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4. Expenses of Primary Schools.—The total outlay in 1860, was 65,715,389 reals, of which 41,681,536 reals was paid in salaries, and 204,102 in pensions.

To meet part of this expense, 5,702,219 reals were paid by the families of the pupils, as school money, and 1,466,632 by charitable foundations.

5. Official estimate of school accommodations and methods. One-third of the girls' schools, and two-thirds of the boys' were held in apartments belonging to the communes; the rest in hired tenements, the majority being in wretched condition.

Out of the 24,353 primary schools, 15,019 were, in 1860, officially reported as defective, and instructed as follows:

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In 1861 there were institutes or public colleges in 57 cities, with an attendance of 21,478 pupils, as follows:

General Branches. Special Branches.


1,711 Schools and Colleges, 3,966

241 Taught at home,



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The attendance on the professional secondary schools, which has been rapidly increasing in late years, was as follows in 1860-1: Four Veterinary Schools,

909 Two Trades Schools,

179 Nine Navigation Schools,

587 Four Mining Schools,

Four Normal Schools, males,




The following was the attendance of other special schools in 1860-1:
Agricultural Schools,

Industrial Engineering Schools,

404 Schools of the Fine Arts,

3,536 Schools of Diplomacy,

Schools for Notaries,

Conservatory for Music and Declamation,

4,672 School for Civil Engineers and Mining,

Engineers of Roads, Canals and Ports,

Wardens (Contremaîtres des mines),
Builders in public works,




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There are ten universities, with an attendance (1860–1) as follows:
In the 10 Faculties of philosophy and literature,

exact sciences,


civil and canon law,

administrative law,

506 theology (now abolished),

305 Total,



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There are seven special schools for the military service, viz: One Col. lege for Infantry Cadets, with 510 students; one College for Cavalry, with 108 students.

The School for Artillery had, during the years from 1852 to 1861, 459 pupils. The regimental schools of the same corps numbered 1,639 pupils.

The Marine Schools numbered 157; the Academy of the Staff of the Fleet, 18; the School of Condestables, 202; the Special School of Marine Engineering, 16; and 100 pupils on board the school steamer.

The military schools are less attended by pupils of the middle class than formerly, and it is difficult to fill the quota in the marine schools.

The 59 Church Seminaries numbered 1859–60, 21,170 pupils, of whom . 670 enjoyed a whole free place, 235 a half.


IV. ACADEMIES, GALLERIES, SOCIETIES. There were, in 1861, 71 literary associations, with 12,830 members, and 36 libraries, with 30,520 books (of which 1,506 are MSS). Four of these societies were private; 109 courses were given on different subjects.

There were 32 of the associations called amigos del pais, with 4,478 members. In Granada and Madrid ladies are admitted to these societies.

Among the institutions to advance science and the arts, and literary culture generally, may be specified:

1. Royal Academy of Spain, founded in 1714, after the model of the Academia della Crusca in Florence (1582), to improve and purify the Spanish language; Royal Academy of Spanish History, founded in 1739; Academy of History and Geography, at Valladolid, and the Literary Academy at Seville, both founded in 1753.

2. Royal Gallery of Paintings, at Madrid, founded in 1512; among its 2,000 paintings, are 62 by Velasquez; 46 by Murillo; 53 by Reubens; 22 by Van Dyke ; 43 by Titian; 10 by Raffaelle, and excellent specimens of other schools and artists.

3. National Library, with ove 200,000 volumes; Scientific Collections of the Academy de san Fernando; Conservatory of the Arts, etc.

We give on the next page a summary of the Educational Statistics of Spain, gathered from other sources.

School Statistics--1865. I. ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.—These are classified into Primary for very young children, and Superior for the older, with other schools having both older and younger pupils. Of those of a public character there were 18,250, of which 109 were for infants, and 272 for adults—having an aggregate attendance of 912,195 pupils. There were besides 3,800 private schools of an elementary character with 134,383 pupils, making an aggregate of 22,060 schools, and 1,251,653 pupils, or one to every 13 of the population. The census shows a large number of adults not reached by any school, public or private.

II. Secondary Schools. — These embrace the following institutions:-Fiftyeight public colleges, with 10,525 pupils; 42 private colleges with 3,241 pupils, and a large number of boarding institutions under the charge of ecclesiastics, with 22,000 pupils. There are also belonging to this class numerous colleges, which are supported by the municipalities, every large town and village being bound, in proportion to its population, to maintain one or more of these schools for public instruction.

III. SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION.—There are 10 Universities, each with a Faculty of Science, Philosophy and Law; 6, Theology; 7, Medicine, and 4, Pharmacyas follows:

Ten of Siences.—Barcelona, Granada, Madrid, Oviedo, Salamanca, Santiago Seville, Valencia, Valladolid, Zaragossa—46 professors, 127 students. Ten of Philosophy and Literature.—51 professors, 191 students. Ten of Law.-80 professors, 3,742 students. Six of Theology.—Madrid, Oviedo, Salamanca, Santiago, Seville, Zaragossa—14 professors, 326 students. Seven of Medicine.Barcelona, Granada, Madrid, Santiago, Seville, Valencia, Valladolid—73 professors, 1,155 students. Four Pharmary.—Barcelona, Granada, Madrid, Santiago-11 professors, 563 students. Total, 275 professors, 6,104 students. IV. Schools Of SPECIAL INSTRUCTION.

Commerce, I, with 27 professors and 553 scholars;
Navigation, 14, with 40 professors and 586 scholars;
Farm Superintendence and Hand Surveying, 5, with 20 professors and

402 scholars;
Veterinary, 4, with 15 professors and 1,078 scholars;
Civil Engineers, 1, with 10 professors and 115 scholars;
Mines, 1, with 8 professors and 34 scholars;
Forestry, i, with 4 professors and 12 scholars;
Architecture, 1, with 7 professors and 23 scholars;
Industrial Schools, 6, with 54 professors and 1,806 scholars;
Diplomacy, 1, with 6 professors and 43 scholars;
Notarial Schools, 10, with 471 scholars;
Painting, 7, with 20 professors and 2,271 scholars ;
Sculpture, 3, with 7 professors and 114 scholars;
Engraving, 3, with 3 professors and 14 scholars;

Music and Declamation, 1, with 37 professors and 531 scholars. According to the statement of an article by Prof. Le Roy in the Encyclopediae Pedagogic, on the school system of Spain, there were in 1860 8,611 students in the different universities; 24,353 Elementary schools, of which 20,198 were public.


The building, erected in 1870–71, by the city of Worcester for the accommodation of the Public High School at a cost of $170,000, after designs of Gambriel and Richardson, Architects of New York, will accommodate 500 pupils, and contains nine school-rooms, each about thirty feet square, three of which are on the principal floor, and six in the second story. The first story also contains a large room for the library, and a lecture-room connected with which on one side is a chemical laboratory fitted up with all the appliances for the practical study of chemistry, and on the other a room for philosophical apparatus. At the right of the main entrance is a room for the principal, which communi. cates with the several school-rooms, by bells and speaking tubes. In addition to the school-rooms mentioned, the second story contains private rooms for the teachers, and two recitation rooms. The third story is occupied by the large hall, seventy-six feet long by sixty-two feet wide, four connecting rooms at the corners of the building, arranged to be used as a means of enlarging the hall, or for other purposes as exigencies may require. The wide halls extending lengthwise the building, with commodious stairways at each end, form a main characteristic in the first and second stories. The entrances for the scholars are in the basement; that for girls at the north end, and that for boys at the south end, and they communicate with rooms for wardrobes, &c. The middle part of the basement is devoted to a gymnasium. The building is finished with varnished pine throughout.

The exterior walls are of pressed brick with Nova Scotia stone trimmings, and black bricks are introduced to a considerable extent as a feature of decoration. A handsome double stairway of granite, brick and freestone, leads to the main entrance, and above this rises a slender, lofty tower of exquisite grace, arranged for clock, bell, and observatory.

A very fine toned bell, manufactured by Meneely and Kimberly, bell founders, of Troy, N. Y., has been placed in the tower by the liberality of a citizen (William Dickinson), at an expense of $1,000. A large clock, which strikes the hours, from the Manufactory of Howard & Co., Boston, has also been placed in it; this, with twelve smaller ones in as many different rooms, costing $1,000, are the gift of another citizen (Ilon. Edward Earle). These small clocks are operated by a battery connected with the large clock; thus uniformity of time will be secured throughout the building. One of Chickering's grand pianos, costing $1,200, is the munificent gist of the Hon. Stephen Salisbury.

The arches above the windows on the first floor, the ornamental work about the eaves, and around the dial on the tower, and near the slating of the tower and of the corner pinnacles, are of black brick, interspersed with brick of the natural color. A water-table of stone marks the line of the first foor; and a corresponding string course connects the window sills of the second story; beneath the latter there is a line of red brick and black brick in alternate pairs, placed cornerwise, after a manner technically called herring bone. The same style of ornamentation is employed in the balustrades around the front entrance and the balcony at the base of the tower. Variety is also given to the slating upon the roof and the slats to the openings in the bell-tower, by the introduc


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