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SCHOOLS OF INSTRUCTION FOR OFFICERS. The Federal system of Military Instruction for officers, in 1871, embraced

I. A Central Military School at Thun, to which all officers appointed to the General Staff repair to be instructed in their duties.

II. A School of Officers at Thun, in which all officers appointed to their respective regiments are instructed in their duties.

III. A School of Cantonal Instruction, held in Basle, to which the infantry instructors resort from every canton to learn their duties, undergo inspection, and preserve a common rule.

IV. A School of Young Officers, held at Solothurn and at St. Gallen, turn by turn, to which the several Cantons send their young officers who have just received their commissions, and to which all candidates for commissions repair for examinations.

V. Comissariat School, to which is joined a Medical and Ambulance School generally, at Thun.

VI. A Shooting School, for officers who give instruction to the Cadet Corps and other organizations in the several Cantons.

To these school organizations with their practical exercises must be added the opportunities afforded by the Cantonal reviews and field manæuvres, to which the young Swiss officer brings much valuable experience in his previous school and cadet drill.

The events of the late French-Prussian war tested the efficiency of the Swiss military organization and instruction. The French declaration was announced in Paris in the afternoon of Friday, July 15, 1870, and responded to by a counter declaration from Berlin on Tuesday, the 19th. But the Federal Council of Switzerland (which lay between the combatants, and might become the first theatre of belligerent operations), was summoned by President Dubs to consider the situation; and within an hour, the Cantons had been regularly summoned to complete their regiments with men, arms, horses, guns, and all stores and tools required for actual service, and five divisions of the Elite (the first second, sixth, seventh, and pinth), were ordered to assemble in their several Cantons. The first division, under Colonel Egtoff, was to secure the bridge at Basle and occupy the two banks of the Rhine. The first news which the men of Aargau had of the impending war was late on Friday night. By noon on Saturday squads of men were falling into the ranks in front of the town-hall of the cantonal capital companies were formed-givs were got out-sappers, engineers, and guards were in readiness-officers were at their posts. In the

same

afternoon the first Swiss troops were in march for Basle, and by midnight the first regiment of Aargau were on the bridge; and by Sunday night the first division, under Col, Egtoff, with 8,296 men, and 692 horses, besides the staff and guides; and the second division, under Colonel Salis, with 8,319 men, and 632 men at the hour had assembled at Basle and held the roads and streams which led to Bonn. By Tuesday night, before the Prussian manifest was known in Bonn, the five divisions of the first Swiss army, with their eleven batteries of artillery mounting 96 field pieces, and a total force of 37,423 men, and 3,541 borses and 104 staff and guides, were under arms and at their respective rendezvous; and the President was authorized by the Council to announce to all concerned, " that any troops belonging to belligerent states, whether regulars or volunteers, who violate the territory of the Swiss nation, will be repelled by force.”

Out of the officers whose men were first in the field, the Federal Council placed Colonel Herzog, of the Aargau detachment of the Federal army, in chief command, and by Saturday night the General's head-quarters were established at Alton (the center of the Swiss railways), where he organized his staff, issued his instructions to organize two hospitals, one for wounded men, and the other for horses, and at the same time ordered magazines of stores and clothes to be established in bis rear, and the forces to be moved up to the front. All railway companies were ordered to report their stock of engines, carriages, and open wagons, and telegraphic communication was established for night as well as day service, and engineers were sent out to study every pass and point by which an enemy in any strength was likely to enter the territory of Switzerland. When all danger to the Cantons had passed away in the victories of the German arms, Gen. Herzog was directed to raise his camps, and send to their several Cantons their respective troops. Later in the war, when it was authentically known that Bourbaki was moving an army of 150,000 strong, to sweep across the Rhine; and still later, that the Germans meant to push the French, in either whole or part, across the Swiss frontier, and put them out of service for the rest of the war- -General Herzog satisfied the President and the Council, and the Minister of War, of the impending danger, and on Thursday, Jan. 19th, the third, fourth, and fifth divisions, with two batteries of mountain guns, well prepared for winter service in a district lying under snow, were ordered out; and in one week from that date, these forces were distributed through the various passes in the Jura, from Basle to Geneva, with orders to repel, or receive-to fight, or feed and lodge, according to the spirit in which the broken detachments of the French army should present themselves. For the enormous number (83,301), who laid down their arms, food and beds were distributed in the Swiss Cantons, by less than 20,000 citizen troops, without the forfeit of a single life. And when their work was done, these citizen soldiers laid aside their arms and uniforms and returned to their shops and industries of various kinds, to earn their daily bread, without forgetting for a moment their civic rights and household duties.

If the occasion had required it, as it did in the war of Secession in 1856, each Canton would have contributed 30 men from every 1,000 inhabitants, to the Elite, and 15 men to every 1,000 to the Reserve; and in case of danger to the Union, every male Switzer, from the age of nineteen to forty-five, not included in either of the above forces, would have obeyed the summons of the national authority for the Landwehr, adding 97,934 to the ranks, besides volunteering above and below the military age, to the number of 100,000 men, who, in case of a defensive war, could have been relied on,-all familiar with military tactics, and accustomed to obey as soldiers, as well as to the use of arms.

According to recent official statistics the strength of the several armies of Switzerland is as follows:

Landwehr.
1. Engineers, .
2. Artillery,

6,513 4,254
3. Cavalry,

1,937 4. Carabineers,

4,600 2,460 5. Infantry,

55,994 26,448 6. Sanitary Service,

144

78 Armorers,

30 Total,....

70,088

34,832 97,934 The system of recruiting, drilling and brigading, is local—which brings neighbors and friends into camp and field companionship, and inspires a sense of trust and cooperation. The cost of the reliable military force is as follows: Cantonal expense, .

4,508,901 frs. Federal expense,

5,486,396

9,995,297 Contrasted with the cost of education the figures stand thus: Communal expenses, .

5,000,000 frs. Cantonal expenses,

5,157,756 Federal Polytechnic,

287,611

10,445,367 And for this sum Switzerland makes a near approach to universal education in schools of different grades, adapted to all classes.

Elite.

900

Reserve.

630

932

MILITARY SYSTEM AND EDUCATION IN RUSSIA.

J. MILITARY SYSTEM.

The Emperor is commander-in-chief of all the forces, by sca and land, assisted by the Staff-Office, the members of which are expert linguists, as well as scientific experienced and military officers. The army is under a Minister of War, assisted by a colleague and a military council. The office of Master of Ordnance is generally filled by a grand prince. The regular force, or army of occupation consists of about 783,000 men, which can be casily swelled to at least 1,200,000, as the whole male population are liable to serve when summoned. The army is mainly recruited by conscription, which falls on the serfs and laboring population, as the nobility, officials, clergy and merchants are exempted. The term of service is twenty years for the guards, twenty two for the line, and twentyfive for the train and military servants.

But few pensions are granted to discharged or furloughed soldiers, although veteran soldiers are frequently appointed to situations as doorkeepers, watchmen, overseers, &c., in government establishments and public institutions.

Promotion by seniority, imperial favor, and good conduct on the field. Every officer must be educated and trained to his business, and serve from the lowest to the highest rank. Non-commissioned officers, musicians, assistant veterinary surgeons, head workmen in the military workshops and factories must all be trained for their special duties. A large portion of these classes are the sons of soldiers, who have been surrendered by their parents to the govern. ment, who receive them at the age of six or twelve, by special arrangement. They are termed cantonists. Among the special military schools of a technological character are, eleven for garrison artillery; three for armories; three for powder mills; three for arsenals; one for riding masters; one for fencing; one for accountants; one for topographical drawing, &c.

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