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$ 50. Every girl is bound from the beginning of her third year at school, and till the end of her school time, to attend the work school, the work in which embraces: knitting, sewing, the repairing of old clothes, and the making of common articles of wearing apparel. The teacher is moreover strictly enjoined to see that the girls acquire habits of cleanliness, order, and economy. Fancy work must not be taught until the scholars have attained proficiency in the more ordinary kinds of work.
8 59. Every manufacturer who employs children, and who does not send them to the ordinary communal school, is bound, either alone, or in conjunction with other manufacturers, to erect a factory school, under a properly appointed and certified male teacher, and a female teacher for needle-work, which school, all the children in the factory must attend for six months in the year, or in intervals to that extent.
$ 64. The object of the infant schools is to secure to children who have not yet attained the age fixed for compulsory attendance in school, undisturbed mental and bodily development according to the laws of nature. The principles to be followed will be laid down in the regulations of the Educational Council.
8 67. Parents and guardians may have their children or wards educated at home or in private schools, provided in the former case they submit to the annual examination in the common school, or in the latter, the schools are subjected to a public examination, and the teachers whether in the family or pri. vate school must hold a certificate of qualification.
$ 70. An enumeration of all children within the law of attendance (7 to 15), must be made each year by the communal authority, and must furnish copies to the teacher and the school inspector; and to these lists must be added all children within the prescribed age who remove into the commune after the day of enumeration.
8 71. A child registered as in attendance can not be absent for a day or an hour, without permission, or valid reason, which must be stated within one week after the absence.
$ 72. Every teacher must enter in the daily register every absence, and the reasons given for the same; and a list of the absences must be submitted to the Communal School committee at the regular monthly meeting, and a copy sent to the inspector.
73. Absences, not accounted for within a week, shall be deemed offenses, for which the parents or guardians must be called to account by the school authorities, and punished according to the regulation, viz. : a fine for each half day of from 20 to 60 rappen, and for repeated negligences, by imprisonment. The fines are paid into the communal school treasury.
[Sections 107 to 138 relate to the District School, which receives pupils from the Communal School at the age of eleven years, who are found qualified by examination, and who wish to prepare for the Cantonal Schools.
Sections 139 to 149 relates to the Cantonal Schools, viz.: the Gymnasium, and the Industrial Schools ; the former fits pupils for the University, or the professional schools of theology, law and medicine; and the latter, for the Fed. eral Polytechnic School at Zurich.]
PUBLIC INSTRUCTION IN SPAIN.
INTRODUCTION. The Kingdom of Spain occupies the larger portion of the great Iberian Peninsula. Its length is about 560 miles, with an average breadth of 380 miles. The coast-line on the Atlantic is 605 miles, and on the Mediterranean 712-a total of 1,307 miles. The area, including the Canary and Balearic Isles (Majorca, Minorca), comprises 143,508 English square miles, with a population in 1864 of 16,287,675. To these must be added its colonies in America, Asia, Africa, Oceanica, with a population of about 5,000,000. The country has great variety of soil, well watered, and well adapted to the cultivation of the great agricultural staples, as well as the heatloving fruits-corn, and wine, and oil, cotton, wheat, flax, oats, coffee, sugar, cocoa, oranges,—every thing which domestic consumption and a foreign commerce could ask. Water power and water communication abound, affording every facility for manufacturing enterprise. All the elements of national prosperity seem to existexcept a stable and liberal government and a comprehensive system of national education.
An important step towards the organization of a liberal government was taken in the Constitution drawn up by a Cortes Constituyenter, elected by universal suffrage in January, 1869, and proclaimed June 6, 1869. Sections 35 to 37 decree: “All powers emanate from the nation. The form of government of the Spanish nation is the monarchy. The power to make laws resides in the Cortes. The king sanctions and promulgates the laws. The executive power resides in the king, who exercises it by means of his ministers. The tribunals exercise the judicial power. Questions. of local interest to the population belong to the Ayuntamientos and Provincial Assemblies.” There are provisions both novel and salutary in this constitution. The members, both of the Senate and the Congress, who together compose the Cortes, represent the whole nation and not exclusively the electors who nominate them, and from whom they can not receive any special mandate. The elements of an efficient system of public schools already exist, as will be seen in the following article.
HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT. The history of systematic education in Spain begins with the dominion of the Romans, who imposed upon this country their own intellectual training so completely, that Strabo could say, that no difference could be discerned between a Roman and an Iberian youth. The principal branches then taught in the schools, were grammar, rhetoric, agriculture, and jurisprudence; while later, under the emperors, a general encyclo pædiac direction was given to the course. How high a standard was reached, even in this remote province, the names of Quintilian, Martial, Lucan, the two Senecas, Columella, Silius Italicus and Florus, all Spaniards, bear witness.
During the invasion, and under the rule of the northern barbarians (the Vandals, Sueves, and Visigoths), the light of learning, kept alive now by the Christian church alone, was almost extinguished; it began slowly to re-kindle under the Gothic kings, but its development was closed by the irruption of the Moors in 711. Once firmly established, however, the invaders made more than amends by their own efforts in behalf of learning, particularly at the court of the Caliphs of Cordova, and under Abderrahman III, and Alhakim. During the reign of these princes, an effi-. cient organization was given to instruction; scholarships were founded for the poor, special schools were opened for girls, and so great was the attendance on schools of some kind, that it was said that every person in Andalusia could read and write. A University flourished at Cordova, which stood among the first in Europe. The branches most studied were medicine, mathematics, natural science, astronomy, grammar, and law, and among the Jews, the Hebrew of the Old Scriptures.
During the struggles of the Christians and the Moors, few learned men were found outside of the cloisters; but with the triumph of the church came a revived love for letters, which was fostered by the influence of the Paris University and its graduates, by the discussions between the Nominalists and Realists, and the formation of the Dominican order. To these agencies must be added the impulse given by the University at Salamanca, and the efforts of Alphonso X. This monarch, surnamed the Wise, in the Las Sicte Partidas, a remarkable code, compiled for the governance of Spain between the years 1256 and 1265, devotes a chapter to the establishment and conduct of great public schools (Etudios Generales), and granted special privileges to the University of Salamanca, to which he gave the first formal charter and endlowment in 1554, and opened Latin and Arabic Schools, both in Seville and Burjos, in the same year. This monarch provided for a translation of the Scriptures into the Spanish language from the Vulgate, which implied and facilitated the existence of popular schools.
A decline came with the increase of luxury which followed the influx of the gold of the New World. Soon after this, education came under the control of the Society of Jesus, and was conducted by its members in
a narrow classical, and ecclesiastical spirit, until the reign of Charles III, when the order was expelled from the kingdom. The same monarch re-organized the universities, and founded many primary schools, although as yet there existed no proper system of elementary instruction.
A re-organization was attempted by the Cortes, in a constitution framed in 1812, drawn up in the interest of the liberal or advance party; but the government gave no assistance, and in effect a plan really the reverse of that proposed, was carried out in 1824.
In 1829, under the auspices of an Association similar in its constitution and aim to the British and Foreign School Society, established at Madrid a Normal Model School for the training of teachers after the plan and methods of the Borough-road School at London, the model of the system pursued by the British Society. Such was the success of the teachers trained in this school, in different parts of the country, that in 1849, on the representation of the Minister of Instruction and Public Works, a royal decree was issued, providing for a Central Normal School at Madrid, nine Superior Normal Schools, and twenty-two Elementary Normal and Model Schools in all the provincial and principal towns, and a system of provincial and general inspection for the elementary and Normal Schools.
In 1836 the government published an ordinance regulating the midillo and higher schools, which the Cortes vainly endeavored to supersede in 1838.
A comprehensive scheme was projected in the plan of studies published by Isabella II in 1845, by which normal, mining, trade, and engineering schools were inaugurated, but this plan was practically abandoned after undergoing many modifications.
In 1851 a Concordat with Rome was signed, of which the second article runs as follows: “Public instruction in the universities, colleges, seminaries, public or private schools of every description, must be, at all points, in harmony with the teachings of the Catholic Church. To this end, the bishops and spiritual heads of the parishes, shall be authorized, through their spiritual office, to watch over the morals and the education of youth, even in the public schools;” and at the same time the disabilities under which the Jesuits, as teachers, labored, were removed.
During the two years following 1854, these arrangements were reversed by the liberal party, but in 1856 there was a new Catholic re-action, which resulted in the law of Sept. 9, 1857. A yet more decided denominational tendency showed itself in the law of June 2, 1868, but this was annulled by the Revolution of the same year, the Concordat was burned in the public market place (Oct. 4), and (November 20) instruction was declared to be free, and (June 6, 1869) without cost.
In the absence, however, of a perfected system, the provisions of the law of 1857 are in force. These we will now proceed to detail, noting such modifications as have been incorporated with that law, as well as the new features which the recent political revolution has introduced. We are indebted to Prof. LeRoy for the recent statistics and legislation of the public schools.