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the elevator mechanism are set in operation by being at present conducted is a consideration of mach weight in mounted on a spindle which passes through and outside dealing with rival systems of artificial lighting. the cylinder, and is turned either by a weight. attached Throughout the whole experience of gas manufacture the to a length of steel wire or, where convenient, by hydraulic efforts of inventors have been directed, not only to improve power. The tarrets contain (1) a gas-hclder which sup- the manufacture of coal-gas, but also to supersede its ordiplies gas while the machine is being wound up, should any nary processes, and to supplant it by gas yielded by other light be then burning, and (2) a governor to regulate the raw materials or by new systems of illumination. The pressure of the issuing gas. The apparatus works only | persistent efforts which have been made to improve coal-gas, when gas is being burned, and moves in proportion to the and the success which many of the plans exhibit in their demand on it up to its limit of production. There is experimental stage, warrant the conclusion that the protherefore no necessity for storing, as indeed would be in- cesses and results of the manufacture are still susceptible practicable with this form of carburetted gas. The function of much improvement. When it is considered how exceedof the blower is not only, by its revolution, to press forwardingly small is the total proportion of illuminants in coal-gas the gas into the supply pipes, but also to carburet the air to the bulk of the materials dealt with, it is not difficult to by exposing continually renewed thin films of the liquids imagine that inodifications of processes may be devised Lo its influence on the moist metallic surfaces. The revolu- whereby a great increase of lighting effect might be practition of the blower, moreover, maintains an unceasing cally available, and at the same time a greater percentage agitation in the gasolin, vaporizes the liquid in an equal of the total heat-giving power of the coal secured for and uuiform manner, and keeps the entire volume at domestic and manufacturing purposes. Notwithstanding the same temperature throughout. The quantity of the confessed imperfections of the system of coal gas-makgasolin operated on being comparatively large, the tempera- ing,—the evil odours which attach to the works, the ture of the liquid decreases only slowly, and is in ordinary yet more offensive exhalations given off from streets conditions sufficiently recouped from the external air to through which the main-pipes are led, the destructive keep it in good working order throughout any length of accidents which occasionally occur from gas explosions, time.

and the heat and sulphurous fumes evolved during M. Tessie du Motay, who for many years advocated a its combustion,-not one of the numerous substitutes modified system of lime-light, latterly abandoned that which have been proposed has been able to stand in system in favour of a form of carburetted gas. His system competition against it in any large town or city where necessitates two sets of pipes and a special form of burner, - coal is a marketable commodity. As against the system of one pipe supplying ordinary coal-gas or highly carburetted electric lighting, which is now being brought into competihydrogen, and the other leading in a supply of oxygen, tion with it, the ultimate fate of gas may be different. It whereby a powerful, steady, white light is maintained at may be regarded as already demonstrated that for busy the burner. Philipps of Cologne has also utilized oxygen thoroughfares--almost, it may be said, for open-air lighting in a comparatively pure state for burning in a lamp with generally—and for large balls and enclosed spaces, electric a wick a mixture of heavy hydrocarbons, which in common lighting will, in the near future, supersede gas. The air would burn with a very smoky flame.

advantages of the electric light for such positions in brilOther sources of gas, such as tar, and even fæcal matters, | liancy, penetration, and purity are so manifest that its use have been proposed; and many modified forms of gaseous must ultimately prevail, irrespective of the question of comillumination have been brought forward which, even to parative cost, and of the fact that municipalities and wealthy name here, would occupy space out of proportion to their corporations have an enormous pecuniary stake in gasimportance.

property. That the electric light will be equally available

for domestic illumination is, however, not yet so certain ; THE FUTURE OF COAL-GAS.

and until it is demonstrated that a current may be sub

divided practically without limit, that the supply can adapt The processes involved in the preparation, distribution, itself to the demand with the same ease that the pressure and consumption of coal-gas still remain essentially the of gas is regulated, and that the lights can be raised and same as when the system was first elaborated; but in all lowered equally with gas-lights-till these and other condetails of the industry numerous improvements have been ditions are satisfied, the disuse of gas-lighting is still out introduced, resulting in marked economy and efficiency of of sight. Should these conditions, however, be satisfied, the system. In the meantime new applications of import- there can be little doubt that gas-lighting will enter on a ance have been found for coal-gas in connexion with heating period of severe competition and struggle for existence; and cooking, and as a motive power in gas-engines. and in the end the material which at one time was Further, collateral industries have been superadded to the regarded as a most troublesome and annoying waste-gas manufacture, wbich in themselves are of such value the gas-tar—will, in all probability, exercise & decisive and importance that, were the distillation of coal as a source influence on the continuance of the gas manufacture. of artificial light to cease, it would certainly continue to be

Bibliography. --Clegg, A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture practised as a source of the raw materials of the coal-tar , and Distribution of Coal-Gas, new edition, London, 1869; Hughes, colours, and of carbolic acid, &c. Were coal-gas to cease A Treatise on Gas- Works and Manufacturing Coal-Gas, 5th edition to be made primarily and principally for artificial illumina- by Richards, London, 1875; Richards, A Practical Trcatise on the tion, and to become more a heating and cooking agent, or

Nanufacture and Distribution of Coal-Gas, London, 1877; Accum, were it to fall into the position of being a mere collateral lighting, London ; Bowditch, The Analysis, Technical Valuation,

Practical Treatise on Gas-Light, 4th ed., 1818 ; Journal for Gasproduct of the manufacture of tar, it is certain that the and Purification of Coal-Gas, London, 1867; Banister, Gas Manimanufacturing processes would be very materially modified. pulation, new ed. by Sugg, London, 1867 ; Servier, Traité pratique Costly cannel-gas, with its high illuminating power, is no

de la fabrication et de la distribution du gaz d'éclairage, Paris, 1868; better suited for a gas engine than common gas ; and for Schilling, Handbuch der Steinkohlen-Gas-Beleuchtung, Munich, 1860;

Payen, Précis de Chemie industrielle, 6th edition, Paris, 1877 ; heating purposes a much greater yield of gas might be Diehl and Illgen, Gasbeleuchtung und Gasverbrauch, Iserlohn, 1872; obtained, which, in burning, would evolve more beat than Ilgen, Die Gasindustrie der Gegenwart, Leipsic, 1874; Rolley, is sought in making illuminating gas. But as matters now

Technologie, vol. i., Brunswick, 1862; Wagner's Jahresbericht stand, the fact that illumination, heat, motive power, and

der chemischen Technologie, Leipsic; Journal für Gasbeleuchtung

und verwandte Beleuchtungsart, Munich; Reissig, Handbuch der dye-stuffs are all obtained by means of the manufacture as Holz und Torf Gas-Fabrikation, Munich, 1863. (J. PA.)

a

GASCOIGNE, GEORGE (c. 1535–1577), one of the great | Lancaster, Gascoigne was appointed one of his attorneys, pioneers of Elizabethan poetry, was born about 1535-as is and soon after Henry's accession to the throne was made believed, in Westmoreland. He was the son and heir of Sır chief-justice of the Court of King's Bench. After the John Gascoigne. He studied at Cambridge, and was admitted suppression of the rising in the north in 1405, Henry no Gray's Inn in 1555. His youth was unsteady, and bis eagerly pressed the judge to pronounce sentence opon Scrope, father disinherited him In 1565 he had written bis tragi. tho archbishop of York, and the earl marshal Thomas comedy of The Glass of Government, not printed until 1576. Mowbray, who had been implicated in the revolt. The La 1566 his first published verses were prefixed to a book judge absolately refused to do so, asserting the right of the called The French Littleton, and be brought out on the stage prisoners to be tried by their peers. Although both were of Gray's Inn two very remarkable dramas, Supposes

, afterwards executed, the chief-justice had no part in the the earliest existing English play in prose, and Jocasta, the transaction. The often told tale of his committing the first attempt to naturalize the Greek tragedy. Of the Prince of Wales to prison has of course been doubted by latter only the second, third, and fourth acts were from modern critics, out it is both pietaresque and characteristic. his hand. Soon after this be married. In 1572 there The judge had directed the punishment of one of the prince's was published A Hundred sundry Florers bound up in one riotous companions, and the prince who was present and small Poey, a pirated collection of Gascoigne's lyrics, he enraged at the sentence struck or grossly insulted the having started in March of that year to serve as a voluuteer judge Gascoigne immediately committed him to prison, under the Prince of Orange. He was wrecked on the coast using firm and forcible language, which brought him to of Holland and nearly lost his life, but obtained a captain's a more reasonable mood, and secured his voluntary obedi. commission, and acquired considerable military reputation.ence to the sentence. The king is said to have approved An intrigue, however, with a lady in the Hague, nearly cest of the act, but there appears to be good ground for the him his life. He regained his position, and fought well at supposition that Gascoigne was removed from his post or the siege of Middleburg, but was captured under the walls resigned soon after the accession of Henry V. He died in of Leyden, and sent back to England after an imprisonment 1419, and was buried in the parish church of Harewood in of four months. In 1575 he issued an authoritative edition Yorkshire. Some biographies of the judge have stated that of his poems under the name of Posies. In the summer of he died in 1412, but this is clearly disproved by Foss in the same year he devised a poetical entertainment for Queen his Lives of the Judges ; and although it is clear that Elizabeth, then visiting Kenilworth; this series of masques Gascoigne did not hold office long under Henry V., it is not was printed in 1576 as The Princely Pleasures. Later on absolutely impossible that the seene in the fifth act of tbe in 1575 he greeted the queen at Woodstock with bis Tale second part of Shakespeare's Henry IV. has some historical of Hemetes, and presented her on next New Year's day with basis, and that the judge's resignation was voluntary. the MS. of the same poem, which is now in the British GASCONY, an old province in the S.W. of France, Museum. He completed in 1576 his two most important nearly identical with the Novempopulania or Aquitama works, The Complaint of Philomene, and The Steel Glass, Tertia of the Romans. Its original boundaries cannot be the first of which had occupied bim since 1562; they were stated with perfect accuracy, but it included what are now printed in a single volume. Later on in the same year he the departments of Landes, Gers, and Hautes-Pyrénées, and pablished A delicate Diet for dainty-mouthed Drunkards. parts of those of Haute-Garonne and Ariége. Its capital He fell into a decline and died at Stamford on the 7th of was Auch. About the middle of the 6th century there was October 1577. We are indebted for many particulars of an incursion into this region of Vascons or Vasques froma his life to a rare poem published in the same year by Spain, but whether of a hostile kind or not is uncertain ; George Whetstone, and entitled A Remembrance of the Weli- but as the original inhabitants, in common with those of employed Life and Godly End of George Gascoigne, Esquire. the rest of Aquitaine were also Vasques, it is probable that In his poem of The Steel Glass, in blank verse, Gascoigne the province owes its name Gascony less to this new introduced the Italian style of satire into our literature. incursion than to the fact that its inhabitants continued He was a great innovator in point of metrical art, and he so long to maintain their independence. In 602 they prefixed to the work in question a prose essay on poetry, suffered defeat from the Franks and were compelled to pay which contains some very valuable suggestions. His great tribute, but they continued to be governed by their own claim to remembrance was well summed up in the next hereditary dukes, and gradually extended the limits of their generation by Thomas Nash, who remarked in his preface dominions to the Garonne. The province was overrun by to Greene's Menaphon, that “ Master Gascoigne is not to Charlemagne but never.completely subdued, and in 872 it be abridged of his deserved esteem, who first beat the path formally renounced the authority of the French kings; but to that perfection which our best poets aspired to since his through the extinction of the male line of hereditary dukes departure, whereto he did ascend by comparing the Italian of Gascony in 1054 it came into the possession of the with the English.” The-works of Gascoigne were collected dukes of Guienne (or Aquitaine), with which province its in 1587, and partly republished in 1810 and 1821. The history was from that time identified (see AQUITANIA and best modern edition of the principal poems is that edited, GUIENNE). with full bibliographical notes, by E. Arber in 1868. GASKELL, ELIZABETA CLEGHORN (1810-1865), one of

GASCOIGNE, SIR WILLIAM, was chief-justice of the most distinguished of England's women-novelists, was England in the reign of Henry IV. Both history and born at Cheyne Row, Chelsea, September 29, 1810. She tradition testify to the fact that he was one of the great was the second child of William Stevenson, of whom an lawyers who in times of doubt and danger have asserted account is given in the Annual Biography and Obituary the principle that the head of the state is subject to law, for 1830. Mr Stevenson, who began life as classical tutor and that the traditional practice of public officers, or the in the Manchester Academy, and preached also at Doblane, expressed voice of the nation in parliament, and not the near that town, afterwards relinquished his ministry and will of the monarch or any part of the legislature, must became a farmer in East Lothian; and later, on the failure guide the tribunals of the country. The judge was a' of his farming enterprises, he kept a boarding-house for descendant of an ancient Yorkshire family. The date of students in Drummond Street, Edinburgh, where he also his birth is uncertain, but it appears from the Year Books became editor of the Scots Magazine, and contributed that he practised as an advocate in the reigns of Edward largely to the Edinburgh Review. At the time of his IIL and Richard IL On the banishment of Henry of | daughter's birth Mr Stevenson had been appointed Keeper

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of the Records to the Treasury, and was living in Chelsea, publication, and offering the authoress £100 for the copy, still a diligent contributor to various periodicals of the duy. right. The appearance of Mary Barton in 1848 caused Mrs Stevenson, Mrs Gaskell's mother, was a Miss Holland, great excitement in Manchester, and a strong partisanship of Stadlebridge in Cheshire, an aunt of the late Sir Henry was felt for and against its anonymous author. After its Holland. She died at the birth of her daughter, who was publication Mrs Gaskell paid several visits in London, in a manner adopted, when she was only a month old, by rhere she made many friends, among whom we may men. ber mother's sister, Mrs Lumb. This lady had married a tion Dickens, Forster, Mrs Jameson, Lord Houghton, Mrs wealthy Yorkshire gentleman, but a few months after her Stowe, Ruskin, and Florence Nightingale. Her friendship. marriage, and before the birth of her child, discovered that with Charlotte Bronte also dates from about this time, her husband was insane, and fed from him to her old home when the two authoresses met at the house of Sir James in the little market town of Knutsford, in Cheshire. Mrs and Lady Kay Shuttleworth, near Bowness, in WestmoreLamb's own daughter having died, she transferred all her land, and Mrs Gaskell received her first impressions of the affection to the little Elizabeth, between whom and her sby "little lady in a black silk gown,” who afterwards be. there existed through life the strongest bond of affection. came personally her dear friend, -although, from a literary During Elizabeth's childhood at Knutsford she was visited point of view, they could hardly help being rivals,-and now and then by her sailor-brother ; but while she was still the story of whose life, when it was ended, Mrs Gaskell a girl he went to India, where he somewhat mysteriously, was destined to write with such consummate care and tender and without any apparent motive, disappeared, and all appreciation. But Mary Barton was to prove only the further trace of him was lost. She was afterwards sent for first of a series of scarcely less popular publications, which about two years to a school kept by a Miss Byerley at i appeared either independently or in periodicals such as Stratford-on-Avon, and on leaving school went for a time Household Words. It was followed in 1850 by The Moor. to live with her father, who had married again. Under his land Cottage. Cranford and Ruth appeared in 1853 ; guidance she continued her -studies, reading with him in North and South, in 1855; The Life of Charlotte Bronte, in history and literature, and working, chiefly by herself, at 1857; Round the Sofa, in 1859; Right at Last, in 1860; Latin, Italian, and French, in all of which she was in later Sylvia's Lovers, in 1863; and Cousin Phillis and Wives and life proficient. Having tenderly nursed her father in his Daughters, in 1865. last illness, she returned to her aunt at his death in 1829; During these years—years of increasing worldly proand, with the exception of one or two visits to Newcastle, sperity and literary distinction-Mrs Gaskell often went London, and Edinburgh, she continued to live at Knutsford abroad, chiefly to Paris and Rome, but once for a long visit till her marriage. She had at this time a reputation for to Heidelberg, and once also to Brussels, to collect inforgreat beauty; and even in later life her exquisitely-shaped mation about Charlotte Bronte's school-days. In Paris her soft eyes retained their light, and her smile its wonderful genius was warmly appreciated ; and, while she was a guest sweetness. Her marriage to the Rev. William Gaskell, among them, Guizot, Montalembert, and Odillon Barrot vied M.A., of Cross Street Chapel, Manchester, took place in doing her honour. Of her visits in England some of the August 30, 1832, at Knutsford church; and during the pleasantest were to Oxford, where she counted among her earlier years of her married life Mrs Gaskell lived very friends Mr Jowett and Mr Stanley (dean of Westminster). quietly in Manchester, surrounded by a few intimate and at other times, when she was busy writing one of her cultured friends, and devoting all her time and abilities to novels, she would leave home with one or two of her the cares of a necessarily frugal household. Among these children, and carry her manuscript to some quiet country friendships, that with Miss Catherine Winkworth and her place, where she could write undisturbed. When she was sisters was perhaps the longest and most cherished. From at home, although she was enthusiastically interested in the the first, although she never visited the poor as a member political questions of the day, and her warm, impulsive of any organized society, she sought by all means in her nature made her ready at any time to give personal help power to relieve the misery which, in a town like and sympathy where it seemed to be needed, Mrs Gaskell Manchester, she was constantly witnessing. She gave the refrained from taking active part in public moveinents or most devoted help and tender sympathy to such cases of social reforms, if we except, indeed, the great sewing-school individual distress as came under her notice. She assisted movement in Manchester at the time of the cotton famine Mr Travers Madge in his missionary work amongst the in 1863. Her life was thoroughly literary and domestic poor, and was the friend and helper of Thomas Wright, the She road much : Goldsmith, Pope, Cowper, and Scott were prison philanthropist. She also made several individual the favourite authors of her girlhood; in later life she friendships among poor people, and knew personally one or admired Ruskin and Macaulay extremely, and delighted in two types of the Chartist working-man. She was specially many old French memoirs of the time of Madame de Sévigné, interested in the young working-women of Manchester, and whose life she often planned to write. It is remembered for some years held a weekly evening class at her own house of her that one day, when she was reading George Eliot's for talking with them and teaching them. Of Mrs Gaskell's first and anonymous story Amos Barton, she looked up and

, seven children, two were still-born, and another, her only said, “I prophesy that the writer of this will be a great son, born between the third and fourth of her four living writer some day.” The prospect of the awful cotton famine daughters, died at the age of ten months. The death of in Manchester in 1862 set Mrs Gaskell anxiously thinking this baby is said to have been the cause of Mrs Gaskell's what could be done to relieve the coming distress, and she beginning to write, when she was urged by her husband to decided, " without any suggestions from others, on a plan do so, in order to turn her thoughts from her own grief. of giving relief and employment together to the women She began by writing a short paper called “ An Account of mill-hands, which was an exact prototype of the great Clopton Hall,” for William Howitt's Visits to Remarkable system of relief afterwards publicly adopted, namely, the Places. This was followed by one or two short stories, such sewing-schools.” When these were formed, Mrs Gaskell as the “Sexton's Hero," for the People's Journal ; and then “ merged her private scheme in the public one

, and worked she wrote Mary Barton, a Tale of Manchester Life. On most laboriously in the sewing-school nearest her home.” its completion, she sent it to one publisher in London who This was but three years before her death. Still busy rejected it unread, and then to Messrs Chapman and Hall, writing her novel Wives and Daughters, she was staying who, after keeping the manuscript for a year without with her children at Holybourne, Alton, in Hampshire, acknowledgment, wrote to her accepting the novel for a house which she had just purchased as a surprise and

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gift to her busband, when she died suddenly of heart | rank 80 high in the literature of fiction as it does. It disease, about 5 o'clock on Sunday evening, November is no work of occasion, the chief interest of which departs 12, 1865. Her remains were carried to the churchyard when the occasion itself is over. It is a thoroughly artistic of the Old Presbyterian Meeting-house at Knutsford, production, and for power of treatment and intense interest where her childhood and girlhood had been spent, and of plot has seldom been surpassed. It is as the authoress of which she had left as a bride, three-and-thirty years before. Mary Barton that Mrs Gaskell will be remembered. Of A memorial tablet in memory of Mrs Gaskell was erected her other works, Ruth is singularly inferior to its predecesby her husband's congregation, in Cross Street Chapel, sor ; but North and South, which takes the side of the Manchester-a tribute not only to ber genius, and the master manufacturers, as Mary Barton did that of the men, spirit in which it was exercised, but to the " tenderness has been scarcely less popular with the public. Perhaps and fidelity” of the wife and mother who had lived long the two best of Mrs Gaskell's productions, each in its amongst them.

own way, are the exquisitely humorous Cranford and With this knowledge of the facts of Mrs Gaskell's life, it Cousin Phillis

, which has been fitly called an idyll in prose. is not difficult to trace the sources of her inspirations. Wives and Daughters, even in its uncompleted state, is Some of her shorter tales, it is true, seem to have been artistically almost faultless, and full of a quiet restful suggested merely by her readings; and, carefully as she beauty entirely its own. George Sand was a great admirer collected their materials, these are the least satisfactory of of this novel, and Mrs Gaskell's family still cherish a saying her writings. But by far the most of what she wrote was of hers about it :-“It is a book," she once said to Lord founded on observation and experience. Mrs Gaskell has Houghton, “ that might be put into the hands of an inno reproduced, with slight variations, in her novel North and cent girl, while at the same time it would rivet the attention South, the incident in her father's youth, when he and of the most blasé man.of the world." Her one work which his friend and fellow-student, the Rev. George Wicke of is not a novel—her Life of Charlotte Bronte—it is difficult Monton, believing it wrong to be hired teachers of re- to praise too highly, either as a biography proper, or as ligion,” resigned their ministries and sought a livelihood a narrative written with the consummate skill of the otherwise. The beautiful story in “ Mary Barton" of the novelist. Some people, indeed, have thought that Mrs two working-men who brought the baby from London to Gaskell transgressed the bounds of the biographer in pubManchester is a version of an anecdote about Mrs Gaskell’s lishing so many details of Miss Bronte's domestic and own infancy, of her being taken to Knutsford, after ber private life ; but the case was a peculiar one. The charmother's death, by a friend who chanced to be travelling acter of Charlotte Bronte's writings made it advisable that that way. The little county town of " Cranford"—with her reader, in order properly to understand her, should be its population of widows and maiden ladies, and its horror admitted to some of the hitherto hidden facts of her short, of the masculine portion of society—is Knutsford, so long sad life. Mrs Gaskell, knowing and esteeming Charlotte Mrs Gaskell's home. In Cranford every character, if not Bronte in the character of friend, daughter, and wife, hoped every incident, is real; and the pathetic little story of in some degree to justify to the world the morbid, unhealthy Poor Peter can have been suggested only by the disap tone which pervaded her genius ; and surely, if any band pearance of that sailor brother who used to visit Mrs was to draw the curtain, none could bave done it more Gaskell in her girlhood, and whose mysterious Joss also tenderly than that of her frierd.

(F. M.) must have interested her always afterwards in “ disappear- GASSENDI, PIERRE (1592–1655), one of the most ances "—the title of one of her papers in Household Words. eminent French philosophers, was born of poor but respectPleasant months spent at Morecambe Bay and Silver- able parentage at Champtercier, near Digne, in Provence, dale initiated her in the mysteries of rural and farm life. on the 22d January 1592. At a very early age he gave Her visits to France were the origin of her tales of the indications of remarkable mental powers, and at the instance Huguenots and the French refugees at the time of the of his uncle, the curé of his native village, he was sent to Revolution. The Edinburgh of her girlhood appears in one the college at Digne. He made rapid progress in his or two of her stories, briefly but vividly sketched. Her studies, showing particular aptitude for languages and schooldays at Stratford-on-Avon are remembered in Lois the mathematics, and it is said that at the age of sixteen he was. Witch; and, if only in a little story like the visit to invited to leoture on rhetoric at the college. He cannot have Heppenheim, we can trace her exoursions from Heidelberg retained this post for any length of time, for soon afterwards along the broad, white Bergstrasse. But it is most on all he entered the university of Aix, to study philosophy under in Mary Barton, a story of the trials and sorrows of the Fesaye. In 1612 he was oalled to the college of Digne to poor in Manchester, whom she had had so many oppor- lecture on theology: Four years later he received the tunities of observing, that Mrs Gaskell gave her personal degree of doctor of theology at Avignon, and in 1617 be knowledge and experience to the world. Her severest | took orders as a priest. In the same year he was called to critic, Mr W. R. Greg, admits Mrs Gaskell's knowledge of the chair of philosophy at Aix, and seems gradually to have her subject, but objects to the impression left by the novel withdrawn from theological study and teaching. on the mind of the reader as inaccurate and harmful, At Aix he lectured principally on the Aristotelian philo“ Were Mary Barton," he says, “ to be only read by Man- sophy, conforming as far as possible to the orthodox chester men and master manufacturers, it could scarcely methods. At the same time, however, he prosecuted his fail to be serviceable, beoause they might profit by its favourite studies, physics and astronomy, and by the dissuggestions, and would at once detect its exaggerations coveries of Galileo, Kepler, and others became more and and mistakes ;” but on the general public he fears its more dissatisfied with the Peripatetic system. It was, effect will be "mischievous in the extreme." One indeed, the very period of violent revolt against the authodoubts whether a calm solution of a great economic diffi- rity of Aristotle, and Gassendi shared to the full the culty, such as that which Mrs Gaskell treats of, could practical and empirical tendencies of the age. He, too, ever be given in a novel; and certainly the warm-hearted, began to draw up in form his objections to the Aristotelian impulsive authoress of Mary Barton had no such aim philosophy, but did not at first venture to publish them. in view. It is probable that she wrote without any The portion shown to his friends Peiresc and Gautier, distinct economic theories. Earnest, benevolent intentions however, was 80 vehemently approved by them that in she no doubt had, but she was far more of an artist than 1624, after he had left Aix for a canonry at Grenoble, lie & reformer. Had it not been so, Mary Barton would not | priated the first part of his Exercitationes paradoxico

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aaversus Aristoteleos. A fragment of the second book was His collected works, of which the most important is published later (1659), but the remaining five, requisite to the Syntagma Philosophicum (Opera, i. and ii.), were complete the work, were never composed, Gassendi appar published in 1655 by Montmort (6 vols. fol., Lyons). ently thinking that after the Discussiones Peripatetice of Another edition, also in 6 folio volumes, was published by Patricius little field was left for his labours.

Averanius in 1727. These volumes sufficiently attest the The Exercitationes on the whole seem to have excited wide extent of his reading and the versatility of his powers. more attention than they deserved. They contain little The first two are occupied entirely with his Syntagma or nothing beyond what had been already advanced Philosophicum ; the third contains his critical writings on against Aristotle by the more vigorous of the Humanists, by Epicurus, Aristotle, Descartes, Fludd, and Lord Herbert, Valla and Vives, by Ramus and Bruno. The first book with some occasional pieces on certain problems of physics; expounds clearly, and with much vigour, the evil effects of the fourth, his Institutio Astronomica, and his Commentarii the blind acceptance of the Aristotelian dicta on physical de Rebus Celestibus ; the fifth, his commentary on the tenth and philosophical study; but, as is the case with so many book of Diogenes Laertius, the biographies of Epicurus, of the anti-Aristotelian works of this period, the objections Peirese, Tycho Brahe, Copernicus, Peurbach, and Regiodo not touch the true Aristotelian system, and in many montanus, with some tracts on the value of ancient money, instances show the usual ignorance of Aristotle's own on the Roman calendar, and on the theory of music, to all writings. The second book, which contains the review of which is appended large and prolix piece entitled Notitia Aristotle's dialectic or logie, is throughout Ramist in tone Ecclesiæ Diniensis ; the sixth volume contains his corre. and method.

spondence. The Lives, especially those of Copernicus, Tycho, After a short visit to Paris in 1628, Gassendi travelled and Peiresc, have been justly admired. That of Peiresc has for some years in Flanders and Holland with his friend been repeatedly printed; it has also been translated into Luillier. During this time he wrote, at the instance of English. Gassendi was one of the first after the revival of Mersenne, his examination of the mystical philosophy of letters who treated the literature of philosophy in a lively Robert Fludd (Epistolica dissertatio in qua præcipia prin. way. His writings of this kind, though too laudatory and cipia philosophice Ro. Fluddi deteguntur, 1631), an essay on somewhat diffuse, have great merit; they abound in those parhelia (Epistola de Parheliis), and some valuable observa- anecdotal details, natural yet not obvious reflexions, and tions on the transit of Mercury which had been foretold by vivacious turns of thought, which made Gibbon style him, Kepler. He returned to France in 1631, and two years with some extravagance certainly, though it was true enough later received the appointment of provost of the cathedral up to Gassendi's time—“le meilleur philosophe des litterachurch at Digre. Some years were then spent in travelling teurs, et le meilleur litterateur des philosophes." through Provence with the duke of Angoulême, governor of Gassendi will always retain an honourable place in the the department. The only literary work of this period is history of physical science. He certainly added little the Life of Peiresc, which has been frequently reprinted, original to the stock of human knowledge, but the clearness and was translated into English. In 1642 he was again of his exposition and the manner in which he, like liis engaged by Mersenne in controversy, on this occasion greater contemporary, Bacon, urged the necessity and utility against the celebrated Descartes. His objections to the of experimental research, were of inestimable service to the fundamental propositions of Descartes were published in cause of science. To what extent any place can be assigned 1642 ; they appear as the fifth in the series contained in him in the history of philosophy is more doubtful. His the works of Descartes. In these objections Gassendi's anti-Aristotelian writing has been already noticed. The already great tendency towards the empirical school of objections to Descartes_one of which at least, through speculation appears more pronounced thon ir any of his Descartes's statement of it, has become famous—have no other writings. In 1645 he was invited by the archbishop speculative value, and in general are the outcome of the of Lyons, brother of Cardinal Richelieu, to the chair of crudest empiricism. His labours on Epicurus have a certain mathematics in the Collége Royal at Paris. He accepted historical value, but the inherent want of consistency in the this post, and lectured for many years with great success. philosophical system raised on Epicureanism is such as to In addition to some controversial writings on physical deprive it of all. genuine worth. Along with strong expresquestions, there appeared during this period the first of the sions of empiricism (nihil in intellectu quod non prius fuerit works by which he is best known in the history of philo- in sensu) we find him holding doctrines absolutely irreconsophy. He evidently found himself more in harmony with cilable with empiricism in any form. For while he mainEpicurus than with any other philosopher of antiquity, and tains constantly his favourite maxim “ that there is nothing had collected much information regarding the Epicurean in the intellect which has not been in the senses," and system. In 1647 Luillier persuaded him to publish some while he contends that the imaginative faculty, “phanof his works, which took the form of the treatise De Vita, tasia," is the counterpart of sense, that, as it has to do with Moribus, et Doctrina Epicuri libri octo. The work was well material images, it is itself, like sense, material, and essenreceived, and two years later appeared his commentary on tially the same both in men and brutes, he at the same the tenth book of Diogenes Laertius (De Vila, Moribus, et time admits that the intellect, which he affirms to be imPlacitis Epiouri, seu Animadversiones in X. librum Diog. material and immortal—the most characteristic distinction Laer.). In the same year the more important Syntagma of humanity—attains notions and truths of which no effort philosophiæ Epicuri was published.

of sensation or imagination can give us the slightest apIn 1648 Gassendi had been compelled from ill-health to prehension (Op., ii. 383). He instances the capacity of give up his lectures at the Collége Royal. He travelled for forming “ general notions ;" the very conception of unisome time in the south of France, spending nearly two versality itself (ib., 384), to which he says brutes, who years at Toulon, the climate of which suited him. In 1653 partake as truly as men in the faculty called “phantasia,” he returned to Paris and resumed his literary work, pub- never attain; the notion of God, whom he says we may lishing in that year his well-known and popular lives of imagine to be corporeal, but understand to be incorporeal ; Copernicus and Tycho Brahe. The disease from which he and lastly, the reflex action by which the mind makes its suffered, lung complaint, had, however, established a firm own phenomena and operations the objects of attention. hold on him. His strength gradually failed, and he died The Syntagma Philosophicum, in fact, is one of the at Paris on the 24th October 1655, in the sixty-third year eclectic systems which unite, or rather place in juxtaposi

tion, irreconcilable dogmas from various schools of thought.

of his age.

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