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It is divided, accurding to the usual fashion of the Epicure- Copernicus. That his revival of Epicureanism had an imans, into logic (which, with Gassendi as with Epicurus, is portant infuence on the ge ieral thinking of the 17th truly canonic), physics, and ethics. The logic, which con- century may be admitted; that it has any real importance tains at least one praiseworthy portion, a sketch of the in the history of philosophy cannot be granted. bistory of the science, is divided into theory of right appre- Gassendi's life is given by Sorbière in the first collected cdition hension (bene imaginari), theory of right judgment (bene of the works, by Bugerel, Vie de Gassendi, 1737 (2d ed., 1770), and

by Damiron, Mémoire sur Gassendi, 1839. An abridgment of his proponere), theory of right inference (bene colligere), theory of tight method (bene ordinare). The first part

contains the philosophy was given by his friend, the celebrated traveller, Bernier

Abrégé de la Philosophic de Gassendi, 8 vols., 1678; 2d ed., 7 vols., specially empirical positions which Gassendi afterwards 1684). The most complete surveys of his work seem to be those neglects or leaves out of account. · The senses, the sole of Buhle .(Geschichte der neuern Philosophic, iii., 1, 87-222), source of knowledge, are supposed to yield us immediately

and Damiron (Mémoires pour servir à l'Histoire de l'hilosophic

au 17 me Siècle.) See also Ritter, Geschichte der Philosophie, x. cognition of individual things ; phantasy (which Gassendi 543-571; Feuerbach, Gesch. d. neu. Phil. von Bacon bis Spinoza, takes to be material in nature) reproduces these ideas ; 127-150.

(R. AD).) understanding compares these ideas, which are particular,

GASTEIN, a beautiful and picturesque valley in the and frames general ideas. Nevertheless, lie at the same

Austrian duchy of Salzburg, celebrated for its mineral time admits that the senses yield knowledge--not of springs. It is a side valley of the upper Salzach valley, things—but of qualities only, and holds that we arrive at and is about 25 miles long and 14 miles broad. It lias an the idea of thing or substance by induction. He holds that elevation of between 3000 and 3500 feet. Behind it, 'to the true method of research is the analytic, rising from the south, tower the mountains Malnitz or Nassfeld-Tauern, lower to higher notions ; yet he sees clearly, and admits, 7820 feet high, and the Ankogel, 10,700 feet high, and that inductive reasoning, as conceived by Bacon, rests on a from the right and left of these mountains two smaller general proposition not itself proved by induction. He ought to hold, and in disputing with Descartes he did Ache traverses the valley, and near Wildbad-Gastein forms

The river

ranges run northwards forming its two side walls. apparently hold, that the evidence of the senses is the only two magnificent waterfalls

, the upper, the Kesselfall

, 200 convincing evidence; yet he maintains, and from his feet, and the lower, the Bärenfall, 280 feet in height; and special mathematical training it was natural he should

near these falls another called the Schleierfall, 250 feet high, maintain, that the evidence of reason is absolutely satis is formed by the stream which drains the Pockhart-See. The factory. The whole doctrine of judgment, syllogism, and principal villages are Böckstein, Hof-Gastein, and Wildbadmethod is a mixture of Aristotelian and Ramist notions. In the second part of the Syntagma, the physics, there 3800. Hof-Gastein, with a population of about 1000,

Gastein, and the population of the whole valley is about is more that deserves attention ; but here, too, appears in the most glaring manner the inner contradiction between possesses gold and silver mines which in the 16th century

yielded 1180 lb of gold and 9500 tb of silver annually. Gassendis fundamental principles. While approving of the They are now, however, much neglected and many of the 1 picurean physics, he rejects altogether the Epicurean old mines are covered by glaciers. The village contains a negation of God and particular providence. He states the military hospital, and in the open platz there is a bust of various proofs for the existence of an immaterial, infinite, the emperor Francis I. who, in 1828, caused a conduit of supreine Being, asserts that this Being is the author of the upwards of 5 miles long to be constructed for the purpose visible universe, and strongly defends the doctrine of the of conveying the mineral waters thither from Wildbad. foreknowledge and particular providence of God. At the Wildbad, the principal watering place, is visited by upwards same time he holds, in opposition to Epicureanism, the of 3000 persons annually, and among its visitors is the predoctrine of an immaterial

, rational soul, endowed with im- sent emperor of Germany. The therinal springs, which were mortality and capable of free determination. It is alto known as early as the 7th century, issue from the granite gether impossible to assent to the supposition of Lange mountains, and have a temperature of 117° Fahr. They (Gesch. des Materialismus, 3d ed., i. 233), that all this

are made use of in cases of nervous affections, general portion of Gassendi's system contains nothing of his own debility, and skin diseases ; but the reason of their efficacy pinions, but is solely iừtroduced from motives of self- is somewhat mysterious, as chemical analysis discovers defence. The positive exposition of atomism has much s.hat is attractive, but the hypothesis of the calor vitalis, a only a slight difference in the ingredients from those of sipecies of anima mundi which is introduced as physical wooden houses risiug above one another in terraces.

The village is formed chiefly of ordinary spring water.

A explanation of physical phenomena, does not seem to throw number of stone houses have, however, been built of late; much light on the special problems which it is invoked to and there are several fine villas, one of which was consolve. Nor is his theory of the weight essential to atoms structed by the archduke John of Austria, and has a as being due to an inner force impelling them to motion

botanical garden. in any way reconcllable with his general doctrine of me

The baths of Gastein first came into fame through a successful chanical causes.

visit paid to them by Duke Frederick of Austria in 1436. The In the third part, the ethics, over and above the discussion valley from the 11th century belonged to the dukes of Peilstein, and on freedom, which on the whole is indefinite, there is little

on the extinction of their line in 1219 it came into possession of beyond a milder statement of the Epicurean moral code.

Bavaria, whence it passed in 1297 by purchase to Salzburg. A

convention was held at Wildbad-Gastein in August 1865, between The final end of life is happiness, and happiness is harmony the emperor Francis Joseph of Austria and King William of Prussia, of soul and body, tranquillitas animi et indolentia corporis. at which an arrangement was signed in reference to thy relations of Probably, Gassendi thinks, perfect happiness is not attain. Austria and Prussia to Schleswig-Holstein and Lauenburg (see able in this life, but it may be in the life to come.


The principal books on Gastein are Reisgacher, Der Kurort Wild. The Syntagma is thus an essentially unsystematic work, bad Gastein, 1865 ; Bunzel, Bad-Gastein, 1872; Hönigsberg, Gastein, and clearly exhibits the main characteristics of Gassendi's 1873; and A Month at Gastein, London, n... genius. He was critical rather than constructive, widely GATAKER, THOMAS (1574-1654), a learned English read and trained thoroughly both in languages and in divine, was born in London , in 1574, and educated at science, but deficient in speculative power and original force. St John's College, Cambridge. From 1601 to 1611 Even in the department of natural science he shows the he held the appointment of preacher to the society of same inability steadfastly to retain principles and to work Lincoln's Inn, which he resigned on obtaining the rectory from them; he wavers between the systems of Brahe and / of Rotherhitle. In 1612 he was chosen a member of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster. The parts of the fully and honourably of all blame, on the ground that his Assembly's annotations upon the Bible which were executed defeat had been unavoidable in the disorganized state of by'him are those on Isaial, Jeremiah, and the Lamenta- the army under his command. After this he again retired tions. At Westminster he disapproved of the introduction to his Virginian estate, whence he removed to New York of the Covenant, and declared himself in favour of Episco- in 1800. On his arrival be was immediately admitted to pacy. He was also one of the forty-seven London clergymen the freedom of the city, and then elected a member of the who disapproved of the trial of Charles I. He died in 1654. State legislature. Before his departure from Virginia he His principal works, besides sume volumes of sermons, are granted emancipation to his slaves, accompanying their

-On the Nuture and Use of Lots, 1616, a curious treatise manumission with a provision for those who needed assistwhich gare rise to much controversy ; Dissertatio de Stylo ance.

He died on the 10th of April 1806. Novi Testamenti, 1648; Cinnus, sive Adversaria Miscel- GATESHEAD, a municipal and parliamentary borough lanea, in quibus Sacræ Scripturce primo, deinde aliorum and market-town of England, county of Durham, is situated Scriptorum, locis aliquam multis lux redditur, 1651, to on the right bank of the Tyne, opposite Newcastle, of which which was afterwards subjoined Adversaria Posthuma; and it practically forms a part, being united with it by three his edition of Marcus Antoninus, which, according to bridges. The town consists of two principal and nearly Hallam, is the earliest edition of any classical writer pub- parallel streets, from which others diverge in various direclished in Englaud with original annotations," and for the tions. A great fire which occurred in 1854 was taken adperiod at which it was written possesses remarkable merit. vantage of for the carrying out of improvements in the old The best edition of his works is that published at Utrecht part of the town, and it is now much less crowded than forin 1668.

merly. In the suburbs there are a considerable number of GATCHINA, a town of Russia, in the government of St fine mansions. The parish church, recently restored, is an Petersburg and district of Tsarskoselo, 29 miles W. of St ancient cruciform edifice surmounted by a lofty tower; and Petersburg, in 59° 34' N. lat. and 30° 6' E. long. It is several of the other churches and chapels are handsome situated in a flat, well-wooded, and partly marshy district, buildings. The Wesleyan and Primitive Methodists, the and on the south side of the town are two lakes, distin- Congregationalists, Baptists, Presbyterians, and Roman guished as the White and the Black. Among its more im Catholics are all represented. The town possesses a fine portant builings are the imperial paluce, which was founded cemetery, a well laid out public park, a new town-hall, a in 1770 by Prince Orloff, and executed according to the grammar school, a hospital (St Edmund's) for fifteen inplans of the Italian architect Rinaldi, the four. Greek digent, persons, a reformatory, a mechanics institute, and churches, the Protestant church, a foundling asylum, , a a dispensary. There are large iron works (including military orphanage founded in 1803 by Maria Feodorina, foundries and factories for engines, boilers, chains, and a school for horticulture, a public hospital for 1500 patients, cables), shipbuilding yards, glass manufactories, chemical, founded by Paul I., an asylum for the families of twenty soap, and candle works, brick and tile works, breweries and blind men, and another for fifty poor peasants. In one of tanneries. The town also contains the principal depôt of the Greek churches are preserved several relics originally the North-Eastern Railway, with large stores and locobrought from Rhodes to Malta by the grand-master Lille motive works. Extensive coal mines exist in the vicinity; Adam; and the so-called priory is shown where the knights and at Gateshead Fell are large quarries for grindstones, of Malta assembled under the mas:ership of the emperor which are much esteemed and are exported to all parts of Paul I. Gatchina is a junction on the railway between St the world. Petersburg and Warsaw, but its trade is of no great The large number of Roman relics found at Gateshead would development. Among the few industrial establishments

seem to indicate that it was originally an outwork of the Roman is a porcelain factory. The inhabitants in 1860 num- station at Newcastle. The name is mentioned as early as 1080, bered 9184, of whom 2255 were members of the National and in 1164 the bishop of Durham granted to its burgesses equal Church, 1431 Protestants, 182 Catholics, and 50, Jews. privileges with those of Newcastle. On the dissolution of the see

of Durham in 1552, an Act was passed for uniting the town to the By 1867 the total kad sunk to 8337; but according to borough of Newcastle, but on the restoration of the rights of the the St Petersburg Calendar for 1878 it has again risen to bishopric it was again placed under that jurisdiction, being governed, 8890.

from 1317 to 1695, with the exception of that short intermission, GATES, Horatio (1728–1806), an American general, it became a municipal borough, it was governed by two stewards,

by a bailiff nominated by the bishop. From 1695 to 1826, when was born at Maldon in Essex, England, in 1728. He elected by the inhabitants. Gateshead returns one member to entered the English army at an early age, e nd soon obtained parliament. The population of the municipal borough, which in considerable promotion. He was severely wounded while 1861 was 33,587, was 48,627 in 1871. accompanying General Braddock in his unfortunate expedi- GATH, one of the five chief cities of the Philistines. tion against the French settlements on the Ohio in 1755, Its site appears to have been known in the 4th century, but and he took part in the expedition against wartinico in the name is now lost. Eusebius (in the Onomasticon) January 1762. After the peace of 1763 he purchased an places it near the road from Eleutheropolis (Beit Jibrîn) to estate in Virginia, where he resided till the commencement Diospolis (Ludd) about 5 Roman miles from the former. of the revolutionary war in 1775, when he was named The Roman road between these two towns is still traceable, by congress adjutant-general. In 1776 he was appointed and its milestones remain in places. East of the road at to command the army on Lake Champlain; but, his conduct the required distance rises a white cliff, almost isolated, 300 there not having been approved of, he was superseded in the feet high, and full of caves. On the top is the little mud following spring; yet in August he was sent to oppose village of Tell-es-Sâfi (“the shining mound”), and round it General Burgoyne, whom he totally defeated on the 16th are the mounds which mark the site of the crusading castle of October, and compelled to surrender his whole army,- of Blanchegarde (Alba Custodia), built in 1144. Tellan achievement which was, however, largely due to the es-Sâfi was known by its present name as far back as the previous manoeuvres of Schuyler, whom Gates superseded. | 12th century, but it appears probable that the strong site After obtaining the chief command in the southern districts, here existing represents the ancient Gath. The cliff stands Gates was totally defeated at Camden, in South Carolina, on the south bank of the valley of Elah, and Gath appears by Lord Cornwallis, on the 16th of August 1780. On this to have been near this valley (1 Sam. xvii. 2, 52). The account he was superseded by General Greene; but an name Gath, meaning a "winepress," designates several other investigation into his conduct terminated in acquitting him places in Palestine.

GATTY, Mes Alfred (1809-1873), daughter of the house, not among the papers of the persons to whom they

MRS Rev. Dr Scott, chaplain to Lord Nelson, was born at were directed. The letter also from Clarendon to Gauden, Burnham, Essex, in 1809. In 1839 Margaret Scott was though written nine months after his obtaining his earldom, married to the Rev. Alfred Gatty, D.D., vicar of Ecclesfield is signed Edward Hyde, a blundering anachronism which near Sheffield, sub-dean of York vathedral, and the author points to the unskilful hand of a forger. The whole quesof various works both secular and religious. In 1842 she tion of the claims of Charles I. and Dr Gauden was dispublished in association with her husband a life of her cussed at great length and with considerable ability and father, the Rev. Dr Scott; but her first independent work ingenuity from 1824 to 1829 by Dr Christopher Wordswas The Fairy Godmother and other Tales, which appeared worth, master of Trinity College, Cambridge, on behalf of in 1851. This was followed in 1855 by the first of five the king, and the Rev. H. J. Todd on the side of De Gauden. volumes of Parables from Nature, the last being published | Fresh evidence, however, has lately turned up in the shape in 1871. It is under the nom de plume of Aunt Judy, as of letters and papers of Charles IL and his ministers, a pleasant and instructive writer for children, that Mrs written soon after the execution of the king, which go far Gatty is most widely known. Previous to commencing to inyalidate if not entirely destroy the claim of Dr Gauden, Auni Judy's Magazine in May 1866, she had brought out and prove that those persons to whom he most confidently Aunt Judy's Tales and Aunt Judy's Letlers; and among the appealed in support of his pretensions were the strongest other children's books which she subsequently published, upholders of the king's authorship at the time immediately were Aunt Judy's Song Book for Children and The Mother's . subsequent to the appearance of the work. In 1662, on Dook of Poetry. Besides other excellences her children's the death of Brian Duppa, bishop of Winchester, Dr books are specially characterized by wholesomeness of Gauden applied to be translated from Exeter to that see, sentiment and cheerful humour. Her miscellaneous writ- but his claims were set aside in favour of George Morley, ings include, in addition to several volumes of tales, The bishop of Worcester, and the vacancy thus created was filled old Folks from Home, an account of a holiday ramble in by the bishop of Exeter. He only lived four months after Ireland; The Travels and Adventures of Dr Wolf the this last promotion, and dying on 20th September 1662, Missionary, in which she was assisted by her husband; was buried in Worcester Cathedral

. His will is preserved British Sea Weeds ;-Waifs and Strays of Natural History; in the Prerogative Office of Canterbury. A Book of Emblems; and The Book of Sun-Dials. She He left a widow, the daughter of Sir William Russell of died October 3, 1873.

Chippenham, who after her husband's death wrote a letter GAUDEN, JOHN (1605-1662), the reputed author of to her son John on the subject of the king's book, and the Eikon Basilike, was born in 1605 at Mayfield in Essex, enclosed in it a narrative of the whole claim. This was of which parish his father was vicar. He was educated at published with the correspondence mentioned above by Mr Dury St Edmunds, and afterwards at St John's College, North in 1693. She also erected a monument to the Cambridge. He obtained about 1630 the vicarage of bishop's memory in Worcester Cathedral, representing him Chippen ham in Cambridgeshire, and the rectory of Bright with the Eikon Basilike in his hand. well in Berkshire. At the breaking out of the civil war he GAUDICHAUD-BEAUPRE, CHARLES (1789-1854), a was domestic chaplain to Robert Rich, second earl of French botanist, was born at Angoulême, September 4, Warwick, one of the parliamentary leaders, and, being 1789. He studied pharmacy first in the shop of a brotherselected to preach before the House of Commons in 1640, in-law at Cognac, and then under Professor Robiquet at was presented with a silver tankard for his discourse. In Paris, where from Desfontaines and L. C. Richard he 1641 he was appointed by the parliament to the deanery acquired a knowledge of botany. In April 1810 he was of Bocking, in Essex. He became master of the Temple appointed dispenser in the military marine, and from July in 1659, in succession to Dr Ralph Brownrigg, bishop 1811 to the end of 1814 he served av Antwerp. In of Exeter, and after the Restoration in November 1660 September 1817 he joined the corvette “ Uranie,” as pharwas appointed to the same diocese. Between 1642, maceutical botanist to the circumpolar expedition comthe date of his first printed work, and 1660 he published manded by De Freycinet (see vol

. ix. p. 777). The wreck some thirteen or more books, of which number, however, I of the vessel on the Falkland Isles, at the close of the year only one appeared prior to the execution of the king. Soon | 1819, deprived him of more than half the botanical collecafter his appointment to the see of Exeter, he privately laid tions he has made in various parts of the world. In claim to the authorship of the Eikon Basilike, a work com- 1830-33 he visited Chili, Peru, and Brazil, and in 1836monly attributed at the time to Charles I. This claim 37 he acted as botanist to "La Bonite” during its circumGauden put forth in a correspondence with the Lord navigation of the globe. His theory accounting for the Chancellor Hyde, earl of Clarendon, and the earl of Bristol, growth of plants by the supposed coalescence of elementary from 21st December 1660 to 31st March 1662. The letters “phytuns” involved him, during the latter years of his life, of Gauden among them have been published in Dr Maty's in much controversy with his fellow-botanists, more espeReview in 1782, and again in the Appendix to vol. iii. of cially M. de Mirbel. He died January 16, 1854. the Clarendon Papers. In the year 1693 a Mr Arthur Besides his Botanique du Voyage autour du Monde, exécuté North of London, who had married a sister of Dr Gauden's pendant les Années '1836-1837, 4 vols. fol., with plates, which

included several previous works, Gaudichaud-Beaupré wrote daughter-in-law, published a series of letters which he had

“ Lettres sur l'Organographie et la Physiologie," Arch. de found among his sister-in-law's papers, and which added Botanique, ii., 1833; “Recherches générales sur l'Organographie,” materially to the strength of the bishop's claim. They &c. (prize essay, 1835), Mém. de l'Académie des Scienccs, t. viii., consisted of the other side of the correspondence referred to

and kindred treatises, besides memoirs on the potato-Llight, the above, viz., a letter from Secretary Sir Edward Nicholas to multiplication of bulbous plants, the increase in diameter of dicoty

ledonous vegetables, and other subjects; and Réfutation de wutes Gaudenin January 1660-1, two from the bishop to Chancellor les Objections contre les nouveaux Principes Physiologique, 1852. Hyde in December 1661 and the duke of York in January See Biographie Universelle, t. xvi., 1856. 1661-2, and one from Hyde to the bishop in March 1661-2. GAUERMANN, FRIEDRICH (1807-1862), an Austrian These letters, however, have been regarded with consider- painter, son of the landscape painter Jacob Gauermann able suspicion by late writers on the subject, and have even (1773–1843), was born at Wiesenbach near Gutenstein, in been pronounced to be forgeries by some, who have pointed Lower Austria, 20th September 1807. It was the intention oat that the two letters written by Gauden himself to of his father that he should devote himself to agriculture, Clareo lon and the duke of York were found in the bishop's but the example of an elder brother, who, however, died

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early, fostered his inclination towards art, and though he series the B.W.G. or Birmingham Wire Gauge may be had enjoyed no special instruction bis first attempts at taken as the type. The largest size of which it takes copying nature were so successful that his father was account is known as No. 0000, after which come 000, 00, persuaded to permit him to choose a profession which 0, and then the numerals from 1 to 36, which last is the seemed so much to accord with his natural bent. Under smallest size. It is frequently used for gauging the thickhis father's direction he began studies in landscape, and he ness of sheet metal as well as for wire, in spite of the exalso diligently copied the works of the chief masters in istence of the Birmingham Plate Gauge, which has an animal painting which were contained in the academy and equally arbitrary series of its own, consisting of the same court library of Vienna. In the summer he made art tours numbers (from 1 to 36) used in the reverse manner, the in the districts of Styria, Tyrol, and Salzburg. Two animal low numbers being the small sizes. Other arbitrary wire

. pieces which he exhibited at the Vienna Exhibition of 1824 gauges also tend to add to the general confusion, amongst were regarded as remarkable productions for his years, and which may be mentioned the Lancashire Gauge, which takes led to his receiving commissions in 1825 and 1826 from an alphabet and a balf, in addition to the numerals up to 80, Prince Metternich and Caraman, the French ambassador. for expressing the sizes of steel wire which are referred to His reputation was greatly increased by his picture The it, but which nevertheless does not apply to "music wire,”

“ Storm, exhibited in 1829, and from that time his works or “needle-wire," or sundry other special kinds of wire, were much sought after and obtained correspondingly high which are favoured with separate gauges of their own. prices. His Field Labourer was regarded by many as the Of late years careful comparisons have more than once been most noteworthy picture in the Vienna exhibition of 1884, independently made with a view to ascertaining the standard and his numerous animal pieces have entitled him to a place value of these incongruous systems, but the discrepancies in the first rank of painters of that class of subjects. The in the results only prove what might have been predicted, peculiarity of his pictures is the representation of human viz., that errors bave crept in, and that those which profess and animal figures in connexion with appropriate landscapes to be alike differ amongst themselves, whilst there exists and in characteristic situations so as to manifest nature as no satisfactory means of rectifying these errors. Their a living whole, and he particularly excels in depicting the gradual and entire abolition therefore seems to be the only free life of animals in wild mountain scenery. Along with chance of real improvement, and it is earnestly to be great mastery of the technicalities of bis art, his works hoped that the Standard Gauge originally suggested by exhibit patient and keen observation, free and rrect hand. Sir J. Whitworth, which is now largely employed, may soon ling of details, and bold and clear colouring. He died at entirely supersede them.

entirely supersede them. In this system the sizes are Vienna, 7th July 1862. Many of his pictures have been directly referred to the English imperial standard of length, engraved, and after his death a selection of fifty-three of his each being expressed by the number of thousandth parts works was prepared for this purpose by the Austrian Kunst- of an inch which it contains Thus No. 36 wire means verein (Art Union).

wire 036 of an inch in diameter. - Under the old systems GAUGE, in the mechanical arts, is the name applied this might have been either No. 20, No. 62. No. 3, or to' a great variety of instruments, of which the object No 18. may be broadly stated to be the affording of in- Examples of some of the usual forms of gauges are given creased facilities for comparing any two dimensions or below. For wire the simplest gauge consists of a steel plate distances. Wherever it is necessary for this to be done with a series of holes drilled through it, each hole being with a degree of accuracy unattainable by such means as numbered according to the series to which the gange rethe ordinary measuring rule affords, or for the same fers. By means of the Notched Gauge (fig. 1) sheet metal dimensions to be frequently measured with a maximum can be gauged by a similar mode of obtaining a more or of speed and certainty, there will the hand-craftsman at less accurate fit. Rough gauges on the same principle are once avail himself of some form of gauge. At the present constantly employed also in workshop practice for compar. day a due appreciation of the value of gauges is of growing ing together internal or external diameters, &c.; and importance to the mechanician, since they enable bim greatly

FIG.2 to improve the "fit " of the several portions of his machinery, whilst at the same time the labour expended in fitting is materially reduced. Indeed the system of making all similar parts "to gauge," so that in any number of machines they are interchangeable, is now effecting more than any other single cause for tho improvement and cheapening of mechanical substitutes for manual labour.

The gauges which coine within the province of this article differ in two main particulars, according as they refer the measurements which can be made by them to some definite and established standard of length, or take cognizance only of an arbitrary or haphazard one. The obvious advantage of being able to record, and at any time again obtain with certainty, the thickness of a plate of metal, or any other gauged dimension, would have led one to suppose that for all except mere temporary purposes the gauges used would invariably be of the first kind-Standard Gauges, as we shall distinguish them. But the fact is an- they serve the purpose well enough so long as the object is happily far otherwise, at least as regards the important a mere comparison, without taking account of the amount manufactures of sheet metal and wire (which cannot be easily of any minute difference which may exist. When a measuremeasured without some form of gauge), the result being that ment of such differences is required, or direct reference the thickness and diameters of these are expressed by vari- to a standard system, recourse must be had to some ous complicated and irregular series of numbers and letters, form of gauge provided with means for enlarging them which have no reference either to each other or to any sufficiently to be readily recognizable Sliding or Calliper Atandard system of measurement. Of these arbitrary Gauges, such as fig. 3, fulfil this requirement by having




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the graduated scale affixed to one of their arms and, a ¡ lying to the south in the basin of the Rhodanus (Rhone), vernier in connexion with the other. A V-gauge, which, and stretching westwards as far as Tolosa (Toulouse) in instead of a series of notches round its edge, has only one the basin of the Garonne-a portion of Gaul that had been long tapering uotch, by the graduations of which the subdued and made a Roman province about fifty years diameter of any wire that will enter it can be read off, is before Cæsar entered on his career of conquest there. By simple and tolerably efficient. So also is the kindred far the greater part of the country was a plain watered arrangement (fig. 5), in which a wire or plate can be by numerous rivers, the chief of which have already been inserted between a fixed pin and the edge of a revolving mentioned, with the exception of its great central stream, cam with graduated face. But perhaps on the whole the the Liger or Ligeris (Loire). Its principal mountain ranges best and handiest form is the Micrometer Gauge (fig. 2), were Čebenna or Gebenna (Cevennes) in the south, and which, by means of a micrometer scrow with a divided head, Jura, with its continuation Vosegus or Vogesus (Vosges), in measures to the one-thousandth part of an inch, and in the east. The tribes inhabiting Gaul in Cæsar's time, and careful hands can render visible even smaller fractions. belonging to one or other of the three races distinguished Gauges consisting of two arms jointed together like pincers by him, were numerous. Prominent among them, and are also used in certain trades, minute differences in the dwelling in the division occupied by the Celts, were the width of the jaws being magnified and rendered visible on Helvetii, the Sequani, and the Ædui, in the basins of the a graduated arc at the opposite ends of the arms.

Rhodauus and its tributary the Arar (Saône),' who, he says, For special purposes gauges of many other forms are were reckoned the three most powerful nations in all Gaul; employed, some of which are of much greater delicacy, but the Arverni in the mountains of Cebenna; the Senones and these cannot be described here. The only others which Caroutes in the basin of the Liger; the Veneti and other remain to be mentioned are those of which the Plug and Armorican tribes between the mouths of the Liger and Collar Gauges (fig. 4) are the type, sets of which are now Sequana. The Nervii, Bellovaci, Suessiones, Remi, Morini, to be found in almost all mechanical workshops where the Menapii, and Aduatici were Belgic tribes; the Tarbelli valae of staudard dimeusions is recognized. Each gives and others were Aquitani; while the Allobroges inhabited only the one external or internal dimension for which it is the north of the Provincia, having been conquered in made, but it gives that with the highest attainable accuracy, | 121 B.C. so that by carefully preserving a comparatively small num- The ethnological relations of Cæsar's three great Gallic ber of these for reference, and using them in conjunction races have given rise to much discussion Greek writers, , with measuring machines, the most minute differences can who, in consequence of the planting of the colony of be measured and noted in terms of the standard, so that | Massilia (Marseilles) on its southern coast at so early a exact sizes can at any future time be again obtained with period as 600 B.C., had gained some knowledge of Gaul out appreciable error.

(c. P. B. s.) before the Romans, speak of its inhabitants as Ligurians ; GAUHATI, a town in Kamrup district, Assam, the chief and it is certain that a people of this name occupied town of the province, situated on the left or south bank at one time the coast-line of Europe from the western of the Brahmaputra, lat . 26° 11' 18" N., long. 91° 47' 26" slopes of the inaritime Alps to the Rhone.

By many Gauhati, which is the most populous town in the these Ligurians are regarded as having once spread thenBrahmaputra valley, was the seat of the British administra- selves.over a much wider area, peopling extensive tracts tion of Assam up to 1874, when the headquarters were of Europe as well as Northern Africa. Subsequently, removed to Shillong in the Khasi bills, 67 miles distant, another race, coming probably across the Pyrenees from with which it is conneoted by an excellent cart road. Spain, subdued south-western Gaul and ruled as far north Gauhata is an important centre of river trade, and the as thọ Garonne-the Basques of the two slopes of these largest seat of commerce in Assam. A regiment of native mountains remaining to our own day their lineal represeninfantry is permanently cantoned there. Two much fre- tatives. Later still, but at a date which history does not quented places of Hinda pilgrimage are situated in the venture to fix, one of those great waves of population that immediate vicinity, the temple of Kámákhya on a hil 2 are believed to have rolled in succession from east to west miles west of the town, and the rocky island of Umánánda brought into northern and central Gaul, it may be at an in the mid-channel of the Brahmaputra. Population interval of centuries, the two great branches of the Celtic (1872), 11,492; municipal revenue, £2727.

race, the Gadhelic or Gaelic and the Cymric-the one reGAUL, the name given by the Romans to the country presented in Britain by the Irish and Scottish Highlanders, lying between the Rhine and the Pyrenees. When the the other by the Welsh. Reading Cæsar's brief statements Greeks first became acquainted with the south-west of by the light thus afforded, ethnologists now generally hold Europe they applied to the whole of it, in a somewhat vague that his Aquitani were Iberians, largely intermingled with sense, the term Celtice (ý Keltiņ), calling its inhabitants intrusive Gauls ; that his Gauls belonged to the Gaelic Celts (Keltoi). Later we find Galatia (Talaria) and Gallia division of the Celtic race, and his Belgæ to the Cymric (Pallia), with the corresponding Galati (Taldtól) and Gelli (both of them, however, being affected by the presence of

Tállo), used as nearly synonymous with the earlier namie. races whose territory they had overrun, and the Intter by The shorter of these two forms the Romans adopted; and the addition of a German element derived from their proxio the opening chapter of Cæsar's well-known Commentaries, imity to the Rhine); and that the natives of the Provincia we have our first definite account of the limits of the ware Ligurians, with so large an intermixture of Celts as to country and its divisions, as then understood. According make the latter the dominant race. Neither the Greek to this authority, Gaul was in his day divided among three colony of Massilia, nor those colonies sent out by it, can be peoples, more or less distinct from one another, the Aquitani, supposed to have seriously affected the Gaulish nation from the Gauls, who called themselves Celts, and the Belgæ. the point of view we are now discussing. It was in a 'The first of these extended from the Pyrenees to the different manner, as a civilizing agency, that they made Garumna (Garonde); the second from that river to the their presence felt. Sequana (Seine) and its chief tributary the Matrona (Marne), Such, it would appear, was Gaul ethnologically when reaching eastward presumably as far as the Rhenus (Rhine); made a part of the Roman empire by Julius Cæsar shortly and the third from this bounding line to the mouth of the before the commencement of the Christian era; and, as has last-named river, thus bordering on the Germang. By im- often been remarked, such in the main it is still. Some plication Cæsar recoguizes a fourth division, the Provincia, recent scientific inquirers find grounds, however, for con


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