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Of the eight hundred and eighty-two students attending the Universities, there are no less than twenty-nine sons of common laborers; and 16-2 per cent. of the whole number of students belong to that class who live by skilled labor and artisan work. Farmers, ministers, and merchants' sons are more numerous than any other classes. One hundred and twenty-five of the students are the sons of farmers; one hundred and eleven are the sons of ministers; and ninety-four are the sons of merchants; or 374 per cent. of the whole number of students. So in the returns from Professor Blackie's classes, extending over a period of six years, it appears that out of one thousand two hundred and twelve students, one hundred and seventy-five are sons of farmers, one hundred and ninety-nine are sons of ministers, and seventy-nine are sons of merchants, or also 37 per cent. of the total number. Many of those students are the sons of small farmers living at a distance from any Burgh or Middle-class schools; or of ministers in remote parishes, with nothing but the Parochial school in which to get their education; or of small general merchants living in little villages in the Highlands, and entirely educated in the Parochial or Free Church schools.
1. Those educated at the New Grammar School.
any other Burgh School.
Parochial schools in Aberdeen, Banff, and Moray.
And from these returns it appears that out of 670 students, 318 came from the two first classes of schools, and 352 from the others. In like manner, out of 764 students attending the arts and mathematical classes in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and St. Andrews Universities, it appears from the tables in the Appendix that only 35, 46, and 47 per cent., at the respective universities, have been educated at Burgh and Middle-class schools, the remainer having come to the universities from Parochial or Free Church schools, or having been educated out of Scotland, or by private means. These results authoritatively prove that the proportion of students coming from the Burgh and Middle-class schools to the universities is comparatively small, and in no case does it reach half the number of students who matriculate each year at the several universities. From tables carefully prepared, it appears that sixteen, seventeen, and eighteen are the ages at which the majority of students come to the junior classes. There are no students under fourteen years of age, and nine only out of 459 are under fifteen. Eight per cent. are fifteen, nineteen per cent. are sixteen, eighteen per cent. are seventeen, and ten per cent. are eighteen. These tables are substantially corroborated by the University of Edinburgh. He spent the winter session at College, lodging along with another student at 3s. 6d. per week. His whole winter expenses amounted to £22; and he earned the greater part of this by teaching a school in summer in a remote part of the Highlands. It was also related to us as an authentic fact, that the son of a well-known Dumfries beggar attended the late Professor Pillans' classes, and was a diligent student.
returns from Professor Blackie's Greek classes, extending over a period of six years. During these years it appears that five students have attended the Greek classes who were only thirteen years of age; two per cent. were fourteen, and nine per cent. were fifteen. In the smaller area of a single class of Logic, Metaphysics, and English literature at St. Andrews, very similar results are obtained, seven per cent. being fifteen years of age, twenty-three per cent. sixteen, eleven per cent. seventeen, and twenty per cent. eighteen. Such are the main statistical facts to be learned from these returns.
But it is also to be observed that there is comparatively little difference between the ages of students at the senior and at the junior classes. There are nearly as many very young men at the senior classes as at the junior, and almost as many older men at the junior as at the senior classes, as may be seen from the following tables of the number of students in the senior and junior classes, arranged according to three periods of age.
Numbers of students in the Senior and Junior Classes, also in the three periods of Age of 882 students in the four Universities, and 1,212 under Prof. Blackie,
From these returns it appears that sixteen, seventeen, and eighteen are the ages at which a majority of the students enter the universities; a small proportion are rather younger, but 33 per cent. are at or above twenty years of age. They throw no light on the problem of limitations -the line at which school age should end, and the university age begin. At seventeen the universities interfere with the schools, but on the other hand, the schools interfere with the universities, by educating nearly as many scholars of that age and above, as the universities educate under that age.
The instruction given in the Junior classes of the four universities,* as shown in the Report of the Commissioners, does not exceed in quality or advancement, the work done in the Senior classes of the Burgher Schools, Academies, and High Schools.
* In Latin, the books read at Aberdeen are Cicero (two Orations), Horace (756 lines of Odes, and 887 of Satires), Juvenal (344 lines), Livy (8 chapters of B. III., and 24 chapters of B. VIII) Ovid (Faste 947 lines), and Latin Composition (once a week); Edinburgh, Cicero (two orations), Horace (Odes and Satires each one book), Virgil, (two books of Georgies or Æneid), Tacitus (half of Agricola or Germania), and at Glasgow and St. Andrews the amount read is about the
In Greek, the authors read vary, but the amount is about the same, for instance at Edinburgh -Edward First, Greek Reader, Homer (Odessey, two books), Zenophon (Memorabilia), Clyde's Greek Syntax, Greek Conversation (daily), Private Reading (by an average of 15 of the class).
In the Mathematical Classes, Geometry (in either Euclid or Playfair, Books, I-VI), Algebra (up to Quadrates, and to the extent of Todhunter's School Treatise), Trigonometry in the Elementary Treatises (Todhunter, or Galraith).
MODELS AND OTHER APPLIANCES FOR INSTRUCTION IN DRAWING.
The following extracts are from a Paper by Ellis A. Davidson, "on Industrial and Scientific Education as exemplified in the Paris International Exhibition of 1866," read before the Society of Arts in 1867:
On the continent, under the heads of "Gewerb-Schulen," "Real-Schulen," and "Ecoles Polytechniques," institutions for practical studies have been in operation for many years past, and it is proposed to give in this paper a brief account of some of the results obtained, as exemplified in the Paris Exhibition.
In the schools referred to, the studies are, as their names imply, of a real or practical character. The students learn, not only to make a drawing of a machine, but to prepare the working drawings from which a machine may be constructed; and, in many cases, to make the objects from the drawings. This must tend to show them the importance of accurate measurement and correct delineation. They learn, not only that the drawing must be exact, or it would be useless, but in turning or putting together the various parts, they do so with more readiness from having studied the construction on paper.
The collective exhibition of the Austrian Imperial Ministry of State contained numerous works and models, illustrating the courses of various studies carried on in this group of schools. The models will be referred to further on, and the scientific drawings mentioned here. The leading set of studies shows an excellent mode of combining several elementary manual processes with scientific instruction, thus avoiding a difficulty often experienced when instructing persons whose minds are in advance of their hands-who can "think out" a subject, but who can not execute it. Many practical teachers will have observed the diffidence with which a student, who has been allowed to continue his geometrical drawing in pencil for a long period, begins to work in ink, and how frequently a drawing, scientifically correct, is spoiled by the tinting, either with the draw-pen or the brush. The system pursued in the Austrian schools seems calculated to overcome the manual difficulties contemporaneously with the elementary scientific instruction. When the geometrical figures have been correctly done in pencil, they are from the first inked, great neatness of line and accuracy of intersection being insisted upon. They are then colored with flat washes, or sectioned over variously with the draw-pen; the inscribed and containing figures being tinted with complementary colors. Where parts of circles cover each other, each circle is colored with a primary, so that the part overlapped becomes of a secondary color, &c. This system is thoroughly worked out, and thus, at the same time, the student is learning practical geometry, shading with the pen, the use of the brush, and elementary coloring; so that, by the time he reaches the studies of mechanical or architectural construction, he is able to draw and color with tolerable correctness.
In these studies, too, the shading is scientifically worked out; all the shadows on the sphere are projected in circles, each circle separately tinted, according to its position, and so accurately, that at but a short distance the separate circles are not observable, but a beautiful rotundity of form is the result.
An excellent collection of scientific drawings was exhibited by the Industrial
Union of the Grand Duchy of Hesse (Grossherzoglich Hessischer GewerbVerein), being the works of the pupils in schools for workmen of the duchy. These sets of works were the more valuable as it was evident that they had not been specially executed for exhibition, but seemed to have been taken from the daily studies of the pupils. They indicated, as indeed did all the works of the continental schools, an absolute connection between the scientific and artistic studies; and all the science students seem to learn freehand and ornamental drawing and shading, &c., as well as mechanical drawing. The whole subject of technical drawing, whilst it has been much neglected in this country, has been thoroughly systematized on the Continent; and the foreign schools possess completely organized sets of examples, combining the study of drawing with that of construction, adapted to the various branches of industry, of which we are very deficient. Thus there was exhibited by Wilhelm Beyerle, executed by the Gewerb-Verein, a work in eight parts, quartoimperial, with folding plates, called "Pattern drawing for artisans, adapted for the various trades;" each part containing numerous plates of working drawings, to scale, of the work of the engineer, builder, tin-plate worker, bricklayer and masons, cabinet-maker, upholsterer, slater, and staircase builder, in stone, wood, and iron. These plates, which are exceedingly good and are accompanied by complete text, would prove most useful in our science classes. Auother set by the same publisher, designed by Hekter Rössler is called "copies for workmen's schools." It is in seven parts and contains geometrical construction, descriptive geometry, stonework, roofs and joints, stoves and heating apparatus, locksmiths' and cabinet-makers' work.
Still better, because larger and bolder, are the sets of diagrams and examples exhibited by the Royal Commission for parish workmen's schools in Wurtemberg. These are large (royal) lithographs of the most practical character, and all drawn on the scientific principles adapted for almost every branch of construction and ornamental work, with details to a larger scale, and broadly colored. The work is issued in parts of 48 plates and one sheet of text to each. Works in plaster, metals, and wood, by pupils of forty-four of the parish workmen's schools of Wurtemberg, were exhibited. These consisted of models of machines, buildings, roofs, scientific apparatus, furniture, &c., either to the real size or to a scale, whilst in the art division there were fine drawings from the round, plaster casts of ornament and figure, chased and hammered metal work, carving in wood, &c, all exceedingly good in character, and all showing the results of a sound system of technical education.
From the printed documents it seems that the first step towards the estab lishment of the series of technical and workmen's schools in Wurtemberg was made in 1818, by the introduction of drawing-classes into Sunday-schools, already established, for youths above fourteen years, who had left the primary schools.
Steps were afterwards taken by the Board of Education for extending the principle, but in 1848, the actual organization of working men's schools, as they are at present, was inaugurated by the then newly created Board of Trade and Industry, which was charged with the care of providing good instruction for youths engaged in trades and workshops. To effect this purpose, a special commission was appointed; but this commission had not the legal power to order parishes to establish the schools required, but could only proceed by way
of recommendation and by treating with such parishes as had shown interest in the subject. They were, however, much aided in their efforts by the circumstance that pecuniary means were liberally granted by the State in the form of subsidies to such schools as had been organized in conformity with the conditions fixed by the commission—the sums granted in this way amounting in general to half the expenditure made by the parishes themselves for the support of the said schools. The conditions chiefly insisted upon by the commission in the organization of the schools were, in the first place, the voluntary principle with respect to the frequenting of the schools; and the demand that fees should be paid by the scholars-a demand which, however small the fee might be, was considered of importance with regard to the well-known fact, that what is paid for is much more appreciated than what is obtained gratuitously.
The principal task of the commission is to take measures that suitable localities are selected, and that all necessary appliances for education, such as good books, models, diagrams, &c., are provided for the schools; to control the appointment of the managing bodies and inspectors, as well as the training up of good teachers of drawing, &c. The commission did not, however, deem it advisable to organize all the schools after a uniform system, but had regard to the various local circumstances and necessities. The 101 schools, numbering about 8,000 scholars, present, therefore, very different phases of development. The four largest schools in the towns of Heilbronn, Stuttgart, Ulm, and Reutlingen, containing unitedly 2,500 pupils, have Sunday and evening classes offering all the different branches of instruction for mechanics, tradesmen, and young merchants; whilst the drawing-classes may be frequented throughout the day. At Stuttgart and Reutlingen there are also classes for young females who have left the primary schools, and which are attended by 130 scholars.
Thirteen schools established in the towns of Esslingen, Ludwigsburg, Gmund, Hall, Ravensburg, Biberach, Rottenburg, Canstatt, Tübingen, Geislingen, Ellwangen, Calw, and Ebingen, with conjointly 1,600 scholars, have likewise Sunday and evening classes, as well as drawing-classes, open throughout the day, but no mercantile classes. There are, moreover, 60 towns and 12 villages, having together 72 schools, and about 3,500 scholars, with regular classes on Sundays and on the evenings of the week. Of these five schools, numbering together about 250 scholars, have Sunday classes only. Three schools, with about 100 scholars, have Sunday classes combining scientific instruction with drawing; whilst four others, with about 100 scholars, confine themselves entirely to drawing.
In the Swiss department of the Paris Exhibition were several excellent works, illustrating the course of studies in architecture, engineering, and surveying. No novel features were, however, presented, the works being based on, or copied from, the German system.
Years of observation, study, and practical teaching, have shown me that, however good the diagrams and examples used may be, no real conception of forms can be obtained without the aid of solid models; for even though the pupils thoroughly understand the diagram, the form there given is only such as would be correct in one position; and in projection, it is in some cases almost impossible from that one view to form an idea of what shape may be presented by the smallest rotation, depression or elevation of the model. In this, pro