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which would suggest the means of answering it, and the industry to seek for the solution till it was found.

The practical usefulness of this volume promises to be great. We are a nation of debaters. We glory in being able to speak in public. Every young man who aspires to gain influence over his fellow-men desires to qualify himself to address them with ease and with success. No means are so important for this end, as the critical study of the great works of English eloquence. The eloquence of the bar and of the forum is our especial delight. This volume not only gives the youth, the best specimens of these kinds of English oratory, but illustrates them with biography and history. We do not see how it can fail to be the hand-book of multitudes of the young men of our country.

It also furnishes convenient and copious examples for analysis, both rhetorical and logical, and as such is admirably adapted to the convenience of students in colleges and higher schools. Exercises of this sort can be pursued with the greatest adrantage by the aspirant after professional eminence, during the earlier years of his professional life. The man who is determined to excel at the bar, in the pulpit, or on the political arena, cannot adopt a wiser course of study, than that for which this book is so conveniently adapted.

It gives us great pleasure as the friends of the esteemed author, to speak in such terms of his work. We are certain that a thorough examination of the volume itself, will more than justify the truth of our remarks. Science and the Scriptures. A Discourse before the New York Alpha of the Phi

Beta Kappa Society. By Rev. Benjamin N. Martin. Schenectady, 1852. pp. 43.

The progress in natural science at the present day is exceedingly rapid ; and its bearings on our views of the Bible are very important. There can be no doubt that the modern astronomical and geological views serve to remove several objections which have been thought to lie against the teachings of the holy Scriptures.

1. Some philosophers have denied the fact of a proper creation, as taught in the Bible ; and have held to what they call an infinite series of causes and effects. But geologists affirm with a dogmatism, which appearances are supposed to warrant, that the very crust of the earth furnishes abundant evidence of repeated destruction of this our globe, and of the renovation of the same by a new creative energy. Of course our world, in its present state, is not in the view even of scientific men, an infinite series.

2. Some philosophers have objected that a gradual creation in six successive days, such as is described by Moses, is unworthy of the majesty and power of God. But the appearances in the earth, just alluded to, as viewed by geologists, amply refute this objection, by showing that there have been many repeated acts of creation.

3. It is to many a natural and almost an unanswerable objection to the Mosaic account of the creation, that the earth acquires its form and adjustment before the sun and stars. But, according to the nebular theory which is now attracting attention, the exterior planets are formed before the primary body, in full accordance with Moses.

4. Some might object that Moses represents light as first formed, then the watery deep, then the dry land, as if proceeding in an inverted order; but the Mosaic order accords with the nebular theory, now so popular, which supposes the original matter existing in a gaseous state, first to give out light and heat by condensation, then to become aqueous, and finally solid.

5. Some, arguing from the general stability of the laws of nature, have objected to the biblical representation of a future more glorious and happy state of things on this earth. But the nebular theory, as connected with the law of successive developments, removes this objection at once.

6. Some philosophers of a modern French school, as St. Hilaire, have denied the existence of design in nature, and have refused to recognize final causes in science. But Cuvier, in his labors on fossil remains, by adopting an opposite principle, viz: that an intelligent reason exists for each modification of organic structure in the fossil animal to adapt it to its conditions of existence, was enabled, almost with

prophetic ken, to deduce from a portion of the animal the whole structure, as afterwards verified by the discovery of a perfect skeleton. This bappy incident was a successful refutation of the atheistical doctrine stated above. This point has been happily illustrated by Rev. Professor Martin.

Thus we see that advancing science, by giving more scope and freedom of action to the operations of God and nature, has put to silence many unfounded objections to the volume of divine truth. Pictorial Field Book of the Revolution, or Illustrations, by pen and pencil, of the

history, scenery, biography, relics and traditions of the War for Independence. By Benson J. LOSSING. With six hundred engravings on wood, by Lossing and Barritt, chiefly from original sketches by the author. 2 volumes. Harper & Brothers. We bave so frequently spoken of this valuable work, that we need do no more, on its completion, than reiterate our former opinion. Mr. Lossing has done a most valuable service to bis country. He has secured from destruction, so far as the pencil can do it, many interesting relics of the Revolution, and has placed within the reach of almost every one, a multitude of objects which will always be interesting. The two volumes contain about fifteen hundred imperial octavo pages, well printed, and on good paper. There are over one thousand engravings on wood, chiefly of scenes drawn by the author, for which purpose he traveled very extensively in every part of the country. Among these engravings are between two and three hundred faithful portraits of distinguished men, fac-similes of the autographs of about five buodred; various plans of battles ; drawings of buildings; sketches of scenery, and, of other things a multitude too large to be enumerated. This deserves to be a household book in every American family. Cornelius Nepos, with Notes historical and explanatory. By CHARLES ANTHON,

LL. D., Professor of the Greek and Latin languages in Columbia College, Rector of the High School, etc. etc. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1852.

This is a good edition of Cornelius Nepos. It is annotated and illustrated with Dr. Antbon's usual fullness of learning. We have looked at several passages, with the accompanying notes, and find every thing that is difficult well explained, and a good deal explained which the scholar ought to find out for himself. But, it is useless at this laie hour to dwell upon this point-the boys have carried the day, and this method of annotation has proved its popularity by the surest test, the sales of the bookseller. The Summer and Winter of the Soul. By Rev. Erskine Neal, M. A., Author of

“the Closing Scene." New York: published by M. W. Dodd, corner of Spruce

street and City Hall Square. 1853. New Haven : A. H. Maltby. Light in a Dark Alley. By Henry A. Rowland, Author of work « The

Common Maxims of Intidelity,” and on “The Path of Life." New York: same.

New Haven : same. The Finland Family; or, Fancies taken for Facts. A Tale of the Past for the

Present. By Mrs. Susan BRYTON CORNWELL. New York and New Haven :

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same.

The Last Days of Elisha ; translated from the German of Krummacher. With

an Introduction by GARDINER SPRING, D. D. New York and New Haven : same. We quote from the preface of the first of the above works: “Instances in the life of the devoted, and the self denying, of spiritual declension and of spiritual triumph, may act as beacons--warning the self-confident, and cheering the despondent." Instances of this sort are given from the lives of several well known individuals, Claudius Buchanan, Caroline Fry, Edward Irving and others. But what has Francis Jeffrey to do in this company of the devoted and self denying ?” How can his life illustrate the summer and the winter of the soul? The most melancholy book we have lately read, are the Memoirs of Francis Jeffrey. Scarce one word is there through the whole of them which indicates his opinions or his feelings upon the great

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subjects of eternity. A respectable Heathen, a Socrates, a Plato, a Cicero, would bave said more; and to have such a man brought forward by a Christian divine to illustrate the summer and the winter of the soul, is pot a little remarkable. In a word, this book is nothing less than a barefaced imposition. It was not worthy of being printed, to say nothing of a re-print.

The other books in the above list we cheerfully recommend—and it is indeed very rare that we have to find fault with anything from the press of Mr. Dodd. Particularly, we are glad to sec that he proposes to publish other works of Krummacher. The Private Life of Daniel Webster. By CHARLES LANMAN. New York: Harper

& Brothers. 1853.

Mr. Lanman was private secretary to Daniel Webster, and had many facilities for learning much of Mr. Webster's private history. Mr. Lanman has done well in publishing these memorials; and they are of great importance to a just estimate of the great orator and statesman, Life and Memorials of Daniel Webster; from the New York Times. 2 vols. New

York : D. Appleton & Company, 200 Broadway.

The reading community were under great obligation to the editors of the Daily Times, for the very full accounts they published at the time of Mr. Webster's death. It seems they were prepared by General S. P. Lyman. These are now published, together with other matter; and we think they are well deserving of a permanent record. There are many interesting things in these volumes, but perhaps the most interesting, is Mr. Webster's Brief, in the case which grew out of the Dorr Rebellion. How much would we now give for such an outline of one of the great speeches of Demosthenes or Cicero! Footsteps of our Forefathers. What they suffered and what they taught. Describ

ing localities, and portraying personages and events conspicuous in the struggles for Religious Liberty. With thirty-six Illustrations. By James G. Miall. Boston: Gould & Lincoln, 59 Washington street. 1852. "New Haven : T. H. Pease.

T'he title gives a fair account of this book. It contains a collection of much io. teresting matter, and the wood engravings present the reader in this country with many relics and antiquities which will be interesting to himn. We bave perused the book with pleasure. Romance of American History. By Joseph BANVARD. Boston: Gould & Lincolo,

59 Washington street. 1853. New Haven : T. H. Pease.

This third volume of Mr. Banvard's American histories is, we think, superior to - the preceding ones, and we are glad to learn that the series is well received by the public.

BOOKS RECEIVED.

The Successful Merchant. Sketches of the Life of Mr. SamueL BUDGETT, late of

Kingswood Hall. By WILLIAM ARTHCR. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 200 Broadway. 1853.

In a basty perusal of this volume, we formed a favorable judgment of it. Meyer's Universum. Vol. i, Part xii. New York: Hermann J. Meyer, 164 William

street. New Haven: A. H. Maltby.

We think the publisher has fulfilled fairly the promises of his prospectus, and that his subscribers must be well satisfied with what they have received. A Tract for the Times; or, Elemental Contrast between the Religion of Forms,

and of the Spirit. By S. S. Schmucker, D. D. pp. 58.

Whatever Dr. Schmucker writes is sure to be characterized by capdor, good sense and learning, and in these respects the present pamphlet does not belie its parentage. It is timely. We hope it may be extensively circulated.

THE

NEW ENGLANDER.

No. XLII.

MAY, 1853.

Art. 1.-DOCTRINE OF THE HIGHER LAW.

The late animated discussions of what is termed the higher law' having partially subsided, there is now perhaps a favorable opportunity for a more calm consideration of the subject. During the intense excitement of controversy, the public mind is not always in a condition the best adapted to form a sound and settled judgment, respecting the merits of the case under discussion.

The progress of the contest may have furnished ample materials for an intelligent decision. But a less agitated state of feeling is needed, for a deliberate and judicious adjustment of the points in debate. The earnest contentions of advocates at the bar may prepare a case on trial, for a cool and impartial examination by the jury. When a cause has been ably pleaded before the public, they may be able to decide, whether the truth lies wholly with one of the parties, or whether a portion of it belongs to each. Our present object is not agitation, but inquiry.

In the ardent discussions on the higher law,' there is reason to believe, that an important distinction has been kept too much out of sight; the distinction between a refusal to obey a law, and violence offered to its execution, between non-obedience and forcible resistance. On one side, the writers or speakers adopt as a principle the apostolic injunction, that “whosoever resisteih the power resisteth the ordinance of God; expending their eloVOL. XI.

21

quence in depicting, in glowing colors, the enormity of forcible opposition to law ;-to human government sanctioned by divine authority. As they are silent on the point of obedience to laws believed to be contrary to the higher law of God; their opponents draw the inference, unwarrantably perhaps, that they mean to enjoin indiscriminate conformity to all the laws of the land, however unrighteous some of them may be.

On the other hand, if some writers dwell exclusively on the duty of obeying God rather than man; of refusing to aid in the execution of laws manifestly iniquitous; the inference may be drawn, that they intend to countenance forcible resistance to the measures of government. In this way, Christian brethren, and even preachers of the gospel of peace, may be arrayed against each other, in determined conflict; when in reality, there is no substantial difference in the opinions which they hold, on the subjects under discussion ; each believing that an unrighteous law is to be disobeyed, but not forcibly resisted. Yet jealousy and party animosity are roused, because each side thinks proper to lay out all its strengih upon one only of the points under consideration, regardless of the misconstructions which may be expected to follow from its silence, with respect to the other point. On this subject, as well as on others, the pastors of churches need to be on their guard, lest they undesignedly lead their hearers into dangerous error, by this onesided mode of presenting even important truth.

But there may be some who think that, so far as our duty is concerned, the distinction here made is groundless ; that if a particular law ought not to be resisted, it ought to be obeyed; and on the other hand, if it is not right to obey it, it is right to resist it. Now what saith the scripture respecting this? The apostle Paul, in the thirteenth chapter of his epistle to the Romans, has not only given us the fundamental principle of our obligations to civil government, but has stated distinctly the practical application of this principle. "Let every soul,” he says, " be subject to the higher powers; for there is no power

, but of God; the powers that be are ordained of God. Whosoever, therefore, resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God.” Ye must needs be subject, not only for wrath," that is, for fear of punishment, “but also for conscience sake.” The apostle Peter is, if possible, still more explicit. “Submit your

, selves to every ordinance of man, for the Lord's sake; whether it be to the king as supreme, or unto governors, as unto them

that are sent by him, for the punishment of evil doers, and for ) the praise of them that do well. For so is the will of God."

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