« EelmineJätka »
ment; and after the invention of Hadley's quadrant, these map of India in 1788, and the memoir in 1792. Surveys rough route surveys began to be checked and verified by were also made along the Indian coasts, and the charts of astronomical observations.
Huddert, Ritchie, and M'Cluer were the forerunners of the The most remarkable example of the early application of more accurate and elaborate productions of the succeeding these improvements is to be found in the survey of China century. by the Jesuit missionaries. They first prepared a map of Arabia received very careful attention, in tbe 18th the country round Peking, which was submitted to the century, from the Danish scientific mission, which included emperor Kang-hi, and, being satisfied with the accuracy of Carsten Niebuhr among its members. Niebuhr landed at the European method of surveying, he resolved to have a Loheia, on the coast of Yemen, in December 1762, and survey made of the whole empire on the same principles. went by land to Sana. All the other members of the This great work was commenced in July 1708, and the com. mission died, and he proceeded from Mocha to Bombay. pleted maps were presented to the emperor in 1718. The He then made à journey through Persia and Syria to records preserved in each city were examined, topographical Constantinople, returning to Copenhagen in 1767. His information was diligently collected, and the Jesuit fathers invaluable work, the Description of Arabia, was published checked their triangulation by meridian altitudes of the sun in 1772, and was followed in 1774–78 by two volumes of and pole star, and by a system of remeasurements. The travels in Asia. The great traveller survived until 1815, result was a more accurate map of China than existed, at when he died at the age of eighty-two. James Bruce of that time, of any country in Europe. Kang-hi next ordered Kinnaird, the contemporary of Niebuhr, was equally devoted a similar map to be made of Tibet, the survey belng exe- to Eastern travel. After studying Arabic and Geez for some cuted by two lamas who were carefully trained as surveyors years, he went out as consul to Algiers, and resided there by the Jesuits at Peking. From these surveys were con- from 1762 to 1765, exploring and sketching the Roman structed the well-known maps which were forwarded to Du- ruins in Algiers and Tunis. In 1765 he travelled by land halde, and from which D'Anville constructed his atlas. from Tunis to Tripoli, and then took a passage for Candia,
Several European missionaries had previously found their but was shipwrecked near Bengazi, and had to swim on way from India to Tibet. Antonio Andrada, in 1624, was shore. He eventually reached Candia, and, sailing thence the first European to enter Tibet since the visit of Friar to Sidon, travelled through Syria. In June 1768 he landed Odoric in 1325. The next journey was that of Fathers at Alexandria in the dress of an Arab, and soon afterwards Grueber and Dorville about 1660, who succeeded in pass- we hear of him at Jiddah, the port of Mecca, in the dress ing from China, through Tibet, into India. In 1715 of a Turkish sailor. He had resolved to attempt the disFathers Desideri and Freyre made their way from Agra, covery of the source of the Nile; and in 1769 be landed at across the Himalayas, to Lassa, the capital of Tibet; and Massowah, on the Abyssinian coast. He then penetrated the Capuchin Friar Orazio della Penna resided at Lassa to Axum and Gondar, and in November 1770 he reached from 1735 until 1747. But the most remarkable journey the source of the Abai, then supposed to be the main stream in this direction was performed by a Dutch traveller named of the Nile. He thus attained the great object of his Samuel Van de Putte. He is the only European who has ambition. Returning by the desert into Egypt, Bruce ever completed the journey from India, through Lassa, to reached England in 1774, and settled once more at his old China, and returned to India by the same route. He left home at Kinnaird after an absence of ten years. Urged by Holland in 1718, went by land through Persia to India, and his old friend, Mr Daines Barrington, the great traveller at eventually made his way to Lassa, where he resided for a length published his Travels to. Discover the Source of the long time.
He went thence to China, returned to Lassa, Nile in the Years 1768–73 (5 vols. 4to) in 1790. Bruce, and was in India in time to be an eye-witness of the sack of like many other conscientious and deserving explorers, was Delhi by Nadir Shah in 1737. In 1743 he left India, and assailed by calumny and detraction. But every succeeding died at Batavia on the 27th of September 1745. The pre- year has added to the high estimation in which bis labours mature death of this illustrious traveller is the more to be are held, and to the reverence with which his memory is lamented because his vast knowledge died with him. Two cherished. He died at Kinnaird House, Stirlingshire iu English missions sent by Warren Hastings to Tibet, one led | 1794. by Mr George Bogle in 1774, and the other by Captain Before the death of Bruce an African Association was Turner in 1783, completes the list of Tibetan explorers in formed, in 1788, for collecting information respecting the the 18th century. From Persia much new information was interior of that continent, with Major Rennell and Sir supplied by Chardin, Tavernier, Hamilton, Thevenot, and Joseph Banks as leading members, and Bryan Edwards as Krusinski, and by English traders on the Caspian. In secretary. The association first employed a Mr Ledyard to 1739 John Elton traded between Astrakhan and the Persian cross Africa from east to west on the parallel of the Niger, port of Enzelî on the Caspian; and undertook to build a and Mr Lucas to cross the Sahara to Fezzan. Ledyard, fleet for Nadir Shah. Another English mercbant, named who had previously made a most extraordinary journey into Jonas Hanway, arrived at Astrabad from Russia, and Siberia, died at Cairo in 1788. Lucas went from Tripoli travelled to the camp of Nadir at Kazvîn. One lasting to Mesurata, obtained some information respecting Fezzan, and valuable result of Hanway's wanderings was a most and returned in 1789. One of the chief problems the charming book of travels. The extension of the dominions Association wished to solve was that of the existence and of the Company largely increased the knowledge of India. course of the river Niger, which Maxwell believed to be In 1700 Guillaume Delisle, the principal creator of the identical with the Congo. Mungo Park, then an assistant modern system of geography, published his map of the con- surgeon of an Indiaman, volunteered his services, which were tinents of the Old World ; and his successor D'Anville pro- accepted by the Association, and in 1795 he arrived at the duced his map of India in 1752. D'Anville's map contained English factory of Pisania, 200 miles up the Gambia. all that was then known, but ten years afterwards Major Leaving this station in December he reached Ludamar, Rendell commenced his surveying labours, which extended where a Moorish chief imprisoned him until the following over a period from 1763 to 1782. His survey covered an July. He then crossed a mountainous tract to a Mandingo area 900 miles long by 300 wide, from the eastern confines town called Kamalia. Quite destitute, and suffering from of Bengal to Agra, and from the Himalayas to Calpi. fever, he remained there for several months, but finally Rennell was indefatigable in collecting geographical infor- found his way back to Pisania, and returned to England. mation; bis Bengal atlas appeared in 1781, his famous The interesting narrative of his adventures, with a goos
graphical memoir by Rennell, was published in 1799. Five attaches to the wreck of the "Wager," one of Anson's fleet,
Saunders’s Island; he returned to England on May 17, 1768. While the English were at work in the direction of the Carteret discovered the Charlotte and Gloucester Islands, Niger, the Portuguese were not unmindful of their old ex- and Pitcairn Island on July 2, 1767; revisited the Santa ploring fame. In 1798 Dr Lacerda, an accomplished Cruz group, which was discovered by Mendaña and Quiros; astronomer, was appointed to command a scientifio expedi- and discovered the strait separating New Britain from New tion of discovery to the north of the Zambesi. He started Ireland. He reached Spithead again on February 20, 1769. in Jaly, crossed the Muchenja Mountains, and reached the Wallis and Carteret were followed very closely by the capital of the Cazembe, where he died of fever. Dr Lacerda French expedition of Bougainville, which sailed from Nantes left a valuable record of his adventurous journey ; but with in November 1766. Bougainville had first to perform to Mungo Park and Lacerda the history of African exploration him the unpleasant task of delivering up the Falkland in the 18th century closes.
Islands (Malouines), where he bad encouraged the formation In South America scientific exploration was busily at of a French settlement, to the Spaniards. He then entered work during this period. The great event of the century, the Pacific, and reached Tahiti on April 2, 1768. Passing as regards that continent, was the measurement of an arc through the New Hebrides group he touched at Batavia, of the meridian. The undertaking was proposed by the and arrived at St Malo after an absence of two years and French Academy, and a commission left Paris in 1735, con- four months, sisting of La Condamine, Bouguer, and Godin. Spain The three voyages of Cook form an era in the history of appointed two accomplished naval officers, the brothers geographical discovery. All his work was thoroughly and Ulloa, as coadjutors. The operations were carried on completely done. He systematically surveyed every land he during 'eight years on a plain to the south of Quito; and, discovered, collecting information touching every branch of in addition to his memoir on this memorable and most inquiry, so that his labours form a very large addition to important measurement, La Condamine collected much geographical knowledge. James Cook was born near Whitby, valuable geographical information during a voyage down Yorkshire, in 1728, and had been marine surveyor of the Amazon. The arc measured was 3° 7' 3" in length; Newfoundland and Labrador from 1763 to 1767. In the and the work consisted of two measured bases connected latter year he commissioned the “ Endeavour" and sailed by a series of triangles, one north and the other south of for Tahiti, with the object of observing the transit of the equator, on the meridian of Quito. Contemporaneously, Venus, accompanied by Sir Joseph Banks and Dr Solander, in 1738, M. Maupertuis of St Malo measured an arc of the a pupil of Linnæus. The transit was observed at Tahiti meridian in Lapland.. Another result of this expedition on June 3, 1769. After exploring Tahiti and the Society was the publication of a valuable work by the brothers group, Cook was six months surveying the two islands of Ulloa.
New Zealand, and the coast of New South Wales from The English and French Governments despatched several latitude 38° 8. to the northern extremity. Passing through expeditions of discovery into the Pacific and round the Torres Strait, he touched at Batavia, and arrived in England world during the 18th century. They were preceded by on June 12, 1771. those wonderful and romantic voyages of the buccaneers, Cook's second voyage was mainly intended to explore the of such men as Woodes Rogers, Davis, Shelvocke, Clap region round the Antarctic Circle ; and it may be mentioned perton, and Dampier, which can never fail to interest, that meanwbile a French ship, commanded by M. Kerguelen, while they are not without geographical value. The works had sailed southwards in 1771, and discovered the island of Dampier are especially valuable, and the narratives of which bears his name. Captain Cook was provided with William Funnell and Lionel Wafer furnished the best two vessels built at Whitby, the “ Resolution,” which he accounts then extant of the isthmus of Darien. Dampier's himself conimanded, and the “Adventure" under Captain literary ability eventually secured for him a commission in Farneaux, who had been with Wallis. After rounding the the king's service; and he was sent on a voyage of dis- i Cape the two vessels reached a south latitude of 57° 15' covery, during which he explored part of the coasts of On March 26, 1773, Captain Cook arrived at New Zealand Australia and New Guinea, and diseovered the strait which and proceeded to the Society Islands, whence he made bears his name between New Guinea and New Britain, re- another voyage southwards between the meridians of 170° turning in 1701. In 1721 Jacob Roggewein was despatched E. and 106° 54' W. On this occasion he was stopped by ice on a voyage of some importance across the Pacific by the in 71° 10' S. During the second voyage Cook visited Easter Dutch West India Company, during which he discovered Island, discovered several islands of the New Hebrides Easter Island on April 6, 1722.
and New Caledonia ; and on his way home by Cape Horn, The voyage of Lord Anson to the Pacific in 1740–44 in March 1774, he discovered the Sandwich Island group. was of a predatory character, and he lost more than half | Arrived at Spithead on July 30, 1774. • The account of his men from scurvy; while it is not pleasant to reflect the second voyage was written by the young naturalist that at the very time when the French and Spaniards were George Forster, whose subsequent work was so justly ineasuring an arc of the meridian at Quito, the English eulogized by Humboldt. The tbird voyage was intended under Anson were pillaging the coast of the Pacific, to attempt the passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic by and taroing the town of Payta. But a romantic interest | the north-east. The “ Resolution " and " Discovery ” sailed
in 1776, and cook again took the 'route by tue Cape of continued the work of Cook from Ram Head, and explored Good Hope. Io 1777 he was at the Friendly group, and the strait which bears his name, and in 1798 he and on January 18, 1778, he discovered the Sandwich Islands. Flinders were surveying the east coast of Van Diemen's He then proceeded to the North American coast, and, after | Land. The planting of a colony at Port Jackson led to a stay of a month in Nootka Soand, he proceeded north- the despatch of an expedition to complete the exploration wards, fixed the position of the western extremity of America, of the Australian coasts. The command was given to and surveyed Behring Strait. On August 17, 1778, he Captain Matthew Flinders He was furnished with a was stopped by the sce in 70° 41' N., and named the vessel called the “Investigator," and sailed from England farthest visible point on the American shore Icy Cape. He on July 18, 1801. Commencing from King George's Sound, then visited the Asiatic shore and discovered Cape North, Captain Flinders discovered and made a prelimiuary survey beaning up on August 29 when he was in the 180th degree of all the south coast of Australia to Bass Strait, and the of longitude. Returning to the Sandwich Islands, Captain east coast from the barrier reef to Torres Strait, as well as Cook was murdered by the natives of Hawaii. On Febru- the east coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria Flinders met ary 14, 1779, his second, Captain Clerke, took the com- the French expedition under Baudin and Freycinet with the mand, and proceeding to Petropaulowski in the following two ships “Géographe ” and “Naturaliste," which was ensummer, he again examined the edge of the ice, but only gaged upon the same work. He was taken prisoner by the got to 70' 33' N. The ships returned to England in French in 1804 and detained until 1810, so that his work October 1780.
did not appear before 1814. In 1785 the French Government fitted out a very Yet another out-come of Captain Cook's work was the Vadcarcfully prepared expedition of discovery at Brest, which voyage of George Vancouver, who had served as a midshipu couver. was placed under the command of La Perouse, an accom- man in Cook's second and third voyages. The Spaniards plished and experienced officer. After touching at Con under Quadra liad commenced a survey of north-western cepcion in Chili
, and at Easter Island, La Perouse proceeded America and occupied Nootka Sound, which their Governto the Sandwich Islands, and thence to the coast of ment eventually agreed to surrender. Captain Vancouver California, of which he has given a very interesting account. was sent out to receive the cession, and to survey the coast He then went across the Pacific to Macao, and in July 1787 from Cape Mendocino north wards. He commanded the old he proceeded to explore the Gulf of Tartary and the shores " Discovery," and was at work during the seasons of :1792, of Sagbaliea, remaining some time at Castries Bay, so 1793, and 1794, wintering at the Sandwich Islands. Renamed after the French minister of marine. Thence he turning home in 1795, he completed his narrative and very went to the Kurile Islands and Kamchatka, and sailed valuable series of charts, and died in 1798. from the far aorth down a meridian to the Navigator aud The 18th century saw the Arctic coast of North America Hudson's Friendly Islands. He was in Botany Bay in January 1788; reached at two points, as well as the first scientific attempt Bay Com and sailing thence, the explorer, his ship, and crew were to reach the North Pole. The Hudson's Bay Company had pany. never seen again. Their fate was long uncertain. In been incorporated in 1670, and its servants soon extended September 1791 Captain D'Entrecasteaux sailed from their operations over a wide area to the north and west of Brest with two vessels, to seek for tidings. He visited the Canada. In 1741 Captain Christopher Middleton was New Hebrides, Santa Cruz, New Caledonia, and Salomon ordered to solve the question of a passage from Hudson's Islands, and made careful though rough surveys of the Bay to the westward. Leaving Fort Churchill in July Louisiade Archipelago, islands north of New Britain, and 1742 he stood northwards and discovered the Wager River part of New Guinea. D'Entrecasteaux died on board his and Repulse Bay, bearing up again on August 9. He was ship on Jaly 20, 1793, without ascertaining the fate of La followed by Captain W. Moor in 1746, and Captain Coats Perouse. It was Captain Peter Dillon who at length in 1751, who examined the Wager Inlet up to the end. On ascertained, in 1828, that the ships of La Perouse were November 6, 1769, Samuel Hearne was sent by the wrecked on the island of Vanikoro during a hurricane. Hudson's Bay Company to discover the sea ou the north
The work of Captain Cook bore fruit in many ways side of America, but was obliged to return. On February His master, Captain Bligh, was sent in the “ Bounty" to 23, 1770, he set out again from Fort Prince of Wales ; convey breadfruit plants from Tahiti to the West Indies. but, after great hardships, he was again forced to return to He reached Tahiti in October 1788, and in April 1789 a the fort. He started once more on December 7,1771, and mutiny broke out, and he, with several officers and men, at length reached the Coppermine River, which he surveyed was thrust into an open boat in mid-ocean. During the to its mouth, but his observations are very unreliable remarkable voyage he then made to Timor, Captain Bligh With the same object of reaching the sea, Alexander passed amongst the northern islands of the New Hebrides, Mackenzie, with a party of Canadians, set out from Fort which he named the Banks Group, and made several run- Chepewyan on June 3, 1789, and descended a river which ning surveys. He reached England in March 1790. The bears the explorer's name, His account of the journey is “Pandora," under Captain Edwards, was sent out in search even more unsatisfactory than that of Hearne. of the “ Bounty," and discovered the islands of Cherry and In February 1773 the Royal Society submitted a proposal Jlitre, east of the Santa Cruz group, but she was eventually to the king for an expedition to try how far navigation lost on a reef in Torres Strait. In 1796-97 Captain was possible towards the Pole. The “Racehorse” and Wilson, in the missionary ship “ Duff," discovered the “Carcass” bombs were selected as best adapted for the Gambier and other islands, and rediscovered the islands service, and Captains Phipps and Lutwidge were appointed known to and seen by Quiros, but since called the Duff to command them. The expedition sailed on June 2, 1773, Group. Another result of Captain Cook's work was the and sighted the coast of Spitzbergen on the 28th. Captain colonization of Australia. On January 18, 1788, Admiral Phipps stood into every opening he could find in the ice, Phillip and Captain Hunter arrived in Botany Bay in the but was invariably stopped by a solid barrier. He ex* Supply" and “Sirius,” followed by six transports, and amined a line extending over twenty degrees of longitude, established a colony at Port Jackson. Surveys were then and found no opening in the heavy polar pack in auy direcundertaken in several directions. In 1795 and 1796 M. tion. After a very careful and persevering examination of Flinders and G. Bass were engaged on exploring work in the ice, the expedition returned to England in September. a small boat called the “ Tom Thumb." In 1797 Bass, The highest latitude reached was 80° 48' N. But the most who had been a surgeon, made an expedition southwards, I important Arctic work in the 18th century was performed
by the Russians, for they succeeded in delineating the sufficient for the traveller or soldier, while accurate charts whole of the northern coast of Siberia Some of this work, guided the mariner across the ocean. But surveys are also indeed, was done at a still earlier date. The Cossack the basis of statistics and of administration, and rigorous Deschneff made an extraordinary voyage, in the summer of accuracy became necessary. Surveys on a trigonometrical 1648, from the river Kolyma, through Behring Strait to basis, which have been proceeding in all the countries in Anadyr, a performance which has never since been equalled. Europe (except Turkey) and in India during the present, Between 1738 and 1750 the mates Manin and Sterlogoff were commenced in the last century. In Great Britain the niade their way in small sloops from the mouth of the Ordnance Survey was begun in April 1784, when General Yenisei as far north as 75° 15' N. The land from Taimyr Roy measured a base line on Hounslow Heath. The to Cape Chelyuskin, the most northern extremity of Siberia, triangulation of the British Isles was commenced in 1784 was mapped by the mate Chelyuskin, who discovered the and completed in 1852. Maps based on trigonometrica! extreme point in May 1742. To the east of Cape Chelyus. surveys may eventually explain and illustrate the physical kin the Russians encountered greater difficulties. They aspect of the whole globe, but at present they are neces. built small vessels at Yakutsk on the Lena, 900 miles sarily confined tò those nations which are in the front rank from its mouth, whence the first expedition was des- of civilization. Countries which are not so advanced are patched under Lieutenant Prontschicbeff in 1735. He still obliged to be content with such maps as sufficed for jailed from the mouth of the Lena to the mouth, of all the world in the last century, before the results of the Olonek; where he wintered, and on September 1, trigonometrical surveys were available. These secondary 1736, he got as far as 77° 29' N., within five miles of Cape maps are adapted for the requirements of the countries Chelyuskin, which is in 77° 34' N. Both he and his young which use them, being based on positions fixed by astro wife died of scurvy, and the vessel returned. A second nomical observations, on cross bearings, and often on chained expedition, under Lieutenant Laptieff, started from the Lena distances. The third class of maps includes the work of in 1739, but encountered masses of drift ice in Chatanga explorers of unknowa or little known regions, and of geobay, and with this ended the voyages to the west ward of graphers who delineate the features of such regions by the Lena. Several attempts were also made to navigate compilation and by futelligent collation of the work of the sea from the Lena to the Kolyma In 1736 Lieutenant travellers. There are thus three grand divisions in the Laptieff sailed, but was stopped by the drift ice in August; character and uses of maps. There are first those which and in 1739, during another trial, he reached the mouth aim at minute accuracy, and which are intended as docuof the Indigirka, where he wintered. In the season of ments for administrative purposes, and in pursuing exact 1740 he continued his voyage to beyond the Kolyma, statistical investigations. Secondly, there are maps which wintering at Nijni Kolymsk. In 1725 Vitus Behring, a are based on less accurate surveys of countries less populous Dane in the Russian service, received his instructions from or less advanced in civilization; these are useful for Peter the Great a few days before the czar’s death. Two political, geographical, and military purposes, but are not vessels were built for Behring at Okhotsk, and sailing in to be relied on to the same extent or in the same way as July 1728, he ascertained the existence of the strait between is the case with those based on trigonometrical surveye Asia and America which bears his name. In September Thirdly, there are the roughly compiled maps of little 1740 Bebring again sailed from Okhotsk, with Steller on known regions, which are constantly in course of improve board as naturalist. In June 1741 Commodore Behring ment, and which do the work of pioneers. named the magnificent peak on the coast of North America In treating here of the progress of geographical discovery Mount St Elias, and explored the Aleutian Islands. In in the present centnry, it is to those who prepare the last November the ship was wrecked on Behring Island; and class of maps, to the pioneers—the discoverers—that we the gallant Dane, worn out with scurvy, died there on the múst mainly, though not exclusively, confine our attention. 8th of December 1741. In March 1770 a merchant named We propose to review the work of discoverers and explorers Liakhoff saw a large herd of reindeer coining from the north of the 19th century in two sections as regards time,—first to the Siberian coast, which induced him to start in a during the first thirty, and secondly during the last fortysledge in the direction whence they came. Thus the New eight years. The Royal Geographical Society was founded Siberian Islands were discovered, and for years afterwards in 1830, and forms a landmark. In each period we shall the seekers for fossil ivory resorted to them. The Russian take first the work done in Asia, then Africa, then America, Captain Vassili Tchitschakoff in 1765 and 1766 made two then Australia, then Polynesia, and finally the Arctic and persevering attempts to penetrate the ice north of Spitz- Antarctic regions. bergen, and reached to 80° 30' N., and Russian parties At the beginning of the century British rule in India was twice wintered at Bell Sound. But the result was the same extended over the plains of the Ganges almost to the Sutlej, as all others have obtained before and since; the Spitz- and the attention of explorers was drawn to the mighty bergen route is evidently not the way to the Pole.
mass of the Himalayas. Captain Herbert, in 1818, at The 18th century saw great progress in the collection temped to give a general view of the physical character and arrangement of geographical material, and in the work of this great range, and Moorcroft reached the Mansarowa of surveying and map-making. Collections of voyages and lake, and the upper courses of the Indus and Sutlej; while travels were brought together in the four quarto volumes Mr Manning, in 1811, was the only Englishman who ever of Astley (1745) and the two folios of Harris (1764); visited Lassa, the capital of Tibet. The mission of Sir while Dr Hawkesworth edited the Government voyages to Jobn Malcolm to Persia in 1808 led to much geographical the Pacific in 1773. Sir Joseph Banks was the great work being achieved. On his staff was Macdonald Kinneir, patron of geography in England, aided by the indefati- who wrote a valuable memoir on the geography of Persia ; gable labours of such critical geographers as Rennell, while at the same time Lieutenant J. Macartney, under Dalrymple, and Barrington; while in France the great Mountstuart Elphinstone, was collecting materials for a map cartographer D'Anville introduced a habit of critical ac- of Afghanistan. In 1810 Pottinger and Christie made an euracy, and caused a complete revolution in the art of map important journey through Baluchistan by different routes, making.
Christie afterwards visiting Herat and Yezd ; and in 1827 Towards the close of the century it was recognized that Mr Stirling of the Bengal Civil Service crossed the Hazárah geography served more extensive and important uses than mountains. had ever before been supposed. The route survey was The close of the war in 1815 led to numerous efforts for
the furtherance of geographical discovery, especially in , When the Government expeditions were undertaken, the Africa and the far north. In 1818 to 1820 Captain Lyon, volumes of Scoresby formed a storehouse of useful and R.N., and Mr Ritchie landed at Tripoli, and penetrated as well-digested information. The true object of modern
' far as Mourzouk; and this led to the more important ex- Arctic enterprise has been the advancement of science, a pedition of Major Denham and Captain Clapperton, R.N., noble and sufficient reason for incurring expenditure and which was despatched by the Government. They landed facing dangers and hardships. In consequence of Sir John at Tripoli in 1823, and advanced into the interior as far as Barrow's representations, orders were given in 1818 for the the east coast of Lake Tchad, of which they gave a most preparation of four vessels for Arctic service,--two to attempt interesting account, obtaining latitudes by meridian alti- the passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and two to tudes and longitudes by lunar observations. Clapperton's attempt an approach to the North Pole. But, as Sir John furthest point was at Saccatoo, westward of the lake, and Barrow himself explained, the main objects were not the here he was forced to turn back. But in 1825 he was accomplishment of voyages by these routes, but the acquisi. again employed to explore the interior of Africa, and this tion of useful knowledge. Sir John Ross, who commanded time he started from the Atlantic side with his faithful one of the two expeditions, circumnavigated Baffin's Bay on servant Richard Lander. Landing in the Bight of Benin, the track of that great navigator, and re-established his he succeeded in reaching Saccatoo from the west side, thus fame. Captain Buchan, who led the other, battled with completing a route from Tripoli on the Mediterranean to the the impenetrable pack to the north of Spitzbergen, like coast of Guinea. But at Saccatoo the gallant sailor suc- Phipps before him, and then returned. There can be no cumbed at last, dying on the 13th of April 1827. His great success without continuity of effort and perseverance, faithful servant Lauder returned to the coast; and in 1830 and the early voyages of this century achieved lasting he and his brother were employed to explore the course of results, because those who sent them out were endowed the Niger or Quorra. They embarked on the river near with tenacity of purpose.
No sooner had Ross returned Boossa, passed through the Yorriba country, and came ont than Parry was appointed to command, two strongly built at the mouth of the Nun.
vessels, the “Hecla” and “Griper," and to proceed on the The Admiralty also considered that a river of such same service. On the 11th of May 1819 Parry sailed, and magnitude as the Zaire or Congo ought to be explored. on the 1st of August be entered the portals of Lancaster Captain Tuckey, R.N., was selected to conduct the Congo Sound, and commenced the discovery of a new region. He expedition, and received command of a steamer called the succeeded in sailing for 300 miles along the southern shores “ Congo," with a crew of 49 officers and men. The expedic of the islands which now bear his name, among ice floes of tion reached the mouth of the great river on July 5,1816, moderate thickness, until he reached the edge of the imand proceeded up to the foot of the falls of Yellala, the penetrable polar pack at the western extreme of Melville farthest point bitherto reached. Captain Tuckey, with 15 Island. He went as far as it will ever be possible for any of his party, landed on the north shore on the 14th of vessel to go in this direction, and then wintered in a August; and, after travelling for about 40 miles over a hilly harbour of Melville Island. In 1820 he returned with a country, he reached the head of the falls and the banks of rich barvest of scientific observations, and of valuable in. the upper river. He had explored the river for a distance formation in all branches of inquiry. This first expedition of 280 miles from the sea. But death overtook the com- was most successful. Parry's second voyage was into mander of the expedition and several officers, and the Hudson's Bay in search of a passage westward in that direc. “ Congo" returned in command of the master, Mr Fitz- tion. He discovered a strait (that of “Fury and Hecla”), maurice, after executing the survey from the foot of the and passed two winters 1821–23 on the coast of Melville falls to Embomma.
Peninsula. The third voyage (1824–25) was again up South America had produced two eminent physical geo- Baffin's Ray; but it was unsuc
successful, and one of his vessels, graphers, namely, Caldas of Bogota and Unanue of Lima, the “Fury," was lost. Still every voyage, whether successbefore the scenery of the Orinoco and the Andes became ful or not in its main object, brought back valuable results. familiar to Europe through the charming narratives of Meanwhile the “Griper, commanded by Captain Clavering, Humboldt. It was in 1799 that the great Prussian natu- had, in 1823, penetrated through the ice to the east coast ralist embarked at Coruña, and landed at Cumana on the of Greenland in 76° N., to enable Captain Sabine to take coast of Venezuela. His observant eye and bright imagina. pendulum observations in that position. The Russian tion, combined with habits of scientific thought, produced Captain Lutke had also surveyed the west coast of Novaya pictures of the physical aspects of the regions he explored Zemlya from 1821 to 1824. Parry, after his return from which are quite unequalled. What he said of George the third voyage, proposed an attempt to reach the Pole by Forster is even more true of himself: “He depicted in travelling over the ice during the summer, on the Spitzbergen pleasing colours the changing stages of vegetation, the rela- meridians. He sailed on this service in the "Hecla” on Htions of climate and articles of food in their influence on the 3d of April 1827, and, after placing her in a secure the civilization of mankind. All that can give truth, indi- barbour in Spitzbergen, he began his bold and interesting. viduality, and distinctiveness to the delineation of exotic attempt with two boats, fitted with runners for being nature is united in his work.” The Orinoco and Cassiquiari, dragged over the ice. But the whole mass of ice was driftthe falls of Tequendama, the mountains of Quindiu, ing south faster than Parry's men, with all their efforts, Chimborazo, and Quito, Cajamarca, and the upper Amazon, could advance north. However, on July 23, 1827, he
, , and the varied scenery of Mexico, are imprinted on the attained the latitude of 82° 45' N., which continued to be imagination with life-like form and colouring by this great the highest parallel ever reached by man until Captain master of description. His service to geography was far Markham went beyond it in 1875. Parry returned to greater than that of any mere discoverer. Humboldt left England in October. Another expedition of a private the New World in 1804.
character left England in June 1829 under the command The greatest and most important enterprise, after the of Sir John Ross, who was accompanied by his distinpeace of 1815, was the renewal of Arctic exploration under guished nephew James C. Ross. In August they reached the auspices of Sir John Barrow. To the great work of Lancaster Sound, and then proceeded southwards down Scoresby, and to the careful observations of himself and his Regent's Inlet, wintering on the most northern peninsula father, we are indebted for the most exhaustive account of of America, to which Ross gave the name of Boothia. Here the Spitzbergen seas, and of the ice which encumbers them. I they passed three winters, while, during the intervening