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liquid merely changes the colour from green to violet, which gelatin, being a product of the decomposition of albumen, could not by boiling is further tr, sformed into a pale red, but without take the place of albumen as food, though it might be conceived to

be useful for the growth of gelatinous tissue. any precipitation of hydrate. Hence the inapplicability of experiments on ducks (Ann. Chem. Phys., 1846) showed that, com

Boussingault's Trommer's sugar test in presence of gelatin, the cuprous trary to what should happen if the report of the French Academy oxide being soluble in gelatin solutions.

were true, gelatin did not pass unaltered into their fæces, but that

a large increase of uric acid was found in their urine, a result which Treated with strong oxidizing agents, such as a mixture

was confirmed by Frerichs and Bischoff, who found in the urine of of sulphuric acid and bichromate of potask, or binoside of dogs fed on gelatin large ainounts of urea-uric acid in birds and manganese, it exhibits a close resemblance in behaviour to

urea in mammals being the characteristic forms in which nitrogen casein, formic and valerianic acids being the principal pro- is eliminated from the system of these animals. The conclusion ducts, along with a small quantity of benzoic aldehyde. they arrived at was that the use of gelatin as a food was limited to

its When solution of gelatin is mixed with chromate of potash hydrates, to yield heat, but that it cannot replace the other nitro

power of undergoing decomposition in the body, like the carbo. alone, it forms a medium very sensitive to light, which con. genous constituents of the body. In 1853 Dr Donders of Utrecht verts it into an insoluble yellow mass.

published a treatise on foods, in which he dealt with gelatin, and As bones are capable of yielding one-third of their expressed opinions that have pretty much held their gronnd since,

and only been confirmed in detail by subsequent investigators. weight of solid gelatin, it follows that, if gelatin had a

Large quantities of gelatin, he says, are detrimental to digestion. value equivalent to albuminoids, the bones of an animal In moderate quantity it gets decomposed in the body, and acts as a would contain one-fifth of the total nutritive material in food probably by diminishing the otherwise necessary amount of its 'body. Accordingly, at a time when gelatin was in albumen, the sole use of which, he remarks, is not merely to form high esteem for its food-value, recourse was had largely experiments on the


, which completely established the fact

tissues. In 1860 Bischoff and Voit published the result of their to this source, more especially in France, for a cheap that gelatin can take the place of albumen to a limited extent, nutritive soup for soldiers, pauper establishments, and in a way that fat cannot, so that the body-weight maintains itself hospitals. To prepare such a soup the bones may be either on a

on a smaller supply of albumen and that gelatin has a function simply boiled in water under pressure, as in a Papin's and sugar. In a more recent, memoir by Voit, from which the

therefore of a higher character than a mere heat-producer like starch digester, or without pressure, or they may be previously previous historical sketch is mostly borrowed (Zeitschrift für freed from salts of calcium by treatment with dilute hydro. Biologie, viii., 1872), the results of an extensive series of careful chloric acid. On the large scale the crushed bones are

experiments are given, in which the same conclusion comes out. submitted to the combined action of steam at high pressure when a moderate amount of fat accompanies the gelatin, but that

He finds, moreover, that the saving of albumen is even more marked and a current of water percolating through the fragments. no combination of fat and gelatin can replace albumen or prevent The bones, preferably in a fresh condition, or preserved by the animal from losing flesh; but, on the contrary, when a dog was thorough drying or by antiseptic agents such as brine, are fed on equal parts of gelatin and fat it lost more flesh than when crushed by passing them between solid iron cylinders such a repugnance to the food that it would rather staive than feed;

fed on gelatin alone. Fed on gelatin alone, it after a time evinced grooved longitudinally and kept revolving. They are then and, if it was induced to eat, vomiting and diarrlicea were the results. packed into a cylindrical cage, which can be lowered into a The time which gelatin takes for its complete metaniorphosis in cylindrical jacket of rather larger diameter than itself, the the body is far less than in the case of albumen, never exceeding whole closing with a well-fitting lid. A pipe for the en

24 hours, in the course of which time all its nitrogen may be found

in the urine and fæces. trance of water, regulated by a stopcock, projects from the A parallel series of experiments to determine how far gelatin top of the outer cylinder, and is connected before the lid is could replace fats or carbohydrates in food showed that, though it put on with an adjustable nozzle, through which the water

could not be substituted for them to any large extent, it does

somewhat diminish the amount of fat used up. As Voit puts trickles down among the caged bones. Another pipe is

it at the end of his paper, gelatin cannot, any more than fars os connected with the bottom of the apparatus for the pas- carbohydrates, take the place of that moiety of albumen which he sage of high-pressure steam. The gelatin solution may calls the organic albumen,--the part which goes to build the organs be removed at intervals by means of a stopcock at the and tissues; it cannot produce new blood-corpuscles to replace

those that are worn out, or form muscles or any tissues, not even bottom. The quantity of water percolating through the

the gelatigenous. What it is capable of doing is to act as a substi. bones is carefully regulated in accordance with the varying tute to some extent for that other and far larger part of the albumen pressure of the steam, so as to produce a soup of nearly of food which, never at any time forming part of any organ, çiruniform consistence.

culates in the blood, and is carried to all the tissues, undergoing

continual metamorphoses. As to the nutritive value of such a soup very different opinions A later series of experiments by Etzinger, a pupil of Voit, was have been entertained at different times. It was at the time of the undertaken in order to elucidate the action of the digestive fluids first French Revolution, when the question of the improvement of on gelatin or gelatigenous tissue. Direct experiner.ts showed the diet of soldiers and people was much discussed, that attention that these substances are scarcely altered by prolonged contact with bugan to be directed to gelatin as a cheap and useful food ; and at a dilute (0-3 per cent.) solution of hydrochloric acid at the ordinary that time such men as Proust and D'Arcet were trying improved temperature of the body. But when gelatin or ursues yielding it, methods of extracting it from bone. The discovery of nitrogen as such as ligamentum nucho, tendons, and bones were treated at the a constituent of foods generally led to its being regarded as the same temperature with an artificial gastric juice made by acidifying special criterion of food-value, and, as this element was found to with acid of the above strength glycerin extra c of pigs' stomach, exist in large proportion in gelatin, the percentage of gelatin a large quantity of these substances speedily duappeared to foim a extractable from any substance was held as determining its worth solution which did not gelatinize. The solusion thus obtained as food.

exhibits physical and chemical characters so o nalogous to those of In 1802 a commission appointed by the Academy to investigate the peptones formed by a similar process from albuminoids that it tho quistivü icpuštch that, ilough it might iù à ceriain exieni has been called by some authors gelaiin-peplon. replace Hesh in soups, yet it could not be taken as the measure of In a quite recent research by Hofmeister (Zeitschrift für Physiol. foon

alue. Meanwhile experiments on men end dogs, especially Chem., îi. [5] 299, 1878) an attempt has been made to study the pro. by Donné, Gannal, Edwards, and Balzac, along with the results of duct formed in this digest' on transformation. Taking the soluble hospital rotinny at St Antoine and St Louis, showed the impossi- sclatin obtained by prolonged boiling of gelatin in water to be the bility of feeding upon gelatin alone, and in general its unsatisfactory same material as is produced by the action of gastric juice, the character as a food. Accordingly, a second commission was appointed author found that from the solutions so obtair ed two distinct subby-the Academy in 1841, who reported very strongly against the stances could be separated, one precipitabl: by reichloride of use of gelatin at all as an article of diet, alleging that, besides being platinum, which he calls semiglutin, and the other not so precipitvalueless itself, it actually diminishes the value of otherwise nutri. able, and also more soluble in alcohol, which he calls hemicollin. tious food; but this latter part of the indictment was overturned Semig!utin forms definite salts with platinum and copper, analyses by the Netherlands' commission (Compt. Rend., 1844). It ended by of which agree pretty well with the formula C.;Hg6N170, as the the Academy in 1850 declaring that gelatin was positively injurious simplest expression for the substance. Similarly the copper-salt to the digestive organs; and the natural result of this extreme of henicollin gave results indicating for hemicollin a formula reaction was of course a complete cessation of its use as food. C4H70N1.019. Both of these substances yielu leucin and glycocoll

In Germany, Liebig had declared, in his Thierchemie (1843), that when treated by boiling with hydrochloric acid and stannous



chloride. Further, this author states that, according to his , set, a little water is run over its surface, and with knives analyses, collagen differs from gelatin by one molecule of water, and from the sum of the molecules of semiglutin and hemicollin by of suitable form it is detached from the sides and bottom, three molecules of water, so that a probable empirical formula for cut into uniform slices about an inch thick, and squares of gelatin would be C109H151 N 91039,

N91039, agreeing pretty fairly with the these are placed on nets stretched between upright wooden percentage numbers given in an earlier part of this article.. frames or hurdles for drying. The drying operation, which

See Hoppe-Seyler, Medicinisch-Chemische Untersuchungen, 1866 and 1871, and requires very special care, is best done in the open air; His Peysiologische Chemie, just being published; Gmelin's llanılbook, vol. xviii., 1871; Watts's Dictionary of Chemistry, vol. 11. For the digestion of gelatin,

the plastic masses must, however, be protected from rain. see Cart Voit, Zeitschrift für Biologie, vill

, 297, 1872: Etzinger, samo work Frost and strong dry heat are equally injurious, and tho 1 84, 1874; and for constitution of collagen, Hofmeister, Zeitsch. für Physiol. Chemie. ii. [6] 299, 1878.

(D. C. R.) best results are obtained in spring and autumn weather, Industrial Relations of Gelatin.

when the glue dries in from twelve to eighteen days. When

the pieces have become quite hard and sonorous, they are Glue.-Glue is a form of gelatin, which, on account of its washed to remove dust from their surface, and to give them impure condition, is employed only as an adhesive medium a glazed or polished appearance. A good quality of glue for wood, leather, paper, and like substances. There is, should be free from all specks and grit, and ought to however, no absolute distinction between glue and gelatin, have a uniform, light brownish-yellow, transparent appear$18 they merge into each other by imperceptible degrees; and ance, and it should break with a glassy fracture. Steeped although the dark-coloured varieties of gelatin which are for some time in cold water it softens and swells up without known as ordinary glue are in no case treated as food, yet dissolving, and when again dried it ought to resume its for several purposes the fine transparent kinds, prepared original properties. Under the influence of heat it entirely chiefly for culinary use, are employed alw as adhesive agents dissolves in water, forning a thin syrupy fluid with a not Neither again, except in respect of its source, is there any disagreeable smell. The adhesiveness of different qualities «bemical or physical distinction between these two sub of glue, on which quality its value depends, differs con. stances and isinglass or fish glue, and therefore the prepara. siderably; and there are several methods of measuring the tion and industrial applications of these three varieties of comparative value of commercial samples, the most reliable commercial gelatin-glue, gelatin, and isinglass--will be of which are based on actual experiment Gluo is also dere noticed.

made from bones by first boiling them to remove the fatty The gelatin-yielding substances in the animal kingdom | matter they contain, and then treating them with strong are very numerous, comprising the skins of all animals

, hydrochloric acid till they become quite soft and translucent. tendons, intestines, bladders and fish sounds, bones, horns, In this condition, after they are washed and the acid and hoofs. Chondrin, the substance yielded by carti- neutralized, they are enclosed in a covered vessel and sublaginous tissue, which is simply an impure variety of mitted to the action of steam, by which a concentrated gelatin (see above), has greatly inferior power of adhesion. gelatinous solution is first obtained. At a subsequent stage In the preparation of ordinary glue the materials used are the wholo mass is boiled by direct heat, and a further the parings and cuttings of hides from tan-yards, the ears quantity of glae is no procured. The glue yielded by bones cooxen and sheep, the skins of rabbits, hares

, cats, dogs, has a milky hue, owing to the phosphate of lime it carries and other animals, the parings of tawed leather, parchment, with it and old gloves, and many other miscellaneous scraps of Commercial Gelatin.--Gelatin, as a commercial product, animal matter. Taking tan-yard refuse to be the principal is prepared in a manner similar to that followed in the material, it is first steeped for some weeks in a pit with manufacture of glue; but the materials used are selected lime water, and afterwards carefully dried and stored. The with great attention to purity, and the various operations object of the lime steeping is to remove any blood and flesh are carried out with the most scrupulous care and which may be attached to the skin, and to form a lime soap cleanlines. In the manufacture of the well-known sparkwith the fatty matter it contains So prepared the ling gelatin of Messrs Cox of Gorgie, near Edinburgh, “Bcrows” or glue pieces, as they are termed, may be kept the following is the process followed, according to their a long time without undergoing change. Before being patent obtained in 1844, The shoulders and cheeks of boiled, the glue pieces are thoroughly washed. They are ox-hides are preferred, but other parts may be used. then placed in hemp nets and introduced into an open The hide and skin pieces are cleansed in water, cut in boiler, which has a false bottom, and a tap by which liquid small ieces by a machine, and reduced to pulp in a pulp

a may be run off. The boiler is heated by direct firing, a series mill. The pulp is pressed between rollers, mixed with of boilers being arranged in the manner best fitted to obtain water, and then subjected to heat varying from 150° to the greatest possible heating effect froin one fire. As the 212° F., whereby gelatin is produced. When a very boiling proceeds test quantities of liquid are from time to pure quality is required, liquid gelatin is mixed with a small time examined and when a sample is found on cooling to quantity of ox blood at a temperature not exceeding 160: form a stiff jelly, it is ready to draw off. Usually the first or 170°, and further heated. The albumen of the blood boiling occupies about eight hours, and when the liquid has becomes coagulated, and rises as a scum; the heat is tben been drawn off, more water is added and the boiling process withdrawn, after which the scum is removed and the purer repeated. In this way the gelatinous matter is only ex- liquor allowed to settle, and afterwards it is run into coolers hausted after six separate boilings, occupying about two days, to congeal and dry. The gelatin is evaporated in vacuo to the last boiling yielding a darker-coloured glue than the avoid the injury caused by long subjection to heat; but it first

. It is essential that the boiling out of a charge should may also be dried on a steam-heated surface. In Nelson's not be continued longer than is necessary for yielding a process the gelatin is extracted by steam heat from hide sufficiently stiff gelatinous solution, as it is found that, when pieces which have been submitted to the bleaching action the liquid is long exposed to a heat at or above boiling point, of sulphurous acid. The strained and purified product is the gelatin loses its power of congealing. From the boiler spread in a thin layer on a marble slab till it partly colidithe sufficiently concentrated solution is run to a tank or fies, when it is cut up and washed to free it from all traces "getting back," in which a temperature sufficient to keep it of acid It is again redissolved at the lowest possible temfluid is maintained, and in this way ang impurity is per- perature, then resolidified and dried in thin sheets on nets. mitted to subside. The glue solution is then run into Heuze of Berlin prepares a pure transparent gelatin, having wooden troughs or coolers about 6 feet long by 2 feet broad a fine meaty flavour, from very impure materials

, by irti and I foot deep, in which it sets to a firm jelly. When | mately mixing with the hot sok’tion of impure dark


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coloured gelatinous material'a mixture of wood charcoal and are used as substitutes for ordinary glue. Thus marine animal charcoal, leaving the whole together for some hours, glue, employed in shipbuilding and for other purposes, is then redissolving and straining off the clarified gelatin. a compound of india-rubber and shell-lac dissolved in

Isinglass.-- Isinglass or fish glue, in its raw state, is the coal-tar naphtha. Glue substitutes are also prepared froin zwimming-bladder or sound of various species of fish. the albuminoids casein and gluten, but thes are not The sounds undergo no other preparation than careful dry- likely to become substances of any considerable commercial ing, but in the drying they are variously treated and made importance.

(J. PA.) up, so that the isinglass comes into commerce under the GELDERLAND, GELDERN. See GUELDERLAND, GUELnames of "leaf," "staple,” “book," "pipe,” "lump,” “honey- DERS. comb," and other designations, according to its form. GELÉE, CLAUDE. See CLAUDE OF LORRAINE. The finest isinglass, which comes from Russia, is prepared GELL, SIR WILLIAM (1777-1836), classical scholar by cutting open the sounds, steeping them in water till the and antiquarian, was born at Hopton in Derbyshire in outer membrane separates from the inner, then washing the 1777. After the usual preliminary education, he entered latter and exposing it to dry in the air. Russian isinglass Emmanuel College, Cambridge, taking his B.A. degree in is obtained from several species of sturgeon (Acipenser), found 1798, and afterwards becoming a fellow. About the bein the Volga and other tributaries of the Caspian Sea, in the ginning of the century he was sent on a diplomatic mission Black Sea, and in the Arctic Ocean. Brazilian isinglass, to Greece; and on his return in 1803 he was knighted.

; obtained from Brazil and Guiana, is the produce of a large the following year he published his Topography of Troy and fish, Silurus parkerii, and probably some other species; and its Vicinity, illustrated and explained by drawings and Manila and East Indian isinglass are yielded by species of descriptions. His Geography and Antiquities of Ithaca was fish not yet satisfactorily determined. The sounds of the published in 1807. În 1810 appeared The Itinerary of common cod, the bake, and other Gadidæ are also used as Greece, with a Commentary on Pausanias and Strabo, and a kind of isinglass. The principal uses to which isinglass is an account of monuments of antiquity existing in that country. applied are for jellies and confections, and as a clarifying This was followed in 1816 by the Itinerary of the Morea, or ältering medium for wine, beer, and other liquids. being a description of the routes of that peninsula, a new When used for culinary and confectionery purposes, isinglass edition of which was published in 1823, under the title of is rolled into thin sheets and cut into fine shreds to facilitate Narrative of a Journey in the Morca. His best know its solution. For clarifying liquids its fibrous structure is work is Pompeiana, or Observations on the Topography, of great value, as it forms.a fine network in the liquid in Edifices, and Ornaments of Pompeii, in which he was which it is disseminated, and thereby mechanically carries assisted by Mr J. P. Gandy. The first part of this was down all the minute particles which render the liquid thick published in 1817-19, and was translated into French in and turbid. Isinglass dissolved in strong. acetic acid forms 1828; the second part appeared in 1830–31. It was a powerful cement, much used for repairing glass, pottery, followed in 1834 by the T'opography of Rome and its and similar small objects.

Vicinity. In Italy, whither he had retired on account of Uses of Gelatin.—The gelatin derivable from bones his health, he became acquainted with Queen Caroline, and enters very largely into human food, in the stock for soups, his noble and disinterested behaviour during her trial ex&c., and as prepared gelatin, “calves foot jelly," and isin- hibits bis moral character iu a very favourable light. The glass: In addition to the uses already alluded to, gelatin queen showed her sense of his co-operation in her defence has many other applications in the arts. It is employed as by appointing him one of her chamberlains in 1820. He a sizing agent in paper-making, and by painters it is also died at Naples in 1836. His drawings, representing a used for sizing or priming, and for preparing tempera very large series of views of classical ruins and localities, colours. Further, it is used in the preparation of elastic and executed, if not with much artistic skill, yet with great moulds of undercut work, and in the manufacture of inking detail and exactness, are now in the print room of the rollers for printing. Gelatin treated with bichromate of British Museum. potash, under the influence of light, undergoes a remarkable GELLERT, CHRISTIAN EÜRCHTEGOTT (1715-1769), chemical and physical change, whereby it is rendered en German fabulist, hymn-writer, and moral philosopher, was

, tirely in absorbent of and insoluble by water. The change born 4th July 1715 at Hainchen, in the Saxon Erzgebirge. is due to the oxidizing effect of the bichromate ; and the He was educated at the university of Leipsic, where in circumstance has given rise to the numerous so-called 1751 he was appointed an extraordinary professor of phila carbon-processes introduced into photography by Swan, sophy, a position which he occupied till his ath, 13th Johnson, Woodbury, Albert, Edwards, and others, in all of December 1769. He wrote a romance, Leben der schwed. which an image is produced in gelatin oxidized by chromium Gräfin von G ... (2 vols., Leipsic, 1746), of little value, compounds. An insoluble glue may be prepared by adding and several pastorals and comedies of, if possible, even less. to dissolved glue, just before using, a proportion of a solu- His best works were his Fabeln und Erzählungen and ţion of bichromate of potash, and such a preparation forms Geistliche Oden und Lieder. Both are marked by a simple a useful waterproofing medium. Glue may be kept liquid and easy directness of style. The latter express the maxims at ordinary temperatures by the addition of concentrated of a liberal piety, and were received by Catholics and Proacetic acid or of weak nitric acid. Dumoulin's liquid glue, testants with equal favour. - They are still widely popular which possesses powerful adhesive properties, is composed in Germany. - The best known is the hymn entitled “Die of glue in the proportion of 2 fb dissolved in: 1 quart of Ebre Gottes aus der Natur.”- Not a little of Gellert's fame water with 7 oz. of nitric acid (sp. gr. 1.335) added. Mouth is due to the time when he lived and wrote. The German or lip glue is prepared by adding 1 lb or thereby of sugar literature of the period was dominated by the pedant to each pound of dissolved glue. It forms solid but easily Gottsched and his school. A band of high-spirited youths, dissolved cakes, and as it can be sufficiently softened by of whom Gellert was one, resolved to free themselves from the tongue, it is for many purposes extremely convenient. the conventional trammels of such dictators, and began that Transparent gelatin, brightly coloured by dyeing substances, revolution which was finally consummated by Schiller and and cast in excessively thin sheets, is largely used for orna- Goethe. Gellert's share in the attempt was enhanced by the mental wrappings for bon-bons, &c.

excellence of his personal character, his gentle piety, and Yarioas adhesive but non-gelatinous substances are, on his singular knack of gaining the reverence and love of account of their properties, known commercially as glue, and young people. Part o his influence was also doubtless




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attributable to his position as a professor, and to his widely in no way related to the true jessamines, which belong popular lectures.

to the Oleacece. It was first described in 1640 by John See Gellert's Sämmtliche Werke (first edition, 10 vols., Leipsic, Parkinson, who grew it in his garden from seed sent by 1769-74, last edition, Berlin, 1867). His Sämmtliche Fabeln und Erzählungen and his Geistliche Oden und Lieder have often been

Tradescant from Virginia ; at the present time it is but published separately; the latest editions being those of Leipsic, rarely seen, even in botanical gardens, in Great Britain. 1874, and Berlin, 1873. See translation by J. A. Murke, Gellert's The root, on analysis by Kollock in 1855, was found to Fables and other Poems (London, 1851). Lives of Gellert have been contain an alkaloid (now called Gelsemine or Gelsemia), a written by J. A. Cramer (Leipsic, 1774) and by Döring (2 vols., Leipsic, 1833).

dry acrid resin, 4 per cent. of a volatile oil heavier than GELLIUS, Aulus, author of the Noctes Atticæ, was

water, fatty resin, fixed oil, yellow colouring matter, gallic born in the first half of the 2d century of the Christian acid, starch, albumen, gum, pectic acid, extractive matter, era, most probably in Rome, and died about 180. Nothing lignin, and 3:17 per cent. of mineral matter, consisting is known of his personal history except from incidentai chiefly of salts of potassium, calcium, magnesium,

iron, and

silica. notices in his own book. He studied grammar and rhetoric

The leaves and flowers were found to contain the at Rome and philosophy at Athens, after which he returned

same ingredients in less quantity. Eberle, who examined to Rome, and held there a judicial office. His only

the root in 1869, states that the central woody portion of work, the Noctes Atticæ, takes its name from having been

the root does not contain any alkaloid, and that therefore begun during the long nights of a winter which he spent to the above, Wormley, in 1870, discovered in the root a

the bark is the physiologically active portion. In addition in Attica. He, afterwards continued it at Rome. compiled out of an “ Adversaria,” or common-place book, in crystalline substance named by him gelseminic acid, whose which he had jotted down everything of unusual interest solution in alkalies exhibits a powerful blue fluorescence. that he heard in conversation or read in books, and it com

It has, however, since been shown by Sonnenschein to be prises notes on grammar, geometry, philosophy, history, and identical with æsculin, a crystalline glucoside found in the almost every other branch of knowledge. The work, which

bark of the horse chesnut, Esculus Hippocastanum. The is utterly devoid of sequence or arrangement, is divided into

active properties of gelsemium root have been proved by twenty books. All these have come down to us except the Wormley and Bartholow to depend upon the alkaloid eighth, of which nothing remains but the index. The gelsemine (CJH29N02), which in the pure state is a Noctes Atticce is valuable for the insight it affords into colourless, odourless solid, not yet obtained in a crystalline the nature of the society and pursuits of those times, and form, readily soluble in ether and chloroform, less so in for the numerous excerpts it contains from the works of alcohol, and very sparingly in water, except in the presence lost ancient authors.,

of hydrochloric acid, and having an intensely persistent The editio princeps of Aulus Gellius appeared at Rome in 1469,

bitter taste, perceptible in a solution containing only tototh and was speedily followed by many others in various cities of Italy, part of it by weight. especially Venice. The best editions are those of Gronovius The readiest and best test for gelsemine, detecting the (Leyden, 1706), Lion (Göttingen, 1824-1825), and Hertz (Leipsic,

smallest traces, appears to be the cherry-red colour developed 1853). Aulus Gellius has been translated into - English by Beloe (London, 1795); into French by the Abbé de Verteuil (Paris, 1776

when ceroso-ceric oxide is added to its solution in concen89), and by Victor Verger (Paris, 1820-30); into German by. Walter- trated sulphuric acid. The dose of the alkaloid is from stem (Lemberg, 1785), and by Weiss, 2 vols. (Leipsic, 1875-76). oth to oth of a grain ; larger quantities are poisonous,

GELON, succeeded Hippocrates as tyrant of Gela in 491 žth of a grain having proved fatal in an hour and a half to B.C., and, by supporting the plebs of Syracuse in their a strong cat. quarrels against the aristocracy, became tyrant also of that The pharmaceutical preparation known as gelsemin concity in 485 B.C. He used his power so discreetly that sists chiefly of the resin, combined with uncertain proporunder him Syracuse attained an extraordinary degree of tions of the other constituents of the root, and is prepared wealth and influence. The great event in Gelon's sub- by precipitation with water from the strong tincture. sequent history was his defeat of the Carthaginians under The medicinal properties of the root were discovered by Hamilcar at Himera, according to tradition on the same accident, the infusion having been administered instead of day that the Greeks defeated Xerxes at Salamis, 480 B.C., that of some other root, with the result of curing the fever the result of his victory being that he obtained the lord for which it was taken. It was then experimented upon ship of the whole of Sicily. After Gelon. had thus estab. by the American eclectic practitioners. In 1852 Professor lished his power, he made a show of resigning it; but his W. Proctor called the attention of the medical profession to proposal was rejected by the multitude, and he reigned its valuable properties; and in 1864 it was placed on without opposition till his death 478 B.C. His memory approval in the secondary list, and in 1873, so rapidly had was held in such respect that, 150 years after his death, it risen in favour, in the primary list of remedies of acknowwhen Timoleon was erasing from Sicily every vestige of ledged value in the United States pharmacopæia. It has the tyrants that had once reigned there, he spared the latterly attracted considerable attention in England as statues of Gelon. See SYRACUSE.

a remedy for certain forms of facial neuralgia, especially GELSEMIUM, a drug, consisting of the root of Gelse- those arising from decayed teeth, or involving branches of mium (or as sometimes less correctly called Gelseminum) the fifth nerve. In the United States it is more particularly sempervirens, & climbing shrub of the natural order valued for controlling nervous irritability in fevers of a Loganiacec, having a milky juice, opposite, lanceolate malarial type, in which it is said to excel every other known shining leaves, and axillary clusters of from one to five agent. The physiological action of the drug has been carelarge, funnel-shaped, very fragrant yellow flowers, whose fully examined by Bartholow, Ost, and Ringer and Murrell, perfume has been compared to that of the wallflower. from whose investigations it appears that it has a paralysing The fruit is composed of two separable jointed follicles, action on the motor centres, affecting successively the third, containing numerous flat-winged seeds. The stem often fifth, and sixth nerves, its fatal action being due to its causruns underground for a considerable distance, and indis- ing paralysis of the respiratory muscles, and thus producing criminately with the root it is used in medicine. The plant death by asphyxia. In large doses it produces alarming is a native of the United States, growing on rich clay soil symptoms, which occasionally terminate fatally. These by the side of streams near the coast, from Virginia to the appear to vary slightly in different cases, but the more prosouth of Florida. In the United States it is commonly minent are pain in the forehead and in the eyeballs, giddiknown as the wild, yellow, or Carolina jessamine, although I ness. ptosis, a feeling of lightness in the tongue slurred

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pronunciation, laboured respiration, wide dilatation of the large number of undoubtedly genuine cxamp!cs, extending pupils, and impossibility of keeping an erect posture. The from the mists of Babylonian antiquity to the decline of mind in most cases remains clear until shortly before death. Roman civilization, and again starting with a new but unThe earliest and most prominent symptom of a fatal or natural impulse on the revival of art. · Apart from workdangerous dose is the drooping of the eyelids, which indi. manship they possess the charms of colour deep, 'rich, and cates the immediate administration of stimulants, for when varied, of material unequalled for its endurance, and of the paralysis of the tongue which ensues extends to the scarcity which in many instances lias been enhanced by the epiglottis, deglutition becomes impossible, and the epiglottis strangeness of the lands whence they came, or the fortuity is apt, unless the sufferer be placed in a forward position of their occurrence. These qualities united within the small to flap back and close the windpipe. The antidotes which compass of a gem were precisely such as were required in a have been found the most successful are carbonato of am- seal as a thing of constant use, so inalienable in its possesmonia, brandy, aromatic spirits of ammonia, and morphia. sion as to become naturally a personal ornament and an It has been found that death may be averted by keeping attractive medium of artistic skill, no less than the ceutre up artificial respiration until the poison is eliminated by of traditions or of religious and legendary associations. As the kidneys.

regards the nations of classical antiquity all seals are classed See Eclectic Dispensatory, p. 186 ; Pharm. Journ., 3d ser., vol. as gems, though in many cases the material is not such as vi.; by Pinger and Murrell, &c. in Lancct, 1873, 1875-78 ; Hales, would strictly come under that heading. On the other Nero Remedies

, p. 390 ; Bartholow, Materia Medica, p. 380 ; hand, gems properly so called were not always seals. Many American Journ. Pharm., 1855, 1870; Proc. Amer. Pharın. Assoc., 1873, p. 652; Practitioner, 1870, p. 202; Grover Coc,

of the Babylonian cylinders could not have been so emPositive Medical Agents, p. 114; Hughes, Pharmacodynamy, vol. ployed without great difficulty, and when Herodotus (i. 195) i. p. 372; Sonnenschein, Berichte der deutsch. chem. Ges., xi. speaks of every Babylonian wearing a scal (o opnyís), it may 1182 ; Bentley and Trimen, Med. Plants, pt. xix. No. 181.

have been in most cases no other than a talisman having GEMINIANI, Francesco (c. 1680-1762), a celebrated an inheront power derived from the subject of its design, violinist, born at Lucca about 1680. He received lessons consisting perhaps mostly of figures of protecting deities. in music from Alessandro Scarlatti, and studied the violin He adds that every Babylonian carried also a staff on which under Lunati, and afterwards under Corelli. In 1714 he it was unlawful for him not to have the figure of an apple, arrived in London, where his performance and compositions a rose, a lily, an eagle, or something else, as his badge or attracted much attention. He was taken under the special érionuov, from which it may perhaps be inferred that having protection of the earl of Essex. After visiting Paris and selected some such badge for his staff he would necessarily residing there for some time, he returned to England in have the same for the seal with which he attested his name. 1755. In 1761 he went to Dublin, where a servant But if that had been the case, then the great mass of existrobbed him of a musical manuscript on which he had ing cylinders could not have been seals in the ordinary sense. bestowed much time and labour. His vexation at this loss In Greece and Rome within historic times, gems were worn is said to have hastened his death, which took place at engraved with designs to show that the bearer was an Dublin on 17th September 1762. He appears to have been adherent of a particular worship, the follower of a certain a first-rate violinist

, but most of his compositions are dry philosopher, or the attached subject of an emperor. It and deficient in melody. His Art of Playing the Violin is cannot be said that these gems may not have been used a good work of its kind, but his Guida Armonica is a systematically as seals, but it is clear that they primarily miserable production. He published a number of solos for served a different purpose. Again, when the sense of the violin, three sets of violin concertos, twelve violin trios, personal ornament naturally attaching to a seal increased, The Art of Accompaniment on the Harpsichord, Organ, &c., and the resources both of material and skill were enlarged, Lessons for the Harpsichord, and some other works. His the process of engraving gems in cameo, that is, with the musical opinions had no foundation in truth or principle. design in relief mostly in such stones as by their differently

GEMISTUS, or PLETHO, GEORGIUS, held high office coloured layers oould be made to present a variety of surunder the Byzantine emperors during the first half of the faces, came largely into fashion (see article Cameo, and figs. 15th century, and derived his name, which signifies the 18, 19 in Plate I.). As a rule these cameos are of a date sub. Replete, from the extraordinary amount of his erudition. sequent to that of Alexander the Great; but there are excep. He is, however, chiefly memorable for having been the first tions in an Egyptian cameo in the Louvre, said to belong to person who introduced Plato to the Western world. This the 12th dynasty, about 3000 B.C., and in some few Etruscan took place upon his visit to Florence in 1438, as one of the scarabs, which havingdesigns in intaglio on the face have also deputies from Constantinople on occasion of the general reliefs engraved on the back, apparently in the same archaic council. Cardinal Bessarion became his disciple; he produced manner of art as the intaglios. Such a scarab in carnelian a great impression upon Cosmo de' Medici; and though not was found at Orvieto in 1874 in a tomb along with vases himself making any very iinportant contribution to the dating from the beginning of the 5th century B.C., and it study of Plato, he effectuaily shook the exclusive domination will be seen from the engraving of this gem (Archäol

. Zeit., , which Aristotle had exercised over European thought for 1877, pl. xi., fig. 3, compare figure of Siren on back of eight centuries. He promoted the union of the Greek and scarab engraved in Wieseler, Denkmäler der alten Kunst, No. Latin Churches as far as possible, but his efforts in this 752) that, while the design on the face presents evidently direction bore no permanent fruit. He probably died the same subject which occurs on a scaraboid found in the before the capture of Constantinople. The most important treasury of Curium in Cyprus by General Cesnola (see his of his published works are a treatise on the distinction Cyprus, pl. xxxix., fig. 5, p. :381), the half-length figure between Plato and Aristotle as philosophers, and one on of a Gorgon on the back seems to be the same in subject the religion of Zoroaster. In ad lition to these he compiled and treatment as a carnelian fragment, apparently cut several volumes of excerpts from ancient authors, and wrote from the back of a scaraboid, now in the British Museum. a number of works on geography, music, and other subjects, As further examples of the same rare form of cameo, the many of which still exist in MS. in various European following scaraboids in the British Museum may be menlibraries.

tioned :-(1) a carnelian cut from back of a scaraboid, with GEMS (yńsol, gemmæ), engraved with designs, whether head of Gorgon surrounded by wings; (2) carnelian scaraadapted for sealing (oppayis, sigillum, intaglio), or mainly boid : Gorgon running to left, on face of gein an intaglio of for artistic effect (imagines ectypæ. cameo), exist in a very Thetis giving armour to Achilles; (3) carnelian scaraboid :

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