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summers, some exploring work was accomplished, and Romanzoff and krusensters in the Dangerous Archipelaga James Ross planted the Union Jack on the North Magnetic During another Russian voyage, commanded by Billing Pole on the 1st of June 1831. At last they were forced to hausen, Lazareff and other coral islands in the Dangerone abandon their little vessel the "Victory," and make their Archipelago were discovered, and in 1828 Captain Lutke way to the whalers in Baffin's Bay in open boats

. They in the “Seniavine," surveyed the Caroline group. Captain were picked up and arrived in England after an absence of Freycinet, the oficer who served with Baudin and edited

his work, also examined the Caroline Islands in the “Uranie" While these oold and perilous voyages were being con- in 1819, but his voyage was mainly in the interests.of ducted in the Arctic seas, a series of land journeys completed natural history. Duperry in 1822–23 did some surveying the delineation of the northern coast of America, which had work on the coast of New Ireland. But the most important just been touched at two points in the last century, by French voyage was that of Dumont D'Urville, who was Hearne and Mackenzie. From 1819 to 1823 the gallant sent out to seek for traces of La Perouse in 1828. He Sir John Franklin, with Dr Richardson and George visited Tecopia and other islands in the “ Astrolabe," and Back, were struggling to explore the Arctic coast eastward was nearly a month at Vanikoro collecting relics of the illfrom the mouth of the Coppermina River, After great fated expedition. The voyage of D'Urville contributed sufferings they embarked on the river on June 30, 1820, largely to the advancement of science, and resulted in the reaching the mouth on July 18, and exploring 550 miles publication of a magpificent work in 1830. of coast line to the eastward, as far as Point Turnagain. The only English scientific voyage to the Pacific in this On the return journey across the barren lands, the party period was sent out mainly to co-operate with Parry in his escaped death from starvation almost by a miracle. Uno third voyage, and Franklin in his second journey. It was daunted by this terrible experience, Franklin, Richardson, commanded by Captain Beechey, who had been first lieuand Back started on another expedition in 1825, this time tenant with Parry during his first Arctic voyage, and on. by descending the Mackenzie River. Reaching its mouth May 19, 1825, he sailed from Spithead in H.M.S. " Bloson July 7, Franklin and Back discovered 374 miles of coast som.” After visiting Easter, Gambier, Pitcairn, and other to the westward, as far as Return Reef; while Richardson islands, the “Blossom ” arrived at Honolulu on May 20, explored the space between the mouths of the Mackenzie and ( 1826, and in July she was in Behring Strait, entering. Coppermine. `In 1833 Back undertook a third journey Kotzebue Sound on the 22d. · Proceeding along the north. with the object of succouring the Rosses, who had long been coast of America, the ship's barge got as far as 156° 21' W. missing. He discovered and explored the Back or Great to a low cape called Point Barrow, at the very time when Fish River for 530 miles, and in July 1834 reached its Franklin and Back were at Return Reef. The acourate exmouth in the Arctic Ocean. The gaps on the north coast, amination of the coast was made under circumstances which which were left by Franklin and Back, were subsequently demanded great fortitude and perseverance, and reflects filled in by servants of the Hudson's Bay Company. In credit on the officers and crew. The “Blossom" returned 1837 Messrs Simpson and Dease, in a boat, connected to Honolulu in January 1827, and arrived at Macao on the Return Reef with Cape Barrow. In 1839 the same ex- 12th of April. Captain Beechey next proceeded to survey plorers went from Cape Turnagain to the mouth of Back's the Loo Choo and Bonin Islands, and, after another visit River, and still further eastward to Castor and Pollux River. to the far north, and the coasts of California and Mexico, On August 26, 1839, Simpson built a cairn at Cape he returned home by Cape Horn and arrived at Woolwick Herschel, on King William Island, separated by a strait ten on October 12, 1828. His valuable and interesting narramiles wide from the mainland. Dr Rae was sent in 1846. tive, in two volumes, was published in 1831. Mr James to winter in Repulse Bay, and in 1847 he travelled round Weddell, a master in the navy, made a royage to the the Gulf of Akkoolee and connected the work of Ross in Antarctic Ocean in 1822-24, and went as far south as 74'. boothia with that of Parry during bis second voyage. In The Royal Geographical Society was founded in 1830, 1854 he united the work of Ross with that of Simpson, and and forms a landmark in the history of discovery. The ascortained that Boothia was connected with the mainland men who initiated the idea and gave it shape were Šir:John of Asgerica by an isthmus. Thus the whole northern coast Barrow, Sir John Cam Hobhouse, Sir Roderick Murcbison, of Anerica was explored and delineated without a break. Mr Robert Brown (Princeps Botanicorum), and Mr Bartle

The Russians were orgaged on daring Arctic exploration Frere. They formed the Foundation Committee. The first at the sa.ne time. In 1809 to 1812 a Russian officer named president was Lord Goderich, and the vice-presideuts Sir Hedenstrom surveyed the New Siberia Islands; and in John Barrow, Colonel Leake, Sir John Franklin, and Mr 1821 Lieutenant Anjou made further investigations respect- Greenough. Through this organization explorers and ing the state of the ice to the northward. Baron Wrangell students were encouraged and assisted, information was prosecuted similar researches from his headquarters at Nijni systematically collected and arranged, and the work of dis Kolymsk, near the mouth of the Kolyma He made four covery was advanced. A similar society in Paris preceded eledge journeys over the Polar Sea from 1820 to 1823, ex. that of London in point of time, and now every civilized ploring the coast from the Kolyma to Cape Chelagskoi, and country has established a Geographical Society. making several attempts to advance northwards, but always Our rapid review of the progress of discovery since the encountering weak ice. Wrangell's interesting narrative is foundation of the Geographical Society will commence with an important addition to Arctic literature.

the continent of Asia, where there were and still are vast The Russians, as well as the French, sent several voyages and most interesting unexplored regions. In British India into the Pacific during the first half of the 19th century. the Trigonometrical Survey has been proceeded with, and is In 1804 Admiral ·Krusenstern made a voyage round the now approaching completion. During its progress the world, and his pupil, Otto von Kotzebue, son of the Himalayan peaks were measured, and in 1848 Sir Andrew dramatist, commanded the “Rurick” from 1815 to 1818 Waugh fixed the height of the loftiest, which he named on a voyage of discovery. He discovered the great bay Mount Everest, at 29,002 feet above the sea. In 1831 known as Kotzebue Sound, sounded in Behring Strait

, and Humboldt published his Asie Centrale, which, with the made careful observations of the currents. Wintering in Erdkunde von Asien of Carl Ritter, gave new and clearer California he returned to the Aleutian Islands in the follow- ideas of the orography of Central Asia. Many travellers ing spring'; and during the voyage homewards he dis- explored the remoter parts of the Himalayan chain ; while, covered several new islands in the Pacific, especially in 1848, Dr Hooker in Sikkim, and Dr Thomson in Ladak,

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freached the summits of the passes leading to Tibet and , decessors, went itom Tripoli to Mourzouk, the capital of Yarkand. Our relations with Afghanistan led to further Fezzan. The two first died in Africa, but Dr Bartli 'exploration. In 1840 Lieutenants Abbott, Conolly, and returned home with a rich harvest of results. He reached Shakespear visited Khiva, and in 1841 Colonels Stoddart Kouka the capital of Bornou, on Lake Tchad, and in 1851 and Conolly were murdered at Bokhara, while Eldred he visited the south side of that lake, and advanced some Pottinger gallantly defended Herat. Sir Alexander Burnes distance to the eastward. In 1852 he was at Saccatoo, had previously made his remarkable journey from Cabul to where Clapperton died, whence he crossed the Niger and Bokhara and back through Persia, and in 1838 Lieutenant eventually reached Timbuctoo. After & stay of some Wood of the Indian Navy discovered the source of the Oxus. months Dr Barth left Timbuctoo in March 1854, ani got Butakoff and other Russian officers, in 1848 and subsequent back to Tripoli in the end of 1855, being the sole survivor years, surveyed the sea of Aral, and Middendorf made ex. of his party. Dr Vogel, in 1853-57, followed up the dis tensive explorations and discoveries in Siberia. After the coveries in the direction of Lake Tchad, and fell a victim Afghan war it was long before any progress was made in the to science; and the researches of Dr Baikie in 1854 sup; exploration of Central Asia, but through the opening of the plemented the work of the Landers in the lower part of the treaty ports in China and the navigation of the Yangtsze a course of the Niger. Dr Baikie also explored 250 miles of considerable increase was made in our knowledge of the the river Chadda or Benne. Celestial Empire. In 1869 Mr R. B. Shaw and Mr Haywood On the eastern coast of Africa, the missionaries Rebmann reached the cities of Yarkand and Kashgar, and Mr Shaw and Krapf ascertained the existence of the snowy peaks of published a most graphic account of the physical aspects of Kenia and Kilimanjaro near the equator, and collected Easteru Turkestan. In the previous year Mr Ney Elias reports touching the equatorial lakes in the interior. This

| : surveyed the Yellow River of China, and afterwards made led to the expedition of Captain Burton in 1857, who, aca journey through a previously unknown portion of western conipanied by Captain Speke, landed opposite to Zanzibar, Mongolia ; and during 1866-68 the distinguished French and, advancing westward, discovered Lake Tanganyika geographer Lieutenant Garnier surveyed the course of the Captain Burton's admirable description of the region great Cambodian river. The Russians, meanwhile, in their between the coast and the great lake he had discovered is advance into Central Asia, had enabled scientific travellers one of the most valuable contributions to African descriptivo, like Fedchenko and others to explore Khokand and the geography. His companion, Captain Speke, made an exnorthern part of the Pamir, and the more adventurous cursion northwards to the southern coast of a lake which Prjewalski made important journey through Mongolia and he judged to be a main source of the Nile. In this belief to the frontiers of Tibet. Colonels Walker and Mont- he again set out in 1860 to attempt the achievement of a gomerie, of the great Trigonometrical Survey of India, journey from Bagamoyo, opposite Zanzibar, to the Nile organized a system of training native explorers, who made This great enterprise was crowned with success. · Speke journeys across the Paunir and to the upper waters of the traced out the western shore, and visited the northern outlet, Oxus, as well as through the previously unknown parts of of the Victoria-Nyanza, the main reservoir of the White Tibet. In the last mission of Sir Douglas Forsyth to Nile. He then marched northwards to Gondokoro and Kashgar, Captain Trotter of the Trigonometrical Survey of descended the Nile. He had heard of a second great Nile India formed one of the staff. He did much valuable ex- reservoir, which Sir Samuel Baker discovered in 1864, and ploring work on the Pamir table-land, and verified the work named the Albert Nyanza. The Bahr el Ghazal and other of Lieutenant Wood at the source of the Oxus. In 1845 western feeders of the Nile were visited by Consul MM. Huc and Gabet travelled through Tibet; and in Petherick, and explored in 1868–71 by Dr Schweinfurth, western China the French missionaries have since done use- whose work ranks with that of Burton as a record of African ful geographical work. English diplomatic officers have discovery. found their way from the south-western provinces of China The travels of Dr Livingstone in Southern Africa also Livio into Burmah, and Baron Richthofen has made very exten- added considerably to our knowledge of the geography of stone sive exploring journeys through the Chinese empire. The that continent. In 1848 he started from Cape Colony, most important journey across Arabia in the present cen- visited Lake Ngami in 1849, and eventually reached the tary was made by Mr W. Gifford Palgrave in 1863. Portuguese town of St Paul Loanda in 1855. Thence

Geographical discoverers of the 19th century have had a he marched across the continent, discovering the great falls great work to do in Africa. D'Anville and his successors and a considerable part of the course of the Zambesi. In cleared off all that was uncertain on the map, all that had his second expedition he proceeded up the Zambesi and its come from the information given by Duarte Lopez to tributary the Shire, and discovered the Lake Nyassa. On Pigafetta, and from Leo Africanus, and left a great blank. his third and last expedition he landed on the east coast James Bruce and Mungo Park, Clapperton and Tuckey, at the mouth of the Rovuma, and made his way thence to merely touched the edges or penetrated in single lines Lake Nyassa. The great traveller then followed in the footacross the vast unknown area. But they have been steps of Dr Lacerda and Monteiro to the Cazembe's capital, followed by many others, and now great progress has been and thence to Lake Tanganyika. From Ujiji, on that lake, made. In 1831 Monteiro and Gamitta were sent by the he made his way westward to the river Lualaba (the upper Portuguese Government, in the footsteps of La Cerda, to course of the Congo), and returning in a destitute condition the capital of Cazembe ; while, in 1849 and 1843–47, to Ujiji, he was there succoured by Mr Stanley. Finally Ladislaus Magyar and Graça explored some of the southern he once more started, and died in the midst of his disafluents of the Congo. Rüppell (1838), Harris (1843), coveries among the remoter sources of the Congo. Lieutenand Dr Beke (1840), Lefebvre and Dillon (1839–43), ant Cameron's expedition in 1873 had for its main object Ferret and Galinier (1847) improved the existing know- the succour of Livingstone, but the news of the great ledge of Abyssinia, to which a further important contribu- traveller's death was received at Unyanyembe. Cameron tion was made by the expeditionary field force sent in 1867- then continued his march by a new route to Ujiji, and 68 to enforce the release of English captives; and progress completed the survey of the southern half of Lake Tan. was made, under the auspices of the Egyptian Government, ganyika, discovering the Lukuga outlet. Thence he adin exploring the White Nile above Khartoum. In 1849 vanced westward across the Manyuema country to Livingthe discoveries of Denham and Clapperton were followed up stone's furthest point at Nyangwe, crossed the Lualaba, by Richardson, Overweg, and Barth, who, like their pre. I and traversed the whole width of the African continent

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reaching St Paul Loanda ou the west coast. Ar Stanley | “La Terre Adèle " and "Cuté Clarie," going as far south followed in 1874. He circumnavigated and fixed the out- as 66° 30'. Auckland Island was discovered by Bristow line of the Victoria Nyanza, followed Cameron across Lake in 1806. In 1839 Balleny, in another vessel belonging to Tanganyike to Nyangwe, and then descended the great Messrs Enderby, discovered the Balleny Islands in 66° 44' S, River Congo, discovering its course, and connecting the work and Sabrina Island in 65° 10' S. The Antarctic expedition of Livingstone with that of Tuckey. Mr Young has since of Sir James Ross sailed from England in 1839. În 1840 completed the survey of Lake Nyassa ; Nachtigal has sup Sir James explored Kerguelen Island, and wintered at plemented the work of Barth and Vogel in the Tchad Hobart Towa" He then visited the Auckland Islands, and, region ; while Duveyrier and other French explorers have crossing the Antarctic Circle, reached the great icy barrier, examined the region of the Sahara. In the far 'south the and discovered Victoria Land, with its lofty volcanoes, in Limpopo basin, and the country intervening between the January 1841. He gained the latitude of 78° 4' S. in 187° Limpopo and Zambesi, have been made known to us by St E, and established the continuity of the southern continent Vincent Erskine and Elton, Carl Mauch and Baines. Thus from 70° to 79° S. In 1841 Ross again wintered at Van the extent of the unknown parts of Africa has been rapidly Diemen's Land, and in January 1842 crossed the Antarccartailed, while our knowledge has been widened during tic circle in 156° 28' W. He was once more stopped by the last half century.

the great icy barrier in 78° 10' S., after having penetrated Ameri. On the American continent scientific progress has been through ice floes oî more than 1000 iniles in width. Extra

made in the United States and the dominion of Canada, ordinary dangers were encountered in the ice, many valuable surveys where, within the last half century, boundary commissions observations were taken, and in 1812 the expedition

and surveys have tixed positions and described previously wintered at the Falkland Islands In the following season South unknown regions of great extent. In South America there another exploring voyage was made beyond the Antarctic America, are vast unexplored regions to the eastward of the Andes, Circle, and in September 1843 this most important expedi.

and in the basins of the great rivers. Sir Robert Schom- tion returned to England
burgk did much valuable work in Guiana, and explored the

On the return of Sir James Ross attention was once more delta of the Orinoco in 1841; while Spix and Martius, turned to the Arctic regions; and in the spring of 1845 Poeppig and Castelnau, Maw and Smyth, Herndon and Sir John Franklin's Arctic expedition, consisting of the Frankie Gibbon, Spruce and Bates, Wallace and Chandless, and “Erebus” and “Terror," sailed from Woolwich. His inothers, explored the basin of the Amazon. The labours of structions were to make the North-West Passage, but the Pissis in Chili, of Raimondi and Werthermann in Peru, of main object of the expedition was the advancement of Codazzi in Colombia and Venezuela, and of Morales and science, and to secure it the most accomplished officers in others in the Argentine Republic, have been most valuable the navy were appointed, as well as the eminent naturalist to geographical science. In Patagonia, Fitz Roy and King Dr Goodsir. It is now known that, in the first and second explored the Santa Cruz river, Cox and Morales have since seasons, the expedition was very successful. In 1845 Sir added to our knowledge, and Commander Musters, R.N., John Franklin made a remarkable run up Wellington was the first traveller who traversed the whole of Patagonia Channel to 77' N. ; in 1846, proceeding south, he had from south to north, 960 miles of latitude, of which 780 almost achieved the North-West Passage when his ships were previously unknown to Europeans.

were permanently beset to theoorth of King William Island The difficulty of exploring the interior of the Australian in 700 5' N. and 98° 23' W. Here the veteran explorer tralis. continent was caused by the scarcity of water, and the died on June 11, 1847; and all his companions perished

immense distances it was necessary to cross without supplies in the attempt to reach one of the Hudson's Bay Company's
of any kind. Hence the work of exploration has required settlements in the summer of 1848. Those among them
and called forth high and noble qualities in a degree quite who reached Cape Herschel, and it is certain that some did
equal to any that have been recorded in any other part of reach that point, undoubtedly discovered the North-West
the world. The names of Sturt and Leichhardt, of Eyre Passage.
and Grey, of Macdouall Stewart and Burke, of Gregory, of The expeditions which were sent out in search of Sir
Forrest and Warburton, will be handed down as those of John Franklin's ships did much important geographical
intrepid and courageous explorers who laid open the secrets work; but their principal use was the establishment,
of the interior of Australia.

through their means of the true method of extensivo Arctic The Pacific Ocean was explored by numerous expeditions exploration. The grand object of the officers and men emduring the 18th and early part of the 19th centuries. Still ployed on this service was the relief of their missing country. much remained to be done in the way of verification and men, and their utmost efforts were devoted to the examinamore complete survey. From 1826 to 1836 Captain tion of the largest possible extent of coast-line. Hence the Fitzroy, with the naturalist Darwin, surveyed Magellan's discovery of the modern system of Arctic sledge travelling, Strait and the west coast of South America ; and further the only efficient means of exploring the icy regions around important surveys in the Pacific were afterwards executed the North Pole. In 1848–49 Sir James Russ discovered the by Captain Wilkes of the United States Navy, aud by western side of North Somerset, and Sir Leopold M'Clintock Belcher, Kellett, and Denham.

served his first apprenticeship in the ice under that veteran But the great geographical work of the present century explorer. 'Austin's expedition sailed in 1850, and wintered must be the extensica of discovery in the Arctic and nearly in the centre of the region discovered by Parry Antarctic regions. ' Progress has been made in both direc- during his first voyage. It was then that M'Clintock tions, and in both much remains to be done. It is this developed and put in practice the system of Arctio sledgepolar work which calls forth the highest qualities of an ex. travelling which has since achieved such grand results; and plorer; it is here that the greatest difficulties must be Captain Ommanney, M'Clintock, and his colleagues Sherard overcome; and it is here that the most valuable scientific Osborn, Frederick Mechan, Robert Aldrich, and Vesey results are to be obtained.

Hamilton made what were then unparalleled journeys in Between the years 1830 and 1843 much was done in the various directions. In December 1849, also, Captains Antarctic regions. In 1830-32 Mr John Biscoe, R.N., Collinson and M'Clare went out to conduct further search made a voyage in a brig belonging to Messrs Enderby, and by way of Bebring Strait. The former made the most discovered “Enderby Land" and "Graham Land" in 67° remarkable voyage on record along the north coast of &; and from 1837 to 1840 Dumont d'Urville discovered | America, while M'Clure took his ship between the west

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coast of Banks Island and the tremendous polar pack, until | whence they made a sledge journey to the northward as
he was within sight of the position attained by Parry in far as 77°, and explored a deep fjord in about 73° 15' V.
his first voyage from Baffin's Bay. Here M'Clure's ship during the navigable season. English yachtsmed, notably
was finally iced up in the Bay of God's Mercy. On the Lamont and Leigh Smith, were also in the field; and the
return of Austin's expedition, the same ships were again latter made important corrections of the charts of North-
sent out under Captains Belcher and Kellett by Baffin's East Land. But by far the most important and successful Austria
Bay; and M'Clintock, Osborn, Mecham, and Hamilton, voyage in this period was that of Lieutenants Weyprecht exped
who were ouce more in the front rank of searchers, sur- and Payer in the Austrian steamer “Tegethoff.” Sailing tios.
passed even their former etforts. Mecham discoyered a in 1872, they were beset in the ice to the north of Novaya
record left by M'Clure on Melville Island which revealed Zemlya during the winter oi 1872–73, and were drifted
his position, and thus he and his officers and crew, by northwards until, on August 31, 1873, they sighted a pre-
marching from their abandoned ship to the “Resolute" and viously unknown country. It proved to be very extensive,
returning to England with the expedition of Belcher and and was named Franz Josef Land. In March 1874
Kellett, were enabled to make the North-West Passage Lieutenant Payer started on an extended sledge journey, in
partly by ship and partly sledging over the ice. They all the equipment of which he closely followed MẠClintock's
returned in 1854. But the concluding search was made system. He discovered a great extent of coast-line, and
by Sir Leopold M'Clintock in the "Fox" from 1857 to attained a latitude of 82° 5' N. at Cape Fligely. The
1859, when he found the record on King William Island, Austrian explorers were eventually obliged to abandon the
and thus discovered the fate of Franklin. These search “Tegethoff," reaching Norway in September 1874 ; but
expeditions added immensely to our knowledge of the their expeditiou was a great success, and they added an ex-
Arctic regions, and established the true method of explora- tensive region to the map of the known world.
tion. Sea voyages in the summer season are useful for re- In England the very important branch of geographical Englis
connaissances, but efficient polar work can only be achieved research relating to the Arctic regions was neglected by the Arctic
by wintering at a point beyond any previously reached, and Government during this interval of fifteen years, while Ameri- expedi

tion. sending out extended sledge parties in the spring. cans, Swedes, Norwegians, Germans, Austrians, and English

After the return of M'Clintock, England neglected the yachtsmen were making praiseworthy efforts with more or great work of Arctic exploration for fifteen years; but a deep less success. The resumption of English Arctic research on interest was taken in the discovery of the unknown polar an adequate scale is due to the exertions and arguments regions by other nations, and numerous efforts to explore of Admiral Sherard Osborn from 1865 antil 1875. He set them were made in the interval. In 1853–55 Dr Kane, forth the valuable results to be obtained, and the means with the American brig“ Advance,” wintered just within of success. Basing his arguments on long experience, he the entrance of Smith Sound, and sent an exploring party showed that it was necessary for success that an expedition for some distance up the east side of the channel; and in should follow a coast-line, that it should pass beyond any 1860–61 Dr Hayes wintered near the same spot, and made point previously reached and there winter, and that the A a sledge journey up the west side. Ten years afterwards work should be completed by extended sledge parties in Captain Hall, accompanied by Dr Bessels, a German scien. the spring. At length an expedition was ftted out on tific explorer, sailed in the “Polaris” in August 1871, and these principles, the Smith Sound route was selected, and succeeded in making his way up the channels leading north in May 1875 the “ Alert” and “Discovery" sailed from from Smith Sound for 250 miles, wintering in 81° 38' N. Portsmouth under the command of Captain Nares. As Captain Hall unfortunately died in the autumn of 1871, regards the ice navigation the success of the expedition was and bis comrades returned after suffering great hardships. conuplete. Captain Nares, in the face of unparalleled diffiThe “Polaris” was abandoned, but she had attained the culties, brought the ships to a point farther north than any highest latitude ever reuched by any vessel up to that date. vessel of any nation had ever reached before, wintered the In the direction of Spitzbergen and Novaya Zemlya the "Alert” in 82° 27' N., and, in the face of still greater

“ Norwegian walrus hunters made many daring vovages. difficulties, brought both vessels safely home again. The They circumnavigated both those masses of Arctic land, and extended sledge-travelling called forth an amount of heroic yearly frequented the hitherto closed Sea of Kara. The devotion to duty, and of resolute perseverance in spite of Swedes, under the lead of the accomplished and indefati- greater obstacles than had ever been encountered before,

gable Nordenskiöld, have made voyage after voyage to which add a proud page to the history of English naval Spits- Spitzbergen, and afterwards to the north-east. The first enterprise. The exploring parties were led by Commander bergen Swedish expedition to Spitzbergen was in 1857, the second Markham and Lieutenants Aldrich and Beaumont. Ad- Mark.

in 1861, the third in 1864, the fourth in 1868, consisting vancing over the great frozen Polar Sea, Markham reached ham's plored. of the steamer "Sophia," which reached the highest latitude 83° 20° 26' N., the highest latitude ever attained by any

highest ever attained by a vessel 'trying the Spitzbergen route, buman being. He thus won the blue ribbon of Arctic disnamely, 81° 42' N. In 1872 a fifth expedition started, covery. Aldrich discovered 200 miles of coast to the westand Nordenskiöld then passed his first winter in the Arctic ward, while Beaumont added to our knowledge of the north regions, and gained experience of sledge-travelling in the coast of Greeuland. The results of the Arctic expedition spring, exploring a large area of North-East Land. Ex- of 1875-76 were the creation of a young generation of experience also proved that the Spitzbergen route was not one perienced Arctic officers, the discovery of 300 miles of new by which large results could be secured, although the coast-line and of a large section of the Polar Ocean, the scientific researches of the Swedes in Spitzbergen itself were attainment of the highest latitude ever reached by nian, a most valuable. In 1875 therefore Professor Nordenskiöld year's magnetic and meteorological observations at two made his first attempt towards the north-east, reaching the stations both further north than any before taken, tidal mouth of the Yenisei ; and in 1876 he made an equally observations, the examination of the geology of a vast region Buccessful voyage in the same direction. The Germans also and the discovery of a fossil forest in 82° N., and large entered the field of Arctic enterprise. In 1868. Captain natural history collections representing the fauna and flora Koldewey made a summer voyage to Spitzbergen, and in of a new region. 1869-70 he went in the “ Germania" to the east coast of The return of this memorable expedition again incited Greenland, accompanied by Lieutenant Payer, wintered at our neighbours to further efforts. In the summer of 1878

Pendulum Island, discovered by Clavering in 1823, 1 the Dutch entered the field, and the schooner “William

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Barents," ander Lieutenants de Bruyne and Koolemans | precise observation of the sea horizon from a known altiBeyaen, made a useful reconnaissance of the Barent's Sea; tude one may even calculate the radius of the earth. while Professor Nordenskiöld left Sweden in July 1878, Let m (fig. 1) be a point on the top of a mountain ; hnk in the well-equipped steamer“ Vega,” to achieve the North- a portion of the earth's surface; mnv a line drawn from m East Passage. In August he rounded Cape Chelyuskin, towards the centre of the earth; i the most northern point of the Old World, and reached the mh a tangent from m to the spherimouth of the Lena. But much work remains to be done cal surface ; and ml a horizontal line

k in the polar regions, in order to complete the connexion through m, that is, ml is perpenbetween Aldrich's furthest in 1876 and M'Clintock's in dicular to mv. Then by the mere 1854, to complete the discovery of the north side of measure of the angle imh, or the Fig. 1. Greenland, to explore the northern bounds of Franz Josef depression of the sea horizon, one can, knowing mo, Land, and to discover lands north of Siberia.

calculate very simply the radius of the earth. Let the There is one great branch of physical geography which height mn=h, the angle lmh=d, and the radius of the has only been effectively studied within the last thirty earth =r; then since the angle subtended at the earth's years, namely, the physical geography of the sea. Mathew centre by hn is s, it is clear that (h + r) co88 = r, which Fontaine Maary, by his wind and current charts, by his gives r in terms of h and 8, known quantities. In fact, trade wind, storm, rain, and whale charts, and above all since h and 8 are both small, r = th + sin }8. But here by his charming work The Physical Geography of the we have assumed that the ray of light proceeding from h Sea, gave the first impulse to this study. It was Captain to m takes a rectilinear course ; this is not true however, Maury who organized the first deep-sea soundings in the for the path is curved, its concavity being turned towards North Atlantic, which up to that time was deemed to be the earth--a consequence of terrestrial refraction. From unfathomable; and when his work was published, the the laws of terrestrial refraction, which have been very illustrious Humboldt declared Maury to be the founder of minutely studied, we know that the formula last written a new and important science--the meteorology of the sea down should be r=422h+sin?j& Now to take an He first took charge of the Washington Observatory in actual case the depression of the sea horizon at the 1842; he resigned that post under. a deep sense of duty in top of Ben Nevis is 64' 48" (this is the mean of several April 1861, after a career of great usefulness; and he ended observations, taken with special precautions for the express a noble and well-spent life in 1872. The investigations purpose of this experimental calculation), and the height into the physical geography of the sea, which were com- of the hill is 4406 feet, or •8345 of a mile. The formula bined into a system by Maury, have since been ably and gives at once r = 3966 miles, which is remarkably dear zealously continued by others, among whom the names of the truth. But this method is not capable of precision on Dr Carpenter, Sir Wyville Thomson, and Professor Mohn of account of the variableness of terrestrial refraction. In Christiania are pre-eminent. The voyage of the “Chal. connexion with the appearance of the sea horizon from a lenger” from 1873–1876, under Captains Nares and height the following formulæ are useful :-hbeing the height Thomson, with Sir Wyville Thomson as chief of the scien- in feet, 8 the depression or dip of the horizon in minutes, tific staff, was organized with the Object of examining and 8 the distance of the horizon in miles, then mapping the bottom of the ocean, of describing the fauna

8-(1-) ; 8- Vh. of the great depths, of ascertaining the temperatures at various depths, and of solving questions relating to oceanic Thus, for instance, to a spectator on the top of Snowdon, circulation. The area thus explored in the Atlantic, which is 3590 feet in height, the distance of the sea horizon Antarctic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans is of vast extent, and is about 80 miles. the researches, ably and zealously conducted, have resulted The first great fact in the description of the earth being in an important addition to geographical knowledge. that it is spherical (or at any rate so nearly so that, were a

In this rapid sketch of the history of geographical dis- perfect model of it constructed, no one could, by unaided covery, the labours of numerous explorers during many vision, discover that it is not spherical), the next points to generations have been enumerated; but its perusal will be noted are,-secondly, that the earth rotates uniformly show that, potwithstanding all this work, there is much round an axis passing through its centre, and fixed, or very remaining to be done. Vast areas round both poles, and nearly fixed as to direction, in space; apd thirdly, that its in the interior of Asia, Africa, South America, and New Agure is not spherical but spheroidal

, the surface being that Guinea, are still unknown, even more extensive regions found by the revolution of an ellipse round its minor axis, have only been partially explored, and millions of square the axis of figure corresponding with the axis of diurnal miles remain to be surveyed, before the work of geographers rotation. The spheroidal figure is a necessary consequence is complete.

(C. R. M.) of the rotation. The rotation of the earth once in 24 hours,

although made evident by the rising and setting of the II. MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY.

heavenly bodies, is rendered perhaps more distinctly visible

by Foucault's pendulum experiment. Let a heavy ball be All our knowledge of the planet on which we live, suspended by a fine thread, free from tension, from a fixed whether obtained from the explorations of travellers, the point. Let it be drawn aside from the position of equilivoyages of navigators, or the discoveries of astronomy in brium and then dropped so that it commences to oscillate modern times, goes to confirm the doctrine held and taught in a vertical plane passing through the point of suspension. by philosophers in a remote antiquity that the earth is Then a careful observation of the pendulum will show that spherical. What is spherical, however, is not the actual its plane of oscillation is noi fixed, but has a uniform rotasurface of the earth, but rather that of the sea produced tion in a direction opposite to that of the earth's rotation, in imagination to pass through the continents. That the Suppose, for instance, that the pendulum were suspended surface of the sea is convex any one may—at a seaside at the north pole and that it were set oscillating in a station where there is a high cliff-convince himself, by plano passing through any one fixed star, then it will Doting with a telescope at the top of the cliff the exact continue to oscillate in that same plane notwithstanding appearance of a ship in, or slightly beyond, the horizon, the earth's rotation. Consequently, to the observer there and then, immediately after, repeating at the foot of the the plane of the pendulum's oscillation will appear to rotate cliff the same observation on the same ship. By a more through 360° in 24 hours. At the equator, since there is

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