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swallow whole, and in pursuit of which they do not hesitate | Lord Traquair to London, where he spent the rest of his to enter human dwellings, where they are often killed on life, with the exception of a few weeks devoted to travel suspicion. The structure of the toes in those lizards forms on the Continent. Before leaving Scotland he had received their most characteristic anatomical feature. These organs the honorary degree of LL.D. from the university of are flattened out into broad discs, and are furnished with Aberdeen, a compliment seldom before paid to any Catholic, transverse lamellar plates, by means of which the geckoes and had been made an honorary men:ber of the Society of are enabled to run with ease on the smoothest surfaee, and Antiquaries, in the institution of which he had taken a very to imitate the fly in remaining suspended on ceilings or on active part. Shortly after his arrival in London Geddes the under surfaces of leaves. Most of the species have received an appointment in connexion with the chapel of nails to their toes, and these in their sharpness and retrac- the imperial ambassador, which he heid until the chaplaincy tility bear considerable resemblance to the claws of feline was suppressed some years afterwards. Having been intro animals. They are nocturnal in their habits; but when not duced to Lord Petre, to whom he broached his long-cherished exposed to the hot sunshine they are able to pursue their scheme for the publication of a new Catholic version of the prey by day. They hibernate; and two fatty masses in Scriptures on the basis of the Vulgate, he met with every front of the pubis are supposed to furnish the means of encouragement from that nobleman, who assigned to him nourishment during this period. Many of the species an annual salary of £200, and, moreover, undertook to possess to a limited extent the chameleon faculty of chang- provide the needful books. Supported also by such scholars ing colour, while their colouring generally may be regarded as Kennicott and Lowth, Geddes in 1786 published a Proas protective; a few Indian forms are said to become spectus of a new Translation of the Holy Bible

, from corrected luminous in the dark. The geckoes form an extensive Texts of the Originals, compared with the ancient Versions, family, including 60 genera and 200 species, found through with various Readings, explanatory Notes, and critical out the warmer regions of the earth, two only being Observations, a considerable quarto volume, in which the inhabitants of Europe, and even these occur also in the defects of previous translations were fully pointed out, and north of Africa. Unlike most lizards, they are found in the the means were indicated by which these might be removed. remotest oceanic islands, a fuct which leads Mr Wallace It attracted considerable notice of a favourable kind, and (Geographical Distribution of Animals) to suppose that led to the publication in 1788 of Proposals for Printing, they possess exceptional means of distribution.

with a specimen, and in 1790 of a General Answer to GED, WILLIAM ( ? -1749), the inventor of the art Queries, Counsels, and Criticisms. The first volume of the of stereotyping, was born at Edinburgh about the beginning translation itself, which was entitled The Holy Bible; or the of the 18th century. In 1725 he first put in practice the Books accounted sacred by Jews and Christians; otherwise art which he had discovered ; and some years later he called the Books of the Old and New Covenants ; faithfully entered into a partnership with a London capitalist, with a translated from corrected Texts of the Originals, with various view to employing it on a great seale. The partnership, Readings, explanatory Notes, and critical Remarks, appeared however, turned out very ill; and Ged, broken-hearted at in 1792, and was the signal for a storm of hostility on the his want of success, died at London, October 19, 1749. part of both Catholics and Protestants. It was obvious The only books which he produced by means of stereotyp- enough-no small offence in the eyes of some that as a critic ing were two prayer-books for the university of Cambridge, Geddes had identified himself with Houbigant, Kennicott, and an edition of Sallust. See Life by Nichols, 1781. and Michaelis ; but others did not hesitàte to stigmatize

GEDDES, ALEXANDER (1737-1802), a learned theo him as the would-be “corrector of the Holy Ghost." Three logian, biblical critic, and miscellaneous writer, was born of the vicars-apostolic almost immediately warned all the at the farm of Arradoul, in the parish of Rathven, Banff- faithful against the “use and reception" of his translation, shire, Scotland, on the 14th of September 1737. At the on the ostensible ground that it had not been examined and age of fourteen he entered the smail Roman Catholic semi- approved by. due ecclesiastical authority; and by his own nary at Scalan in a remote glen of the Banffshire highlands, bishop (Douglas) he was in 1793 suspended from the eserwhere be remained till October 1758, when he was sent to cise of his orders in the London district. The second the Scottish College in Paris for the further prosecution of volume of the translation, completing the historical books, his studies. Here to considerable acquirements in biblical published in 1797, found no more friendly reception ; but philology and school divinity he succeeded in adding a this circumstance did not discourage him from giving forth good knowledge of most of the literary languages of Europe. in 1800 the volume of Critical Remarks on the Hebreu Returning to Scotland after an absence of six years, he for Scriptures, corresponding with a New Translation of the a short time officiated as a priest in Dundee, but in May Bible, containing the Pentateuch, of which it is enough to 1765 received and accepted an invitation to become resident say that, while fully saturated with all the best learning in the family of the earl of Traquair, where, with abund- of its time, it presented in a somewhat brusque and in ance of leisure and the free use of an adequate library, he judicious manner the then novel and startling views of made further progress in his favourite biblical studies. Eichhorn and his school on the primitive listory and early After a second visit to Paris weich extended over some records of mankind. Dr Geddes was engaged on a critical months, and which was employed by him in reading and translation of the Psalms, which he had completed down to making extracts from rare books and manuscripts in the the 118th, when he was seized with a lingering and painful public libraries, he in 1769 was appointed to the charge of illness which ultimately proved fatal on the 26th of the Catholic congregation of Auchinhalrig in his native February 1802. Although for many years he had been county. During the period of a ten years' incumbency ander ecclesiastical censures, he had never for a moment there he displayed a liberality of spirit which caused con- swerved from a consistent profession of faith as a Catholic; siderable scandal to his stricter brethren ; and the freedom and on his death-bed he duly received the last rites of his with which he fraternized with his Protestant neighbours communion. It would appear

, however, that the report once and again called forth the rebuke of his bishop (Hay). which gained currency that before his death he had made Ultimately, on account of his occasional attendance at the recantation of his “errors” was entirely destitute of foundaparish church of Cullen, where his friend Buchanan was tion in fact. In his lifetime he enjoyed the friendship of minister, he was deprived of his charge and forbidden the several eminent Continental scholars, and his death was exercise of ecclesiastical functions within the diocese. This noticed as being a loss to science in the Gelehrte Zeitung happened in 1779; and in 1780 he went with his friend I of Gotha and in other foreign journals.

Besides pamphlets on the Catholic and slavery questions, as well with each other by wooden bridges. In 1869 it was almost as se veral fugitive jeux d'esprit, and a number of unsigned articles destroyed by fire, but it has been rcbuilt, and may still lo in the Analytical Review, Geddes also published a metrical translation and adaptation of Select Satires of Horace (1779), and a

reckoned one of the prettiest, as it is certainly one of the verbal rendering of the First Book of the Iliad of Horner (1792), busiest, of Swedish towns. The principal buildings are The Memoirs of his life and writings by his friend Dr Mason Good the castle, originally founded in the 16th century by King appeared in 1803, and his unfinished work on the Psalms in 1807.

John III., but rebuilt since its destruction by fire in 1727; GEELONG, one of the leading towns in Victoria, conval a beautiful council-house erected by Gustavus III., who with Melbourne in the history of Australian settlement, is held a diet in the town in 1792; a hospital, an exchange, pleasantly situated on Corio Bay, au extensive western arm and a freemason's lodge in the Gothic style. An orphan of Port Pbillip, 45 miles S.W. of Melbourne, in 39° 8' S. asyluin, a gymnasium, removed to Gefle from Stockholm in lat. and. 144° 21' E. long. The town slopes to the bay on 1668, and a public library may also be mentioned. Posthe north side and to the Barwon river on the south, and its sessing an excellent harbour, and recently restored wharves position in this respect, as well as the shelter it obtains to which large vessels have easy access, Gefle is the great from the Bellarine range of hills, renders it the healthiest port for the Dalecarlian district, and thus ranks in Sweden town in the colony. Its streets are wide and laid out at next to Stockholm and Gottenburg, It has about 100 right angles, and there are many handsome public and ships of its own, and carries on a good trade in the export private buildings. It has a botanical garden, and two parks of timber, tar, flax, and linen, and in the import of grain, inaintained b; the municipality. The public buildings salt, coal, &c. The manufactures of the town include comprise a mechanics' institute (with a library containing sailcloth and linen, tobacco, leather, iron wares, and nearly 12,000 volumes), a public library, a town hall, a fire machinery. In 1873 the population was 16,265. brigade establishment, a handsome and commodious GEIGER, ABRAHAM (1810-1874), one of the ablest hospital, a supreme court, and orphan and benevolent."| leaders of the modora Jewish school of theology and asylums. The town is supplied with water from large state, criticism, was born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, May 24, constructed reservoirs in the Brisbane ranges, some 25 miles 1810. Aftor receiving froin his father and unclo the distant. As a manufacturing centre Geeloug is of con- elements of an ordinary rabbinical education, bo was in his siderable importance. It contains extensive woollen mills eleventh year sent to the gymnasium, whence in 1829 lie and tanneries on the Barwon river, and paper of good passed to the university of Heidelberg, which he soon afterquality is largely made in the neighbourhood Geelong I wards exchanged for that of Bonn. As a student he greatly harbour has area and depth enough to hold all the navies distinguished himself boih in philosophy and in philoiogy, of the world. The bar at the entrance has been cut (at and at the close of his course wrote on the relations of an expense of £C000) to admit vessels of heavy draught, Judaisin and Mahometanism a prize-essay which was afterand some of the largest wool ships are able to load at the wards published, in 1833, under the title Wax hat wharves, which are connected by railway with all parts of Mohammed aus dem Judenthum aufgenommen? In the colony. The populat:on of the city proper is a little over November 1832 he went to Wiesbaden as rabbi of the 12,000, but with the adjacent boroughs of Geelong West, synagogue there, and, still, pursuing the line of scientisic Chilwell, and Newtown the total is increased to 24,000. study upon which he had entered during his undergraduate

GEESTEJUNDE, a seaport in the Prussian pro. course, became in 1835 one of the most active promoters of vince of Hanover, in the district or Landdrostei of Stade, the Zeitschrift für Jüdische Theologie, which appeared from situated, as the name indicates, at the mouth of the Geeste, 1835 to 1839, and again from 1842 to 1847. In 1838 he a right-hand afflueut of the estuary of the Weser. It lics removed to Breslau, where le continued to reside for the about 32 miles N. of Bremen, and is the terminus of a next twenty-five years, and where he wrote somə of luis railway from that city. The interest of the place is purely most important works, including his Lehr- und Lesebuch zur naval and com

mmercial, its origin dating no further back than Sprache der Mischna (1845), his Studien from Maimonides 1857, when the construction of the harbour was commenced. (1850), his translation into German of the poems of Judo The great bas.n opened in 1863 has a length of 1785 ha-Levi (Abu'l Hassan) in 1851, and the Urschrift und English feet, a breadth of 410, and a depth of nearly -23, Uebersetzungen der Bibel in ihrer Abhängigkeit von der and can accommodate 24 or 25 of the largest ships of the innern Entwickéelung des Judenthums (1857). The lastline ; an i the petroleum basin opened in 1874 has a length vamed work especially attracted much attention at the time of 820 fret and a breadth of 147. To the left of the great of its appearance, and may be said to have marked a new basin lies a canal, which has a length of 13,380 feet and a departure in the metbods of studying the records of Judaism. breadth of 155; and from this canal there strikes off In 1863 Geiger became head of the synagogue of bis native another of similar proportions. The whole port is protected town, whence he removed in 1870 to Berlin, where, in by powerful fortifications, and it lies outside of the limit addition to his duties as chief rabbi, he took the principal of the German customs. Since 1864 the trade has been charge of the newly established seminary for Jewish science. almost treb.ed, the number of vessels bing 617 sea-going The Urschrift was followed by a more exhaustive handling ships entering in 1875 and upwards of 2000 river craft. of one of its topics in Die Sadducäer und Pharisäer (1863), Among the industrial establishments of the town are ship, and by a more thoroughgoing application of its leading building yards, foundries, engineering works, and steam principles in an elaborate history of Judaism (Das Judenmills. The population, exclusive of the garrison, was 3218 thum u. seine Geschichte) in 1865–71. Geiger also contriin 1871, and 3436 in 1875; and if the neighbouring buted frequently on Hebrew, Samaritan, and Syriac sub

; commune of Geestendorf be included, the total for 1871 jects to the Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen was 9148, and for 1875 10,425.

Gesellschaft

, and from 1862 until his death (which occurred GEFLE, Latinized as Gevalia, a seaport town of Sweden, on the 23d of October 1874) he was editor of a periodical at the head of the Gefleborglån, about a mile from the shore entitled Jüdische Zeitschrift für Wissenschaft und Leben. of the gulf of Bothnia, near the mouth of the Gefle-Å, 50 He also published a Jewish prayer-book (Israelitisches miles E. of Fahlun, and about the same distance N. of Gebetbuch) which is well known in Germany, besides a Upsala. With the former city it has been connected by variety of minor monographs on historical and literary sub railway since 1859, and with the latter and Stockholm since jects connected with the fortunes of his people.

An All1874. As the river at that place is divided into three gemeine Einleitung and five volumes of Nachgelassene channels, the town consists of four portions, communicating Schriften were edited by his sop L. Geiger in 1875.

.

GEIJER, ERIS GUSTAF (1783-18 17), Sweden's greatest | instinct with life. His language is at once the scholar's and historian, was born at Ransäter in Värmland, January 12, the poet's; with his profoundest thought there beats in :783, of a family that had immigrated from Austria in the unison the warmest, the noblest, the most patriotic heart. time of Gustavus Adolphus. At sixteen he left Carlstad Geijer came to the writing of history fresh from researchu gymnasium for tie university of Upsala, where in 1803 | in the whole tield of Scandinavian antiquity, researches he carried off the Swedish Academy's great prize for an whose first-fruits are garnered in numerous articles in Iduna Àreminne öfver Riksförståndaren Sten Sture. He graduated and his masterly treatise Om den gamla nordiska folk in 1806, and in 1810 returned from a year's residence in visan, prefixed to the collection of Svenska folkvisor England to become “docent” in his university. Soon which he edited with A. A. Afzelius (3 vols. 1814–16). afterwards he accepted a post in the public record office at The development of freedom is the idea that gives unity to Stockholm, where, with eleven friends, he founded the all his historical writings. This idea is not subjective; be “Gothic Society," to whose organ Iduna ho contributed a traces it in the darkest annals of his country. Sweden, he number of prose essays and the songs Manrem, Vikingen, repeats, is the only European land that has not been trod by Den siste kampen, Den siste skalden, Odalbonden, Kolar- foreign armies, that has never accepted the yoke of serfdom. gossm, and others, whose simplicity and earnestness, warm There, on the whole, the king has ever been the people's feeling, and strong patriotic spirit are dearer to his nation faithfullest ally, and all his great designs for the country's for the fine melodies to which he set them. About the external and internal gain have been carried out " by the same time he issued a volume of hymns (1812), of which help of God and Sweden." Throughout life Geijer was several are inserted in the Swedish Psalter. Geijer's lyric what hey professed to be, a seeker; and to no philosophic mure was soon after silenced by his call to be assistant to system did he yield absolute allegiance. Yet his writings Fart, professor of history of Upsala (1815), whom he mark a new era in Swedish history, the rise of a “critical succeeded in that chair in 1817. Iu 1824 he was elected school ” whose aim is to draw the truth without distortion, to the Swedish Academy. A single volume of a great pro- and present reality without a foil jected work, Svea Rikes Häfder, itself a masterly critical For Geijer's biography, see his own Minnen (1834), which contains examination of the sources of Sweden's legendary history, copious extracts from his letters and diaries ; Malmström, Min. spreared in 1825. Geijer's researches in its preparation 1848, and printed among his Tal och esthetiska afhandlingar (1868),

nestal öfver E. G. Geijer, addressed to the Upsala students, June 6, had severely strained his health, and he went the same

and Grunddragen af Srenska vitterhetens hafdar (1866–68); and S. year on a tour through Denmark and part of Germany, his A, Hollander, Minne af E. G. Geijer (1869). impressions from which are recorded in his Minnen (1834). GEIKIE, WALTER (1795-1837), a Scotch subjectIn 1832-36 he published three volumes of his Svenska folkets painter, was born at Edinburgh, November 9, 1795. historia, a clear view of the political and social development In his second year he was attacked by a nervous fever of Sweden down to the close of Queen Christina's reign. by which he permanently lost the faculty of bearing, The acute critical. insight, just thought, and finished his but through the careful attention of his father he was torical art of these two incomplete works of Geijer entitle enabled to obtain a good education. His artistic talent him to the first place among Swedish historians. His chief was first manifested, while he was still very young, by other historical and political writings are his Kort teckning attempts to cut out representations of objects in paper, af Sveriges tillstånd och af de fornänesle handlande personer and to draw figures with chalk on floors and walls. under tiden från Karl XII.': död till Gustaf III.'s anträde Before he had the advantage of the instruction of a master, af regjeringen (Stockh. 1838), and Feodalism och republi- he had attained considerable proficiency in sketching both kan sm, ett bidrag till Samhällsförfattningens historia figures and landscapes from nature, and in 1812 he was (1844), which led to a controversy with the historian Fryxell | admitted into the drawing academy of the board of Scotch regarding the part played in history by the Swedish aristo- manufactures, where he made very rapid progress in the craco: Geijer also edited, with the aid of Schröder, a con- use of the pencil. He first exhibited in 1815, and was tinuation of Fant's Scriptores svecicarum .medii ævi (1818- elected an associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1831, 25). and, by himself, Thorild's Samlade skrifter (1819-25), and a fellow in 1834. He died on the 1st August 1837, and Konung Gustaf III.'s efterlemnade Papper (3. vols. and was interred in the Greyfriars Churchyard, Edinburgh.

, 1843-45). Geijer's academic lectures, of which the last Owing to his want of feeling for colour Geikie was not a three, published in 1845, under the title Om vår tids inre successful painter in oils, but he sketched in India ink with mahällsforhållanden, i synnerhet med afseende Fädernes great truth and humour the scenes and characters of Scottish landet, involved him in another controversy with Fryxell, lower-class life in his native city. The characteristics he exercised a great influence over his students, who especially depicts are somewhat obvious and superficial, but his testified to their attachment after the failure of the prosecu- humour is never coarse, and he is surpassed by few in tion for alleged anti-Trinitarian heresies in his Thorild, the power of representing the broadly ludicrous and the tillika en philosophisk eller ophilosophisk bekännelse (1820). plain and homely aspects of humble lifo. A series of etchA number of his extempore lectures, recovered from notes. lings which exhibit very high excellence were published were published by Ribbing in 1856. Failing health forced by him in 1829-31, and a collection of eighty-one of these Geijer to resign his chair in 1846, after which bo removed was republished posthumously in 1841, with a biographical to Stockholm for the purpose of completing his Svoriõhu jūtīvúüitivů by Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, Bart. folkets historia, and died there 23d April 1847. His GEILER, or GEYLER, VON KAISERSSERO JOHANN Samlade skrifter (13 vols. 1849-55 ; new ed. 1873–75) | (1445-1510), one of the greatest of the popular preachers include a large number of philosophical and political essays of the 15th century, was born at Schaffhausen, March 16,

, contributed to reviews, particularly to Literaturbladet 1445, but from 1448 passed his childhood and youth at (1838–39), a periodical edited by himself, which attracted Kaisersberg in Upper Alsace, from which place his current great attention in its day by its pronounced liberal views designation is de.ived. In 1460 we entered the university of on public questions, a striking contrast to those he had Freiburg in Baden, where, after graduation, he lectured for defended in 1828-30, when, as again in 1840-41, he re- some time on the Sentences of Petrus Lombardus, the Compresented Upsala university in the Swedish diet.

mentaries of Alexander Halensis, and several of the works Geijer's style is strong and manly. His genius bursts of Aristotle. A living interest in theological subjects, which out in sudden flashes that light up the dark corners of had bren awakened within him by the study of Gerson, led bistory A few strokes. and a personality stands before us 'in 1471 to his removal to the university of Basel at that

peridd a centre of attraction to some of the most earnest from the city of Lindus), it soon rose to wealth and power, spirtts of the time. Made a doctor of theology in 1475, and by 582 B.C. it was able to become the mother-city of he received a professorship at Freiburg in the follow- Agrigentum, by which it was however destined before long ing year; but his tastes began to incline him more strongly to be surpassed. The most important among its rulers to the vocation of a preacher, while his fervour and elo- were the following:-Cleander, who subverted the oligarchy quence soon led to his receiving numerous invitations to the and made himself despot (505-498 B.C.); Hippocrates, larger towns. Ultimately he accepted in 1478 a call to the his brother, who raised Gela to its highest pitch of emicathedral of Strasburg, where he continued to work with nence (498–491 B.C.); Gelon, who immediately succeeded few interruptions until within a short time of his death, Hippocrates, and rapidly pursued the same career of aggrarwhich occurred on the 10th of March 1510. The beautiful dizement till in 485 B.C. he got possession of Syracuse, pulpit erected for him in 1481 in the nave of the cathedral, and gave the first blow to his native city by removing the when the chapel of St Lawrence had proved too small, still seat of government to his new.conquest; and finally Hiero, bears witness to the popularity he enjoyed as a preacher in the brother of Gelon, who succeeded to the sovereignty in the immediate sphere of his labours, and the testimonies of 478 B.C. The decadent Gela was laid waste by Phalaris of Sebastian Brandt, Beatus Renanus, Reuchlin, Melanchthon, Agrigentum, and in the time of Strabo it was nothing and others who survived him, abundantly show how power- more than a heap of ruins. Æschylus died at Gela in 456 ful, how healthy, and how widespread had been the influ- B.C.; and it was the birthplace of Apollodorus, a comic ence of his personal character. His sermons—bold, incisive, poet of note. abounding in quaint illustrations, nor altogether wanting GELASIUS, the name of two popes. in instances of what would now be called bad taste-taken GELASIUS I. succeeded Felix III. in 492, and confirmed down as he spoke them, and circulated (sometimes without the estrangement between the Eastern and Western his knowledge or consent) by his friends, told perceptibly Churches by insisting on the removal of the name of on the German thought as well as on the German speech of Acacius, bishop of Constantinople, from the diptychs. He his time.

was also the first decidedly to assert the supremacy of the Among the many volumes published under his name only papal over the imperial power, and the superiority of the two appear to have had the benefit of his revision, namely, Der pope to the general councils. He is the author of De Seelen Paradies von waren und volkomnen Tugenden, and that duabus in Christo naturis adversus Eutychen et Nestorium. entitled Das irrig Schaf. Of the rest, probably the best known is a series of lectures on his friend Seb. Brandt's well-known work Five of his letters have also come down to us, and he is the Naricula or Speculum Fatuorum, of which an edition was pub- most probably the author of Liber Sacrementorum, published at Strasburg in 1511 under the following title :-Navicula lished at Rome in 1680; but the so-called Decretum Gelasië sive speculum fatuorum prostantissimi sacrarum literarum doctoris Joannis Geiler Keysersbergii concionatoris Argentinensis in sermones

de libris recipiendis et non recipiendis is evidently a forgery. juxta lurmarum seriem divisa ; suis figuris jam signita; atque a

Gelasius died in 496, and was canonized, his day being the Jacobo Othero diligenter coliecta. Compendiosa viloc ejusdem de- 18th November. scriptio per Beatum Rhenanum Selestatinum.

GELASIUS II. (Giovanni da Gaeta) was of noble descent, See Von Ammon, Geyler's Leben, Lehren, und Predigten (1826); Stöber, Essai Historique et Littéraire sur la Vie et les Sermons de Geiier (1834); and C. Schmidt

and was born at Gaeta about 1050. He received his theo. in Herzog's Real-Encycl., iv. 714 (1855).

logical education in the abbey of Monte Casino, and afterGEISSLER, HEINRICH (1814–79), a distinguished prac wards held the office of chancellor under Urban II., and of tical physicist, was born at the village of Igelshieb in cardinal-deacon under Pascal II. On the death of Pascal Saxe-Meiningen, Germany, where he was educated as a II. he was elected pope by the cardinals, 18th January glass-blower. After many years spent in travelling from 1118, and when his person was seized by Cencius Frangicity to city in the exercise of his craft, he settled at Bonn, pani, a partisan of the emperor Henry V., he was almost where he speedily gained a high reputation, not only for his immediately set at liberty through the general uprising of surpassing skill and ingenuity of conception in the fabrica. the people in his behalf. The sudden appearance of the tion of physical apparatus, but for his comprehensive know- emperor, however, compelled him to leave Rome for Gaeta, ledge, acquired chiefly in later life, of the natural sciences. and the imperial party chose an anti-pope, Burdinus, arcbWith Plücker, in 1852, by means of an ingeniously con- bishop of Braga, under the name of Gregory VIII. trived instrument, in which mercury was made to compen- Gelasius, at a council held at Capua, fulminated bulls of sate for the expansion of the glass, he ascertained the excommunication against his ecclesiastical rival and the maximum density of water to be at 3.8° C. He also de- emperor; and under the protection of the Norman princes termined the coefficient of expansion for ice between – 24° he was able to return to Rome, where he stayed for a timo and -7°, and for water freezing at 0°. In 1869, in conjunc- in partial concealment, but having barely escaped capture tion with Vogelsang, he proved the existence of liquid carbon by the Frangipani while celebrating mass in the church of dioxide in cavities in quartz and topaz, and later he obtained St Praxede, he left the city, and after wandering through amorphous from ordinary phosphorus by means of the various parts of Italy and France died in the abbey of electric current. He is best known as the inventor of the Clugny, January 19, 1119. sealed glass tubes which bear his name, by means of which GELATIN. When intercellular connective tissue, as are exhibited the phenomena accompanying the discharge met with in skin, tendons, ligaments, and the fasciæ of the of electricity through highly rarefied vapours and gases (see muscles, of which it forms the basis, is treated with water, ELECTRICITY, vol. viii. p. 64). Among other apparatus preferably hot, or in presence of dilute acids, for some contrived by him are his vaporimeter, mercury air-pump, time, a solution is obtained which in cooling solidifies to balances, normal thermometer, and areometer. From the a jelly. The dissolved substance bears the name of Gelatin university of Bonn, on the occasion of its jubilee, he re

or ceived the honorary degree of doctor of philosophy. He

De 1 °The same substance is obtained when the matrix of bones died on the 24th of January 1879, in the sixty-fifth year is submitted to similar treatment, after previous removal of of h 18 age. See A. W. Hofmann, Ber. d. deut. chem. Ges., the lime salts by means of mineral acids. Again, when 1879, p. 148.

unossified cartilage, as for instance the bone-cartilages of GELA, an ancient city on the south coast of Sicily, on a the vertebrate fætus, is treated with water or dilute acids river of the same name, near the site of the modern a solution is obtained which also gelatinizes on cooling. Terranuova between Girgenti and Camerina. Founded by The coagulation in this case, however, is due, not to gelatin, a joint colony of Cretans and Rhudians (the latter mainly l but to a closely allied substance called chondrin. As one

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time it was supposed that in each of these three cases the alone, as the total obtainable by the successive actions of gelatinizing materials obtained were formed by the hydra- the two reagents. Now, as there appear to be good tion or by a physical metamorphosis of a different substance grounds for believing the molecule of albuminoids to conpre-existing in the respective tissues, to which the names tain one or more urea-residues, and as urea, and presumably collagen, ossein, and chondrogen were given respectively- therefore a urea-residue, would yield its ammonia to potash the two former yielding gelatin, and the last chondrin. alone, Wanklyn concludes that gelatin differs in constitution

Further experiments have made it more probable that from albuminoids by containing no urea. On the other gelatin and chondrin do not differ essentially from their hand, as Foster observes, the behaviour of gelatin as a parent tissues, analyses of tendons and of gelatin or isipglass food (see below), in diminishing the amount of fat used by a very fine form of gelatin obtainable from the sturgeon) an animal fed partly on it, as well as the quantity of nitroagreeing within the range of experimental error. At the gen abstracted from other sources, is readily intelligible on same time, as Foster observes in the case of chondrin, the the hypothesis that it splits into a urea and a fat moiety. fact that its extraction from cartilage requires an amount Although gelatin in a dry state is unalterable by exposure of boiling with water, much more than would be necessary to air, its solution exhibits, like all the proteids, a remarkto dissolve the same amount of dried product, points rather able tendency to putrefaction; but a characteristic feature the other way. Most probably the change which occurs of this process in the case of gelatin is that the solution is of a purely physical character.

assumes a transient acid reaction. The ultimate products True gelatigenous tissue occurs in all mature vertebrates, of this decomposition are the same as are produced by prowith the single exception, according to Hoppe-Seyler, of longed boiling with acid (see below). It has been found that in other respects anomalous vertebrate, Amphiocus that oxalic acid, over and above the action common to all lanceolatus. In the embryo it does not appear till late in dilute acids of preventing the solidification of gelatin solufcetal life, chondrin being found instead; and the change tions, has the further property of preventing in a large which brings gelatin into the place of chondrin is effected, measure this tendency to putrefy when the gelatin is treated not by a metamorpbosis of the latter, but by its removal, with hot solutions of this acid, and then freed from adhering and the independent formation of gelatin. The tissue in acid by means of carbonate of lime. Gelatin so treated has question was believed to be peculiar to Vertebrata until been called metagelatin. Hoppe-Seyler discovered it in the bodies of Octopus and Strange to say, in spite of the marked tendency of Sepiola. By boiling these cephalopods with water he gelatin solutions to develop ferment-organisms, and underobtained large quantities of gelatin free from chondrin, but go putrefaction, the stability of the substance in the dry in an extension of his experiments to other invertebrates, state is such that it has even been used, and with somo as cockchafers and Anodon and Unio, no such tissue could success, as a means of preserving perishable foods. The be detected. Gelatin, as such, is not met with in any of the process, invented by Dr Campbell Morfit, consists in imnormal fluids of the body, but occurs in the blood in cases of pregnating the foods with gelatin, and then drying them leukhæmia.

till about 10 per cent. or less of water is present. Milk Various qualities of impure gelatin are prepared on the gelatinized in this way is superior in several respects to large scale by boiling up the hides of oxen, skins of calves, the products of the ordinary condensation process, more and spongy parts of horns; from any of the crude gelatins especially in the retention of a much larger proportion of the pure substance may be obtained by bleaching with albuminoids. sulphurous acid and steeping repeatedly in warm water, Gelatin has a marked affinity for water, abstracting it when in the state of soft jelly.

from admixture with alcohol, for example. Solid gelatin Pure gelatin is an amorphous, brittle, nearly transparent steeped for some hours in water absorbs a' certain amount substance, faintly yellow, tasteless, and inodorous, neutral and swells up, in which condition a gentle heat, as that of to vegetable colours, and unaltered by exposure to dry air. the water-bath, serves to convert it into a liquid; or this Submitted to analysis it exhibits an elementary composi- may be readily produced by the addition of a trace of alkali tion agreeing closely with that of chondrin, containing in or mineral acid, or by strong acetic acid. In the last case, sound numbers C 50, H 7, N 18, O+S 24 per cent; whilst however, or if we use the mineral acids in a more conchondrin contains about 3 per cent. less nitrogen and more centrated form, the solution obtained has lost its power of oxygen.

solidifying, though not that of acting as a glue. By proNothing is known with any certainty as to its chemical longed boiling of strong aqueous solutions at a high, or of constitution, or of the mode in which it is formed froin weak solutions at a lower temperature, the characteristic albuminoids. Besides a similarity in elementary constitu- properties of gelatin are impaired and ultimately destroyed. ents, it exhibits in a general way a connexion with that After this treatment it acts less powerfully as a glue, large and important class of animal substances called proteids, loses its tendency to solidify, and becomes increasingly being, like them, amorphous, soluble in acids and alkalies, soluble in cold water; nevertheless the solutions yield on and giving in solution a left-handed rotation of the plane precipitation with alcohol a substance identical in composiof polarization. Nevertheless, the ordinary well-recognized tion with gelatin. reactions for proteids are but faintly observed in the By prolonged boiling in contact with hydrolytic agents, case of gelatin, and the only substances which at once such as sulphuric acid or caustic alkali, it yields quantities and freely precipitate it from solution are corrosive sub- of leucin and glycocoll (so-called “sugar of gelatin,” this limate, strong alcohol, and tannic acid.

being the method by which glycocoll was first prepared), According to Wanklyn, gelatin is distinctly differentiated but no tyrosin. In this last respect it agrees with its near from such substances as casein and albumin by a marked allies, chondrin and elastin, and differs from the great body difference in behaviour when treated successively with boil. of proteids, the characteristic solid products of the decom. ing potash and alkaline permanganate. All nitrogenous position of which are leucin and tyrosin. At the same time organic substances yield large quantities of ammonia when the formation of glycocoll differentiates it from chondrin, decomposed by boiling with these solutions ; but whereas from which, moreover, it can be readily distinguished by albuminoids give up their ammonia at two successive stages, its non-precipitability by acetate of lead. one of which is achieved by the action of potash alone, the When it is mixed with copper sulphate a bright green other on the subsequent addition of permanganate, gelatin liquid is formed, from which the copper cannot be thrown yields the same amount after the action of permanganate | down free of organic matter. Addition of potash to the

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