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representing the places held during the year taken altogether, in comparison with that attached to the standing taken during the examination at the end of the course.

Those pupils who do not answer satisfactorily during the examination, are allowed to subject themselves to a new examination at the recommencement of the classes, but if they fail a second time they must, in their own interest as well as in that of the studies, recommence the course of the preceding year.

At the end of each year devoted to special instruction. similar examinations and similar classification of the pupils shall take place.

SECOND YEAR.

60

SUBJECTS OF INSTRUCTION.
French—first principles of style and composition...................

4 hours weekly.
Modern languages..
History of France, and lending facts in modern history up to 1789.. 4
Geography of France, agriculturul, industrial, commercial, and ad-

ministrative....
Mathemntics—commercial arithmetic. conclusion of geometry 5
Physics-general properties, liquids, heat, electricity.

2
Chemistry-Metalloids and alkaline meta s.

2 Natural history-zoology (birds, reptiles, fishes, insects), geology 2 Accounts-exercises preparatory to bookkeeping..

1 Caligraphy..

1 Drawing

5 Gymnastics

1 Singing...

60

66

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First principles of Style and Composition. However simple a subject may be, there will always be a certain art in combining the various parts of which it is composed, so as to make it tell, and this art is useful to all, to the public orator or functionary, as well as to the simplest artisan. A common business letter ought to be clear, methodical, and accurate; in order to impart these three qualities to it, the writer must think over his subject, must place the different parts in suitable order, and must choose the expressions which most accurately convey his meaning. A regular course of rhetoric would, therefore, not be out of place towards the end of the complete programme of the special schools, but the age of the pupils will not allow of the dry rules of the syllogism and the forms under which it is disguised being explained to them, nor of the various figures of speech being described to them, which besides, nature herself teaches even to those men who are the least practiced in the art of speaking. In the lessons to be given in style, the method indicated for teaching the grammatical rules should be followed; that is to say, the pupils should be made to read a great deal, and during these readings the principal rules of style and composition should be incidentally deducted, and during the greater part of the year the task imposed should be to reproduce the test which has been read and commented upon during the lesson. In this manner the pupils will be supplied with a fund of ideas necessary for speaking and for writing, and which they can not as yet be expected to have acquired for themselves, because such a fund is the result of experience, of observation, of memory, and of reflection.

The professor should explain, by means of numerous short examples, the qualities which every sentence in general should possess, lucidity, precision, and correctness. He should point out summarily the various kinds of style, STUDIES AND CONDUCT.

We shall devote most of this Number to a series of articles on Studies and Conduct-in continuation of similar articles begun several years since, with a view of issuing the whole in a volume to be entitled Student Life, with the following

PREFACE.

The Letters, Essays, and Thoughts, embraced in this Volume, on the aims and methods of education, the relative value of sciences, and the right ordering of life, were actually addressed by men eminent in literature and affairs, to young persons in whose well-being and well-doing they were deeply interested. They were first issued in the chapter or article form in which they here appear, in successive numbers of the American Journal of Education, to give variety, and the personal application of principles, to the more elaborate expositions of national systems and institutions to which that periodical was devoted. Although these chapters do not cover the whole field of youthful culture, or all the aids, motives, and dangers of a scholarly and public career, and include a few sheaves only from the golden harvest of recent American didactic and pedagogical literature, they constitute a convenient and valuable manual of Student Life. The light which they shed, like that which Virtue cast on the diverging paths of Hercules, neither leads to bewilder or dazzles to blind, and the advice which they drop is kindred to that which Wisdom of old uttereth in the street, APPLES OF GOLD-THE WORDS OF THE WISE.

HENRY BARNARD,
Editor of American Journal of Education.

HARTFORD, Conn., 1872.

Note to Special Edition. The Contents of the Volume on Studies and Conduct as announced, end with page 416. The pages which follow in this edition, devoted to selections from recent English publications on the relative value of classical and scientific studies in a liberal education, belong properly to the Second Series of Papers in. Englislı Pedagogy-Education, the School and the Teacher in English Literature.

STUDIES AND CONDUCT.—Letters, Essays, and Thoughts on the Prin. ciples of Education, the Relative Value of Studies, and the Conduct of Life, by Men Eminent in Literature and Affairs. Republished from Barnard's American Journal of Education. 416 pages

CONTENTS.

PAGES PART I.-EDUCATION-ITS NATURE, SCHOOLS, AND OBJECTS..... 9-64 PART II.-STUDIES AND CONDUCT....

65-286 I. LETTERS BY MEN EMINENT IN PUBLIC LIFE

67-80 1. Sir Tuomas WYATT TO HIS SON AT SCHOOL....

67 2. Sır IIENRY SIDNEY TO His Son, PHILIP SIDNEY, AT SCHOOL.

09 3. Sir Thomas BODLEIGH TO Hi. Cousin, FRANCIS BACON.

71 4. LORD BURLEIGU To Us Sox, ROBERT CECIL..

5. Sir MATTHEW IIALE TO HIS GRANDSONS. II THOUGHTS ON THE CONDUCT OF LIFE.....

81-94 BISHOP IIalı-BISHOP TAYLOR-DR. FULLER-DR. BARROW.

81 III. Essays on Custox, EDUCATION, AND STUDIES.

93-122 1, LORD BACON-2. ArcuriSHOP WHATELY.

93 IV. DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF A LIDERAL EDUCATION..

123-176 1. LORD CHESTERFIELD.-LETTERS TO HIS SON..

123 2. LORD CuaTuAX -LETTERS TO HIS NEPUEW AT SCHOOL..

129 8. JOIN MILTON.- LETTER TO SAMU'EL IIARTLIB.

145 4. LORD BROUGHAM.-LETTER TO FATHER OF LORD MACAULAY,

161 WILLIAM PITT--CICERO.-TRAINING FOR PUBLIC SPEAKING..

165 5. GEORGE BERTIOLD NIEBUHR.-LETTER TO Ilis NEPHEW.

169 V. EssaYS AND THOUGHTS ON CONVERSATION.......

177-192 1. LORD BACON.- EssaY ON DISCOURSE..

177 2. ARCHBISHOP WIATELY-DEAR SWIFT-ADDISON-SIR W». TEYPLE... 1:9 8. THOMAS DE QUINCEY.- ART OF CONVERSATION......

183 VI. LETTERS IN RESPECT TO IMPERFECT AND NEGLECTED EDUCATION 193-200 1. Thomas DE QUINCEY- 2. Thomas CARLYLE.

193 VII. BOOKS AND READING TO SUPPLEMENT AND CONTINUE SCHOOL EDUCATION 207-230

1. VALUE OF BOOKS AND LIBRARIES. -CHANXING-Milton - EVERETT.... 207

2. Hints on READING - Watts, POTTER, SEDGWICK-GRIMKE. VIII. TRAVEL-IN LIBERAL CULTURE...

231-210 1. LETTER O. SIR PHILIP SIDNEY TO HIS BROTHER ROBERT.

231 2. LORD Bacon-SHAKSPEARE-MILTON-LORD HARDWICKE-MACAULAY, 235

3. DR. AIKEN.-EYES AND No EYES: OR, THE ART OF SEEING...... 239 IX. MANNERS-IN EDUCATION AND LIFE....

2443-248 1. Dean SWIFT.-ESSAY ON MANNERS...

2 13 X. MONEY-IT: ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT.

249-272 1. DR. FRANKLIN.-Poor Richard's WAY TO WEALTH..

249 2. LORD Bacon.--Essay-OF Riches.-POPE.-THE Man or Ross. 255 4. JIENRY TAYLOR-NOTES FRO: Life-OF RICHES.

260 5. LORD BULWER.-TIE ART OF MANAGING MONEY

265 XI. WISDOM-IN THE CONDUCT OF LIFE....

273-28 1. WILLIAM Von IIUMBOLDT.---ToolGUTS OF A RETIRED STATESMAN.... 273

2. ROBERT SOUTHEY-HEXRY TAYLOR-WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE... 277 PART III.—THE EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN.. 287-416 I ST. JEROYE.-LETTER TO A ROMAX MATROX...

289-234 II. KARL V. RAUXER.-ON THE EDUCATION OF GIRLS..

293-368 III. Sir Thomas MORE-ADMIRAL LORD COLLINGWOOD-MACKINTOSH...... 369-380 IV. FENELON.-DUPANLOUP.-EDUCATION OF DAUGHTERS...............

... 381-414

........, 215

STUDIES AND CONDUCT.

SUGGESTIONS BY MEN EMINENT IN LETTERS AND AFFAIRS

SIR THOMAS WYATT TO HIS SON.

INASMUCH as now you are come to some years of understanding, and that you gather within yourself some fame of honesty, I thought that I should not lose my labour wholly, if now I did something advertise you to take the sure foundations and stablished opinions that leadeth to honesty.

And here, I call not honesty that men commonly call honesty, as reputation for riches, for authority, or some like thing; but that honesty, that I dare well say your grandfather had rather left to me than all the lands he did leave me,—that was, wisdom, gentleness, soberness, desire to do good, friendship to get the love of many, and truth above all the rest. A great part to have all these things, is to desire to have them. And although glory and honest name are not the very ends wherefore these things are to be followed, yet surely they must needs follow them, as light followeth the fire, though it were kindled for warmth. Out of these things the chiefest and infallible ground is the dread and reverence of God, whereupon shall ensue the eschewing of the contraries of these said virtues; that is to say, ignorance, unkindness, rashness, desire of harm, unquiet enmity, hatred, many and crafty falsehoods, the very root of al) shame and dishonesty. I say, the only dread and reverence of God, that secth all things, is the defence of the creeping in of all these mischiefs into you. And for my part, although I do well say there is no man that would wish his son better than I; yet, on my faith, I had rather have you lifeless, than subject to these vices. Think and imagine always that you are in presence of some honest men that you know; as Sir John Russell, your father-in-law, your uncle Parson, or some other such; and ye shall, if at any time

ye find a pleasure in naughty touches, remember what shame it were before these men to do naughtily. And sure this imagination shall cause you to remember that the pleasure of a naughty deed is soon past, and the rebuke, shame, and the note thereof shall remain ever. Then, if these things ye take for vain imaginations, yet remember that it is certain, and no imagination, that ye are always in the presence and sight of God; and though you see Him not, so much is the reverence the more to be had, for that He seeth, and is not

seen.

Men punish with shame as greatest punishment on earth-yea, greater than death; but His punishment is, first, the withdrawing of His favour and grace, and, in leaving His hand to rule the stern, to let the ship run without guide to its own destruction; and suffereth so the man that He forsaketh to run headlong, as subject to all mishaps, and at last, with shameful end, to everlasting shame and death. You may see continual examples both of one sort and of the other; and the better, if ye mark them well that yourself are come of; and consider well your good grandfather, what things there were in him, and his end. And they that knew him, noted him thus: first and chiefly, to have a great reverence of God, and good opinion of godly things. Next, that there was no man more pitiful; no man more true of his word; no man faster to his friends; no man diligenter or more circumspect, which thing, both the kings his masters noted in him greatly. And if these things, and especially the grace of God, that the fear of God always kept with him, had not been, the chances of this troublesome world that he was in had long ago overwhelmed him. This preserved him in prison from the hands of the tyrant,* that could find in his heart to see him racked; from two years' or more imprisonment in Scotland, in irons and stocks; from the danger of sudden changes and commotions divers, till that well-beloved of many, hated of none, in his fair age and good reputation, godly and christianly he went to Him that loved him, for that he always had Him in reverence. self, I must be a near example unto you of my folly and nothingness, that hath, as I well observed, brought me into a thousand dangers and hazards, enmities, batreds, prisonments, despites, and indignations; but that God hath of His goodness chastised me, and not cast me clean out of His favour; which thing I can impute to nothing but the goodness of my good father, that, I dare well say, purchased with continual request of God His grace towards me, more than I regarded or considered myself; and a little part to the small fear I had of God in the most of my rage, and the little delight that I had in mischief. You, therefore, if ye be sure and have God in your sleeve to call you to His grace at last, venture hardly by mine example upon naughty unthriftiness in trust of His goodness; and, besides the shame, I dare lay ten to one ye shall perish

And of my

Richard the Third.

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