 2 Captain Instructors; 1 Paymaster; 1 Quartermaster and Acting Adjutant; 1 Surgeon.
In addition to the preparatory and professional schools for officers of the British Army, already described, there are other public institutions of a military character and for the military service, which will be briefly noticed.
ARMY SURGEONS. In addition to the competitive examination of candidates for the post of Assistant Surgeon, for which a medical degree is preliminary, the successful candidates must spend four months at Netley, where the Army Medical School is now located (since 1863), in connection with the Royal Victoria Hospital (capable of receiving one thousand patients), where large numbers of invalid patients of the army are treated. Here, with every facility of study, observation, and practice, instruction is given by four professors, each with an experienced assistant, in military surgery, medicine, pathology, and hygiene, and all the specialities of the military hospital and field practice, peculiarities of climate, etc. After spending at least four months in the hospital, laboratory, museum, and lecture-rooms, the candidate is then examined for his commission as Assistant Surgeon.
VETERINARY SURGEON. Although not exclusively for military service, all veterinary surgeons in the army must hold the diploma of the Royal Veterinary College in St. Pancras, London, or of the Veterinary School in Edinburgh.
ARMY SCHOOLS FOR SOLDIERS AND SOLDIERS' CHILDREN. In 1811, on the recommendation of the Duke of York, then Commanderin-Chief, a royal warrant was issued, authorizing the appointment of a sergeant-schoolmaster to each batallion for young recruits and the children of soldiers, with provision for room, fuel, and light in cach regimental barrack, and allowance for necessary books and stationery. In 1846, to give greater efficiency and uniformity to the schools established under the warrant of 1811, a new warrant was issued, requiring that the sergeant-schoolmaster should obtain a certificate of fitness from the military training college at Chelsea, and ordering the appointment of an inspector of army schools. In 1854, the fol. lowing classification of masters was introduced: First Class, at 78. a day and certain allowances; Second Class, at 58. 6d. per day; Third Class, at 4s. per day; and Assistants at 2s. The first-class schoolmaster was a warrant officer, and ranked next to those holding a commission; the second and third class ranked next to sergeant-major, and the assistants ranked as sergeants. At this time the privileges of the regimental schools were extended to the children of discharged soldiers, pensioners, and various persons employed about the bar. racks. schoolmistress was also employed for the infant division of pupils, and for teaching needle-work to the girls. In 1863, the office of superintending schoolmaster, with a relative rank of ensign, was created, and four (sincu increased to twelve) from among the most experienced first-class masters, were appointed to inspect and examine all army schools in their several military districts, and candidates for pupil-teachers and schoolmistresses.
According to the report of the Council of Military Education, for March, 1870, there were two hundred and fifty-nine masters employed by the army schools, and four hundred and cighty-five mistresses and assistants in the children's schools. In Great Britain there were three hundred and eighteen schools, and thirty-five thousand threc hundred and seven non-commissioned officers and men on the books, nine thousand three hundred and fifty-nine boys and girls, besides 11,414 children in the infant schools.
ASYLUM FOR SOLDIERS' ORPHANS. Prior to the establishment of the Army Schools in 1811, two large institutions for orphan children of soldiers who had fallen in battle or serving at foreign stations, bad been founded and maintained at the public expense.
The Royal Hibernian Institution at Dublin, Ireland, was commenced on a sum appropriated by the Irish Parliament in 1765, and chartered in 1769. It has large buildings, with thirty-four acres of land, and provides for four hundred and ten children on an annual parliamentary grant of twelve thousand pounds for its maintenance, besides the income from a small endowment.
The Royal Military Asylum in Chelsca was begun by the Duke of York in 1801, and can now accommodate five hundred children on a public grant of twelve thousand pounds, besides a further grant of three thousand pounds for furniture and clothing from the Board of Works and the general vote of the army.
NORMAL SCHOOL FOR TEACHERS IN ARMY SCHOOLS. In the Military Asylum at Chelsea, since 1846, there has existed a Normal School, where teachers of army schools may review their studies, or candidates for vacancies, or pupil teachers, may qualify themselves by study, observation, and practice, for appointment as schoolmasters, and when found qualified they receive certificates of the first second, and third class, and are paid accordingly.
MILITARY SCHOOL OF MUSIC AT KNELLER HALL.
In the British Army the cost of maintaining the regimental bands falls upon the officers. In the infantry a sergeant, a corporal and nineteen privates are taken from the effective strength of each regiment to form a band. These receive their ordinary regimental pay,—the rest of the pay, and the entire salary of the band-master, if a civilian, together with the cost of the music and musical instruments, are provided out of the Band Fund, which is raised liy "stoppages” from the officers on first appointment, and promotion, and by subscription. This fund is managed by a committee of officers. Owing to dili. culties in retaining the men, and of finding band
masters with all the requisito qualifications, the Commander-in-Chief (Duke of Cambridge) established : Malitary School of Music in 1856, in concert with the Secretary of War, which was opened in Kneller Hall for the reception of pupils in March, 1857. The institution must be viewed (1) as a barrack, and (2) as a school of music. (1). As a barrack it is under the direction of the Secretary of War, and is managed :s any other barrack. (2). As a school it is under the immediate direction of a military officer (who is appointed by the Commander-in-Chief), and a musical staff composed of nine permanent professors, four occasional professors, and a varying number of special assistants who are selected from the first-class students. There is also a schoolmaster who gives instruction one hour a day in general knowledge to each class, and a military chaplain. The instruments taught in Soprano (8); Alto (3); Tenor (3); Bass (6). The students are divided into four classes, each of which is divided into sections according to the instruments to be learned. Seven hours a day are devoted to obligatory study-but more are given, and a restriction prohibits all practice after 6.45 in the evening.
This course of study occupies two years, and there is a higher which comprises, beside practical instruction in playing and teaching the instruments composing the band, some general acquirements under the theory of harmony. There is also practical training in the duties of a conductor. In addition to ordinary military music, classical concert pieces, or chamber music, specially arranged for wind instruments, are performed. Cheap admissions to the operas and principal concerts of the metropolis are obtained (900 in one year), to such of the advanced students as are recommended for diligence by the professors.
Pupils are selected from the various regiments, and often selected for this special purpose. Boys specially trained for the bands are obtained from the Royal Military Asylum, Chelsea, the Hibernian Military School, Dublin, and the Metropolitan Poor-law School. Each candidate must be examined by the surgeon of the regiment, and certified to as in good health and with no tendencies to disease liable to be aggravated by playing on a band instrument.
A military band-master is now sanctioned by the Government for any regiment and battalion throughout the service, who receive regimental pay of firstclass staff sergeant, and 1001. from the Regimental Band Fund.
The expenses of Kneller Hall as a barrack are borne by the government; as a school of music, by the regimental officers—including an original assessment of 61. for supply of instruments, and the salaries to about 1,1001. annually.
The average number of students annually admitted is 74; the average number in attendance, 148. The total number admitted since 1857 is 592, of whom 163 were practiced musicians, 63 band-masters, 271 band-men.
MODIFICATIONS IN 1871. In 1867 a Royal Commission was appointed “ to inquire into the Present state of Military Education and into the Training of Candidates for Commissions in the Army.” The Report, with the minutes of evidence and illustrated documents, was quite voluminous, and has been followed with important changes in both the system of military instruction, and in the mode of making appointments and promotions in the army, that will be noted in detail in the following chapters, which are compiled from historical notices by the Secretary of the Commission, and recent Regulations for the government of the several schools and the examinations for appointment and promotions.
The most important measure affecting the British army, after repeated discussions of the principle, in the last and former Parliaments, and particularly in the last, on a bill of the Gladstone ministry, in which the votes of the Commons in favor was overruled by the Lords, was the abolition of the whole system of purchase and sale of commissions by Royal Warrant issued July 20, 1871. This radical change was followed (October 30) by a revision of the Queen's Regulations, in which original appointments and promotions in the military service are put on a new basis. Henceforth, commissions of the first grade are to be issued to sub-lieutenants, for any vacancy occurring:
1. To successful candidates, in the order of merit as ascertained by competitive examination in general subjects.
2. To graduates of the universities who shall pass a qualifying examination.
3. To Queen's Cadets, Indian Cadets, and Pages of Honor, who have passed successfully the fiual examination of the Military Academy, or its equivalent.
4. To non-commissioned officers who are recommended for promotion by their commanding officers. If more candidates apply than there are vacancies to be filled, appointment is decided by competition.
5. To a lieutenant of the militia, who shall pass the professional examination required.
Sub-lieutenants are eligible to promotion only after passing a professional examination, and only after twelve months' service with a regiment, under strict discipline, with liability to be removed for physical or moral unfitness Within three years from the date of their commissions as lieutenants, officers may submit to an examination in respect to fitness for promotion to captaincies, and any officer failing to pass within three years, must retire from the army. Lieutenants are eligible to the rauk of captain at any time after two years' service in the army, having passed the exam nation. A captain may be made a major after two years' service in the army; and a major is at any time eligible to a lieutenant-colonelcy, which means the commaud of a regiment.
Every promotion must now be made on the recommendation of the Commander-in-Chief, with the approval of the Secretary of State for War; and from the principles laid down in the Royal Warrant, as will be seen further on, every precaution is taken to insure a gradual advance by seniority, and a more rapid rise by meritorious service founded on intelligent and disinterested tests. By the new Warrant the Militia is brought into closer connection with the Regular Army. To the abolition of purchase, and promotion by professional preparation and service, may be added the autumn field maneuvres, inaugurated in 1871, with 30,000 men, and the localization of the Army, by assigning a corps with staff, train, men, &c., to territorial divisions of the country.
SCHOOLS AND PRACTICAL TRAINING FOR NAVAL ENGINEERS. In addition to the higher theoretical instruction in Naval Construction, Steam, and Marine Engineering, and kindred branches, at South Kensington, and to the candidates for assistant engineers, furnished by the numerous marine engine factories, and ocean steamers, to which young men resort to acquire a practical knowledge of their duties, the Admiralty have established in the dockyard schools at Portsmouth, Devonport, and Sheerness, courses of study and practical training, and a system of test examinations, for the express purpose of securing a body of educated and skillful engineers, to meet the demands of this department of the service.
Boys between the ages of 15 and 16, can enter their names as applicants with the Superintendent of the dockyards, and if they can pass the medical examination and give evidence of good character, they are examined twice a year by the Civil Service Commissioners in Arithmetic, including fractions, square and cube roots; Algebra, including quadratic equations; Euclid (six Books), spelling, writing, and correct oral use of the English language, translations from the French or Spanish language, and geography. A certain number, according to the vacancies, who stand highest in the competitive examination, are received for six years.
A portion of time is spent, by the boys, on their admission, in the factories and drawing office, the foundries, the smitheries, and other shops to acquire a general knowledge of the work done in them. They are instrncted in the parts, construction and working of marine engines and boilers, and the practical use of the various instruments in the engine room, including the indicator. They attend regularly for a portion of the day the dockyard schools, and are examined twice a year by the Director of Naval Education; and in the final examination they must gain 2,000 marks out of the 2,650 (the aggregate of the marks assigned to each study), of whiclt more than three-fourths must be in the properties of steam, mechanics, hydrostatics, plain trigonometry, and good conduct and industry, to obtain a first-class certificate of qualification. If his knowledge of steam-machinery, and his good conduct and skill as a workman, is certified to by the Chief Engineer, a first-class candidate is fully qualified for the appointment of assistant engineer. The most intelligent of this class are eligible for a four years' additional course in the Royal School in South Kensington, where they study seven months in the year, the other five being spent in practical application of principles in the drawing rooms and workshops of the dockyards. Thirty-two students entered this school from the Dockyard Schools in 1870–71.
The Royal School of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering issue two građes of diplomas. To gain the lowest, that of Associate, the candidate must obtain a certain minimum of marks in the aggregate of all the subjects, in practical engineering; the proportions and arrangements of engines, boilers, and propellers; strength of material; heat and steam, as well as in arithmetic and mensuration, algebra, plane trigonometry, elementary mechanics and hydrostatics, and engine drawing. To obtain the second (the diploma of a Fellow), the candidate must produce designs and estimates for building simple and compound engines; calculate the power of engines and performance of vessels; strength of material and principles of ship-construction, &c., as well as pass a satisfactory examination in higher mathematics, physics, and natural philosophy.