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G

represents th sound of Gamma, the third letter of the originally brigg and rigg, and are still so in the north of

Greek alph.bet; but in the Latin alphabet, and in England. the alphabets derived from the Latin (including our own), It is noteworthy how a g-sound made its appearance in it holds the place which Z held in the different Greek French at the beginning of words which originally began alphabets. The history of this remarkable change is well with the w-sound. An example is guerre, a borrowed word known. It has been already stated (see letter C) that in from the Teutonic; we see it in Old High German as werra, the 5th century before our era, the distinction between the a quarrel. The Gauls apparently found a difficulty in pro k-sound and the g-sound became lost at Rome : apparently ducing the initial German sound, and (there being no the surviving sound was y; but, at all events, the syinbol difference in the position of the back of the mouth for 9 and K went out of use, being retained only in a few familiar w, except that the passage between the back-palate and the abbreviations, and C (which was the Latinized form of the tongue is entirely closed for g, but left slightly open for w). Greek T') remained. Thus in the column of Duillius we they did not keep tho e pure, but sounded a g before it find C representing the original surd in castreis, cepet, &c., by unintentionally closing the oral passage for a momento but the sonant in macistratos, leciones, ceset (i.e., gessit), &c. The same thing is seen in guérir, which corresponds to When, ia the 3d century, the two sounds were again dis- Gothic varjan; in garant, which we have in English war. tinguished, two symbols were again required; but the Krant; garnir corresponds to Anglo-Saxon warnian. In a was not taken again to represent the surd ; C, the old few instances the word so modified seems to have been symbol for the sonant, was put to that use. A new symbol originally Latin, as gaine, a sheath, the Latin vagina. was therefore necessary for the sonant g-sound, and it was This French change has led to a curious result in found by modifying C into G. This G should then have England. Many words were introduced by the Normans replaced C as the third letter of the alphabet, where it into England in their French form, which were already would have stood, as before, between B and D, the sonants existent there in their Teutonic form. Thus we have such of the labial and dental classes respectively. But this was pairs as wile and guile, wise and guise,, warranty and not done. The symbol C was left in its old place with its guarantee, wager

and
gage,
and

It is strange new value of k. The new symbol G was set in the seventh that in so many cases each of the pair of words should have place of the alphabet, which had been vacated by 2, the remained in use, and with so little change of meaning. representative of a sound not used by the Romans of that GABELENTZ, Hans ConoN VON DER (1807-1874), a day. G is found for the first time in the inscription on the distinguished linguist and ethnologist, born at Altenburg, tomb of Scipio Barbatus. Its invention is attributed to October 13, 1807, was the only son of Hans Karl Leopold Spurius Carvilius.

von der Gabelentz, chancellor and privy-councillor of the There can be no doubt that the sound of G in Latin, as duchy of Altenburg. From 1821 to 1825 he attended the of r in Greek, was always the sonant guttural—which we gymnasium of his native town, where he had Matthiæ (the hear in gate, &c. It was not the sonant palatal, which it eminent Grecist) for teacher, and Hermann Brockhaus and represents in gem or gin. This sound began to supplant it Julius Löbe for school fellows. Here, in addition to ordinary about the 6th century of our era, but only when it preceded school-work, he carried on the private study of Arabic and e or i-the two vowels which require a position of the Chinese ; and the latter language continued especially to , tongue nearer to the palutal than to the guttural consonants. engage his attention during his undergraduate course, from We find this change of sound in French and in Italian. In 1825 to 1828, at the universities of Leipsic and Göttingen. the Latin part of our vocabulary there is naturally the same In 1830 he entered the public service of the duchy of weakening; whereas, in words of English origin, the Altenburg, where he attained to the rank of privy-councillor original guttural is generally preserved, even before e or in 1843. Four years later he was chosen to fill the post of į, as in get and give. Sometimes it has been weakened “landmarschall” in the grand-duchy of Weimar, and in at the end of a word, as in bridge and ridge, which were 1848 he attended the Frankfort parliament, and represented

many others.

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the Saxon duchies on the commission for drafting an im- principal relic of the ancient city is a ruined templo (pro perial constitution for Gerinany. In November of the same bably of Juno) on a hill now crowned by the ruins of the year he became president of the Altenburg ministry, but mediæval fortress of Castiglione. It is a hexastyle struo he resigned office in the following August. From 1851 to ture of uncertain date, uniting the characteristics of Greek 1868 he was president of the second chamber of the duchy and Italian architecture ; but the fragments of the pillars of Altenburg; but in the latter year he withdrew entirely are not sufficient to show whether it belonged to the Ionio from public life, that he might give undivided attention to or the Corinthian order. Its length is about 48 English his learned researches. He died on his estate of Lemnitz, feet. Since 1792, when explorations were commenced by in Saxe-Weimar, on the 3d of September 1874. In the the Prince Borghese, a large number of minor antiquities course of his life he is said to have learned no fewer than have been discovered at Gabii, and the sites of the forum eighty languages, thirty of which he spoke with fluency and and a theatre have been ascertained. The statues and elegance. But he was less remarkable for his power of busts are especially numerous and interesting; besides the acquisition than for the higher talent, which enabled him deities Venus, Diana, Nemesis, &c., they comprise Marcus to turn his knowledge to the genuine advancement of Agrippa, Tiberius, Germanicus, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, linguistic science. Immediately after quitting the uni- Trajan and Plotina, Hadrian and Sabina, Aurelius Anversity, he followed up his Chinese researches by a study toninus, L. Septimius Severus, Septimius Geta, Gor. of the Finno-Tataric languages, which resulted in the pub- dianus Pius, &c. The inscriptions relate mainly to local lication of his Élémens de la Grammaire Mandchoue in and municipal matters. In the neighbourhood of Gabi 1832. In 1837 he became one of the promoters, and a were valuable and extensive quarries of an excellent buildjoint-editor, of the Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgen- ing stone, known as the lapis Gabinus, which was largely landes, and through this medium he gave to the world his used by the Romans. It was a hard and compact variety Versuch einer mordwinischen Grammatik and other valuable of volcanic tufa, and closely resembled the lapis Albanus, contributions. His Grundzüge der syrjänischen Grammatik to which, however, it was superior. The name of cinctus appeared in 1841. In conjunction with his old school Gabinus was given by the Romans to a peculiar method of friend, Julius Löbe, the Germanist, he brought out a com- girding the toga, with one end thrown over the head and plete edition, with translation, glossary, and grammar, of the other fastened round the waist, which was employed by Ulfilas's Gothic version of the Bible (Leipsic, 1843–46); and the founder of a new town, or by the consul when he from 1847 he began to contribute to the Zeitschrift der “declared war in the name of the Roman people, or devoted deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft the fruits of his himself to death for his country.' researches into the languages of the Suahilis, the Samoyeds, See Ciampini, Monumenta Vetera (which contains a plan and the Hazaras, the Aimaks, the Formosans, and other widely- elevation of the temple); Gallatti, Gabii antica città di Sabina separated tribes. The Beiträge zur Sprachenkunde (Leipsic, scoperta, 1757; Fez, Lettere sopra la scoperta delle rovine della citta 1852) contain Dyak, Dakota, and Kiriri grammars; to

di Gabio, 1792; Visconti, Monumenti Gabini della villa Pinciana,

Rome, 1797, new edition, Milan, 1835; Gell, Rome and its vicinity; these were added in 1857 a Grammatik u. Wörterbuch der Nibby, Contorni di Roma; and Canina, Storia e topographia di Kassiasprache, and in 1860 a treatise in universal gram- Roma antica. An interesting comparison of the temple of Juno mar (Ueber das Passivum). In 1864 be edited the with the similar building at Aricia was contributed by Abeken to Manchou translations of the Chinese See-sho, Shu-king, the Annali dello instit. și corr. arch., Rome, 1841. and Shi-king, along with a dictionary; and in 1873 he GABLER, GEORG ANDREAS (1786-1853), a German completed the work which constitutes his most important philosophical writer of the school of Hegel, was born at contribution to philology, Die melanesischen Sprachen nach Altdorf, in Bavaria, where his father was professor, on the ihrem grammatischen Bau und ihrer Verwandschaft unter 30th of July 1786. In 1804, when his father was trans sich und mit den malaiisch-polynesischen Sprachen untersucht lated to Jena, be accompanied him to that university, where (Leipsic, 1860–73). It treats of the language of the Fiji he completed his studies in philosophy and law, and became Islands, New Hebrides, Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, one of the most enthusiastic of the hearers and disciples of &c., and shows their radical affinity with the Polynesian Hegel. After holding successive educational appointments class. He also contributed most of the linguistic articles at Weimar, Nuremberg, and Ansbach, he, in 1817, became in Pierer's Conversations-Lexicon.

one of the masters in the gymnasium at Baireuth. In 1821 GABIT, an old, and at one time important, city of Latium, he was appointed rector, and in 1830 general superintendo on the Vis Prænestina, or road to Præneste, between 12 and ent of schools. In 1827 he brought out the first volume 13 miles E. of Rome. Long before the foundation of Rome, of a Lehrbuch der philosophischen Propädeutik als Einleitung Gabii appears to have been one of the largest of the Latin zur Wissenschaft, in which his design was to give a popular cities; and, according to an old tradition noticed by exposition of the Hegelian philosophy, which he himself Dionysius and Plutarch, Romulus and Remus were educated. - regarded as fitted to give absolute satisfaction to the there. During the greater part of the regal period of Rome faculties of thinking and knowing." In 1835 he succeeded Gabii maintained its ground, and it only fell into the hands Hegel in the Berlin chair. His other works were a treatise of Tarquin the Proud through a stratagem contrived by his De verce philosophic erga religionem Christianam pietat son Sextus, who was afterwards slain by the inhabitants," (1836), and Die Hegel'sche Philosophie, & defence of the when, on the expulsion of his family from Rome, he sought Hegelian philosophy against Trendelenburg, which was refuge in the town. After this period Gabii always appears published in 1843. He died at Teplitz, September 13, in history as the ally or dependent of its more powerful | 1853. . neighbour, and it gradually fell into such a state of decay GABLER, JOHANN PHILIPP (1753-1826), a learned as to become a proverb of desolation-Gabiis desertior. Protestant theologian of the school of Griesbach and Eich. The fame of its cold sulphurous waters gave new life to the horn, was born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, June 4, 1753. place in the reign of Tiberius; and the emperor Hadrian, He had already acquired an extensive acquaintance with one of whose favourite residences was not far distant, at the ancient languages and their literatures, as well as with Tivoli, appears to have been a very liberal patron, building the philosophy of Wolf and the theology of Baumgarten, a town-house (Curia Ælia Augusta) and an aqueduct. when, in his nineteenth year, he entered the university of After the 3d century Gabii practically disappears `from Jena as a divinity student. In 1776 he was on the point history, though its “ bishops "continue to be mentioned in of abandoning theological pursuits, when the arrival of ecclesiastical documents till the close of the 9th. The | Griesbach inspired him with hew ardour. After having been successively repeteut in Göttingen and teacher in the hold a position of considerable social inAnence, and maintain a secret public schools of Dortmund (Westphalia) and Altdorf society of their own. The men are excellent makers of canoes, and, (Bavaria), he was, in 1793, appointed second professor of within the present generation, they have learned to build boats of

considerable size after the European model. From childhood both theology in the university of the last-named city, whence

sexes are habitual smokers of tobacco or hemp-the tobacco being he was translated to a chair in Jena in 1804. At Altdorf imported from America, although it might be readily cultivated in he published (1791-93) a new edition, with introduction the country. A baptismal rite, almost identical with the Christian and notes, of Eichhorn's Urgeschichte ; this was followed, ceremony, is administered to the new-born child. The language of two years afterwards, by a supplement entitled Neuer sionaries. As early as 1847 they published a grammar and vocabu

the Mpongwa has been reduced to writing by the American misVersuch über die mosaische Schöpfangsgeschichte. He was lary at New York; and in 1859 the American Bible Society brought also the author of several original works which were charac- out a Mpongwa translation of the books of Proverbs, Genesis, part terized by much critical acumen, and which had consider

of Exodus, and the Acts. The language belongs to the same family

as the Sechwana, the Zulu, &c., and is characterized, says Captain able influence on the course of German thought on theo- Burton, by inflexion, by systematic prefixes, a complex alliteration, logical and biblical questions. From 1798 to 1811 he was and the almost unparalleled flexibility of the verb, which can be editor of the Theologisches Journal, first conjointly with modified in several hundred differeut ways

; M. Catteloup describes Hänlein, Ammon, and Paulus, and afterwards unassisted. the

Pahouins, the Bakalai, and the Boulous as a kind of commercial

it as "riche, criard, imagé, et compliqué.” It has been adopted by He died at Jena, February 17, 1826.

lingua franca, and bids fair to become the dominant language of GABLONZ, the chief town of a circle in Bohemia, is' the coast, if it does not give way before English or French, which situated in a hilly country on the river Neisse, : about 6 have both become familiar in a corrupted form to a large number of miles S. E. of Reichenberg. It possesses a Catholic and a

the maritime population. Protestant church, a city school, a hospital, and a fine Panwe, Phaouin, and Paouen, are new comers to the Gaboon

The Fan, whose name appears under the various forms of Fanwe, new town-house. Its principal industry is the manufacture district, having, it is said, appeared there for the first time in 1842. of glass, the export of which reaches: an annual value of They are described as of mean height, chocolate complexion, and over 6 million guilders. It has also net and cloth factories. remarkably regular features. Their reputation as cannibals is evi. The population in 1869 was 6752.

dently well founded; but they seem to partake of human flesh rather

as a ceremonial observance than as an ordinary means of nourish. GABOON RIVERor Rio DE GABÃO, called Olo' ment, and both Winwood Reade and Captain Burton speak in Mpongwe by the Mpongwe natives, and Aboka by the Fan, favourable terms of their general characteristics. They are skilful is, in reality, not a river but an estuary on the west coast

workers in iron, and manufacture cross-bows which discharge of Africa. It lies immediately north of the equator, disem- poisoned darts 40 or 50. yards., Tattooing is practised by both

sexes, and the women often stain the whole body red or yellow. The boguing in 0° 21' 25" N. lat. and 9° 21' 23" W. long. tribe has come very little into contact with Europeans, but it is At the entrance, between Cape Joinville, or Santa Clara, on moving towards the coast, and will probably before long be the the N., and Cape Pangara, or Sandy Point, on the s., it dominant race in the Gaboon. has a width of about 18 English miles. It maintains a

The Gaboon was early visited by the Portuguese explorers, and it

became one of the chief seats of the slave trade. It was not, how. breadth of about 7 miles for a distance of 40 miles inland, ever, till well on in the present century that Europeans made any when it contracts into what is known more correctly as the more permanent settlement than was absolutely necessary for the Rio Olambo, which is not more than 2 or 3 miles from bank

maintenance of their commerce. In 1839 Captain Bouet of the to bank. Two rivers, the Nkomo or Como and the Mbokwa bank, and in 1842 he secured better positions at Louis and Quaben

Malouine" obtained for France the right of residence on the left or Bokoe, discharge into the upper portion of the Rio on the right bank. The chief establishment, called Le Plateau, at Olambo, both taking their rise in the country of the Sierra Libreville, was founded in 1845, and gradually acquired consider, dal Crystal. The former, which far exceeds the other in able importance. In 1867 the troops numbered about 1000, and the length of its course, has its head waters, according to

the civil population about 5000, while the official reports about the

same date claimed for the whole colony an area of 8000 square miles, M. Genoyer (1862), in that part of the range which is and a population of 186,000. A large building with arcades at Libreknown to the natives as Anenguenpala, or the “ Water-jug." ville served as Government house, and there were pretty extensive Mr Winwood Reade reached the rapids in 1862, and Mr warehouses, a hospital, and a small dockyard, as well as gardens,

At some little R. B. N. Walker, one of the traders in the Gaboon, has and a nursery for coffee plants and fruit trees.

distance off a convent was founded in 1844 by Dígr. Bessieux. In ascended for about 30 miles up the river, which had still 2

consequence of the war with Germany the colony was practically fathoms of water. Captain Burton, who in 1870 sailed up abandoned in 1871, and the establishment at Libreville is now the Mbokwa as far as Tippet Town or díayyan, a little way maintained only as a coaling depôt. There are numerous English beyond the confluence of the Londo, found it there “ some

trading ports along the shores of the estuary, as at Glass Town and

Olemi; and even when the French influence was at its greatest 50 feet broad,” with a tidal rise of nearly 7 feet. There almost the whole commerce of the Gaboon was in English hands. are a great number of other streams that fall into the The chief articles of export are ivory and beeswax; to which may Gaboon, but only two are worthy of special mention,--the be added caoutchouc, ebony, and can wood. Mission stations are Remboa, which, rising like the Nkomo and Mbokwa in the maintained by French, English, American, German, and Portuguese

societies. Sierra dal Crystal, enters the estuary at its south-east corner,

Seo Bowditch, Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee, &c., 1819; E. Bouet. and the Eko or Cohit, which is the largest of the right willaumez, Descr, nautiques des cotes de barrique Occidentale, 1846 Pigeord

"addressé ," in Annales , 1847; hand afluents. Though the whole estuary is studded with J. L. Wilson, Western Africa, 1856 ; Winwood Reade, Sarage Africa, 1863; islands, reefs, and shoals, none of the islands are of great Annales des voyages, 1866; Du Chaillu, Journey 10 Ashangoland, 1867; " Notice

d'une Carte," in Bull. de la soc. géog. 1869; Cutteloup, in Revue marilime et extent except Coniquet, or King's Isle, at the mouth of the coloniale, 1874; Buiton, Two Trips to Gorilla Land, 1876, Coello's map in Boletia Cohit, and Embeneh, or Parrot Island, in the middle of the channel.

GABRIEL (58771 i.e., nian of God, Taşpına) is the The four principal tribes in the country of the Gaboon are the

name of the heavenly messenger (see ANGEL) who was sent Mpongwa, the Fan, the Bakalai, and the Boulous. The first of to Daniel to explain the vision of the ram and the he-goat, these tribes, usually called Gabons or Gabonese by, French writers, and to communicate the prediction of the Seventy Weeks is distributed along both banks of the river," occupying the (Dan. viii. 16 ; ix. 21). He was also employed to announce villages of Kringer, Quaben, Louis, Libreville, and Glass on the right side, and those of George Town and Denis on the left.

the birth of John the Baptist to Zechariah, and that of According to Captain Burton, they are now one of the most the Messiah to the Virgin Mary (Luke i. 19, 26). Both civilized of African tribes, displaying a keen interest in trade, Jewish and Christian writers generally speak of him as and great ease and urbanity of manner. There are three grades

an archangel-a habit which is readily accounted for when a quasi-castes among them-1st, those of pure blood, who rejoice in the title of Ongwa Ntye or "sons of the soil"; 2d, Luke i. 19 is compared with Rev. viii. 2, and also with the children of freemen by slaves; and, 3d, the slaves themselves. Tobit xii. 15. In the apocryphal Book of Enoch (c. ix.) he Marriage is by purchase, and polygamy is the rule, but the women is spoken of as one of the four great archangels," Michael,

de la soc. geogr. de Madrid, 1878.

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Uriel, and Suriel or Raphael being the other three. His , and warlike; but the latter seems to have excelled in bravery name frequently occurs in the Jewish literature of the later and force of character, and indeed there are indications pust-Biblical period. Thus, according to the Chaldee para- that the tribe of Reuben had been absorbed, or become exa phrase of Pseudo-Jonathan, the man who showed the way to tinct, at a somewhat early date. David's men of Gad (1 Joseph (Gen. xxxvii

. 15) was no other than Gabriel in human Chr. xii. 8) are famous, and Jephthah and Elijah seem to form; and in Deut. xxxiv. 6 it is affirmed that he, along have belonged to that tribe. It followed Jeroboam in the with Michael, Uriel, Jophiel, Jephephiah, and the Metatron, great revolt against the house of David; and a genealogy, buried the body of Moses. In the Targum on 2 Chr. xxxii. a3 at the time of Jeroboam II., is given in 1 Chr. v. 11-16, 21 he is named as the angel who destroyed the host of where the names are in every case different from those in Sennacherib; and in similar writings of a still later period Numbers. The tribe was carried into captivity" by

6 he is spoken of as the spirit who presides over fire, thunder, Tiglath Pileser in the 8th century B.C. (1 Chr. v. 26; comp. the ripening of the fruits of the earth, and similar processes. 2 Kings xv. 29), and at this point it wholly disappears from In the Koran great prominence is given to his function as history. the medium of divine revelation, and, according to the GAD is also the name of a "prophet" or "seer," who was Mahometan interpreters, be it is who is referred to by the probably a pupil of Samuel at Naioth, and a companion of appellations "Holy Spirit" and "Spirit of Truth.” He is David, to whom he early attached himself. It is not known specially commemorated in the calendars of the Greek, to which tribe he belonged. He is first mentioned in Coptic, and Armenian churches.

1 Sam. xxii. 5 as having joined David while he wąs "jo the GAD (7) in Hebrew and Chaldee means “luck”; hold;" and he afterwards became a member of his regal hence, in the Phænician and Babylonian cultus, the god of court, where he seems to have held an official position, luck, who is mentioned in Isa. lxv. 11 (where for “that being occasionally designated as “the king's seer.” . He troop" should be read “Gad"), and whose name appears assisted in organizing the musical service of the "house of in several names of places, such as Baal-Gad (Josh. xi. 17, of God” (2 Chr. xxix. 25), and also wrote a “book of the xii. 7); possibly also in Dibon-Gad, Migdol-Gad, and acts of David,” which is referred to in 1 Cbr. xxix. 29. Nahal-Gad. Gad was the name given by Leah, the wife of GADÂMES, GHADÂMES, or RÆ ADÂMES, the chief tuwa Jacob, to the patriarch's seventh son, the first-born of of an oasis of the same name, in that part of the Sahara Zilpah, her maid ; see Gen. xxx. 11, where the Hebrew which belongs to the regency of Tripoli

, not far from the K’tib is 77, and the K’ri 7 x7. The former is frontier of Algeria. According to Dr Rohlfs, the last adopted by the LXX., and rightly rendered év túxo (Vulgate form of the word more correctly represents the Arabic feliciter); the latter reading is adopted in the Targums and pronunciation ; but the other forms are more usual in Peshito, which translate “luck is come," and by the European books. The whole oasis is surrounded by a Samaritan and Ven., which interpret the expression as mean- dilapidated wall varying in height from 12 to 20 feet, and ing “a troop (or army) is come.” This last rendering has it requires about an hour and a half to make the circuit of doubtless been influenced by Gen. xlix. 19, where the name the enclosure at an ordinary walking space In the town is played on as if it were 717, “a plundering troop”; proper the streets are narrow and tortuous, and they are “Gad, a plundering troop shall plunder him, but he shall usually covered in overhead to keep out the heat. Its plunder at their heels.” Of the personal history of Gad public buildings comprise six mosques and seven schools ; nothing is related. According to Gen. xlvi. 16, he had and it is worthy of note that all the inhabitants can read seven sons when he went down to Egypt along with Jacob; | and write, and that those who cannot pay for their children and in Num. xxvi. 15 these appear as seven families, one of are allowed to send them to school free of charge. The the names, however, being changed (Ozni for Ezbon). At Gadamsi merchants have been known for centuries as the Exodus the tribe numbered 45,650 fighting men (Num. keen and adventurous traders, and their commercial estai. 25); but they declined to 40,500 during the forty years' blishments are to be found in many of the more important wandering in the wilderness (Num. xxvi. 18). During cities of northern and central Africa, such as Kano, Katsema, the subsequent period the fortunes of this tribe were very Timbuctoo. Gadames itself is the centre of a large numclosely connected with those of the tribe of Reuben. At ber of caravan routes, and it is calculated that, on an the division of the country a portion in the trans-Jordanic average, about 30,000 laden camels enter its markets every territory was, at their special request, allotted to them by year. At the time of Richardson's visit in 1845 the total Moses (Num. xxxii. 33), and this arrangement was carried population was estimated at 3000, of whom about 500 were out by Joshua; but considerable difficulty arises when the slaves and strangers, and upwards of 1200 children; but it attempt is made to define the precise limits of the district now amounts in round numbers to 7000 or even 10,000. thus assigned. It is certain that Gad never extended The natives are mainly of Berber descent, 'although their further west than the Jordan; but in different passages we blood has from generation to generation been mingled with find its northern, eastern, and southern boundaries stretched that of Negro slaves from various parts of Africa. It is as far as to the Sea of Galilee, Salkah in the desert, and the evident, from the remains that are still extant, that the river Arnon respectively. In the book of Numbers (xxxii. oasis of Gadames was formerly inhabited by people whose 34) the cities of Gad appear to lie chiefly to the south of architecture was of Roman origin; and it is not unlikely Héshbon ; in Joshua xiii. 24-28 they lie almost wholly to that the Romans themselves may have been attracted to the north ; while other texts present discrepancies that the spot by the presence of the warm springs which still rise are not easily reconciled with either passage. That Gad, in the heart of the town, and spread fertility in the sur at one time at least, held territory as far south as Pisgah rounding gardens. An identification has been made with and Nebo would follow from Deut. xxxiii. 21, if the Cydamus, a town mentioned by Pliny. - See Largeau in rendering of the Targums, revived by Ewald and Diestel, Bull. de la soe. géogr. de Paris, 1877. were to be accepted—“and he looked out the first part for GADARA, an ancient city of Syrid, in the Decapolis, himself, because there was the portion of the buried law- abond 6 miles S.E. of the Sea of Galilee, on the banks of giver;" it is certain, however, that, at a late period, this the Hieromax. The site, now called Um Keis, is marked tribe was localized chiefly in Gilead, in the district which by extensive ruins, which are quite in keeping with the now goes by the name of Jebel Jilad. Possibly some cities statements of Josephus and Polybius that Gadara was the were common to both Reuben and Gad, and perhaps others capital of Peræa, and one of the most strongly fortified more than once changed hands. Both tribes were pastoral | places in the country. The walls can still be traced in a

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