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'circuit of about 2 miles; one of the principal streets—a | legend of the Virgin, from the Expulsion of Joachim from via recta, or straight street—has evidently been bordered the Temple up to the Nativity. In the subject of the Preon both sides by colonnades; and two theatres are the must sentation of the Virgin in the Temple are the two heads noticeable of the ruined edifices. The cliffs round the town traditionally accepted as portraits of Gaddo Gaddi and are full of tombs excavated in the limestone rock, and by a Andrea Tafi ; they cannot, at any rate, be portraits of those curious irony of fate these chambers of the dead are the artists from the life. On the ceiling of the same chapel are only places where a living inhabitant of Gadara is to be the Eight Virtues. In the museum of Berlin is an altarfound. According to Josephus, Gadara was a Greek city, piece by Taddeo, the Virgin and Child and some other suband it appears at least not improbable that it was a foreign jects, dated 1334; in the Naples Gallery, a triptych, dated settlement. The name does not occur in the Scriptures; | 1336, of the Virgin enthroned along with Four Saints, the but in the New Testament, the phrase " the country of the Baptism of Jesus, and his Deposition from the Cross; in Gadarenes" is used more than once, and there is no reason the sacristy of S. Pietro a Megognano, near Poggibonsi, an to doubt that the vicinity of the town was the scene of the altarpiece dated 1355, the Virgin and Child enthroned amid healing of the demoniacs by the Saviour, recorded in Matt. Angels. A series of paintings, partly from the life of S. riii., Mark v., and Luke viji. Josephus informs us that Francis, which Taddeo executed for the presses in S. Croce, Gadara was captured by Antiochus in 218 B.C., and, about are now divided between the Florentine Academy and the 20 years afterwards, stood a ten months' siege by Alexander Berlin Museum; the compositions are taken from or Jannæus. It was twice taken by Vespasian, though, on founded on Giotto, to whom, indeed, the Berlin authorities the first occasion, the Jewish inhabitants offered a stout have ascribed their examples. Taddeo also painted some resistance. At a later period it recovered from the injuries frescos still extant in Pisa, besides many in S. Croce and he inflicted, and was one of the most beautiful and flourish- other Florentine buildings, which have perished. He ing cities of Syria ; and it was not till after the Mahometan deservedly ranks as one of the most eminent sırscessors of conquest that it fell again into decay. Its archæon or Giotto; it may be said that he continued working up the prefecture is mentioned in the Midrash Rabba (circa 278) material furnished by that great painter, with comparatively and other Jewish writings. According to Dr O. Blau the feeble inspiration of his own. His figures are vehement in town was also known as the Arabian Antioch. To the action, long and slender in forin ; his execution rapid and literary student it is interesting as the birthplace of somewhat conventional To Taddeo are generally ascribed Meleager the anthologist.

the celebrated frescos—those of the ceiling and left or See Porter in Journ. of Sacred Literature, vol. vi.; Journ. Asia- western wall—in the Cappella degli Spagnuoli

, in the tique, 1867, p. 191; Zeitsch. d. D. Morg. Ges., 1869.

church of S. Maria Novella, Florence ; this is, however, GADDI. Four painters of the early Florentine school- open to considerable doubt, although it may perhaps be father, son, and two grandsons-bore this name.

conceded that the designs for the ceiling were furnished by 1. GADDO GADDI (1239 to about 1312) was, according to Taddeo. Dubious also are the three pictures ascribed to Vasari, an intimate friend of Cimabue, and afterwards of him in the London National Gallery. As a mosaist, he has Giotto. He was a painter and mosaist, is said to have left some work in the baptistery of Florence. As an archiexecuted the great mosaic inside the portal of the cathedral tect, he supplied in 1336 che plans for the present Ponte of Florence, representing the coronation of the Virgin, and Vecchio, and those for the original (not the present) Ponte may with more certainty be credited with the mosaics inside S. Trinita ; in 1337 he was engaged on the church of Orsanthe portico of the basilica of S. Maria Maggiore, Rome, re- Michele; and he carried on after Giotto's death the work lating to the legend of the foundation of that church ; their of the unrivalled Campanile. date is probably 1308. . In the original cathedral of St 3. Agnolo GADDI, born in Florence, was the son of Peter in Rome, he also executed the mosaics of the choir, Taddeo; the date of his birth has been given as 1326, but and those of the front, representing on a colossal scale God possibly 1350 is nearer the mark. He was a paiuter and she Father, with many other figures ; likewise an altarpiece mosaist, trained by his father, and a merchant as well; in in the church of S. Maria Novella, Florence ; these works middle age he settled down to commercial life in Venice, no longer exist. It is ordinarily held that no picture (as and he added greatly to the family wealth. He died iu distinct from mosaics) by Gaddo Gaddi is now extant October 1396. His paintings show much early promise, Messrs Crowe & Cavalcaselle, however, consider that the hardly sustained as he advanced in life. One of the mosaics of S. Maria Maggiore bear so strong a resemblance earliest, at S. Jacopo tra' Fossi, Florence, represents the in style to four of the frescos in the upper church of Assisi, Resurrection of Lazarus. Another probably youthful perrepresenting incidents in the life of St Francis (frescos 2, formance is the series of frescos of the Pieve di Prato3, 4, and especially 5, which shows Francis stripping him legends of the Virgin and of her Sacred Girdle, bestowed self, and protected by the bishop), that those frescos like- upon St Thomas, and brought to Prato in the 11th century wise may, with considerable confidence, be ascribed to Gaddi. by Michele dei Dagomari; the Marriage of Mary is one of Some other extant mosaics are attributed to him, but with the best of this series, the later compositions in which have out full authentication. This artist laid the foundation of suffered much by renewals. In S. Croce he painted, in a very large fortune, which continued increasing, and placed eight frescos, the legend of the Cross, beginning with the his progeny in a highly distinguished worldly position. Archangel Michael giving Seth a branch from the tree of

2. Taddeo GADDI (about 1300–1366, or later), son of knowledge, and ending with the Emperor Heraclius car. Gaddo, was born Florence, and became one of Giotto's rying the Cross as he enters Jerusalem; in this picture most industrious assistants for a period (as usually stated) is a portrait of the painter himself. Agnolo composed of 24 years. This can hardly be other than an exaggera- his subjects better than Taddeo; he had more dignity tion; it is probable that he began painting on his own and individuality in the figures, and was a clear and bold account towards 1330, when Giotto went to Naples. colourist; the general effect is laudably decorative, but Taddeo also traded as a merchant, and had a branch esta- the drawing is poor, and the works show best from a blishment in Venice. He was a painter, mosaist, and archi- distance. Various other productions of this master exist, tect He executed in fresco, in the Baroncelli (now Giugni) and many have perished. "Cennino Cennini, the author of chapel, in' the Florentine church of S. Croce, the Virgin the celebrated treatise on painting, was one of his pupils. and Child between Four Prophets, on the funeral monument 4. GIOVANNI GADDI, brother of Agnolo, was also a painter at the entrance, and on the walls various incidents in the of promise. He died young.

(w. M. R.)

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GADIATCH, a town of Russia, at the head of a district in West Norfolk and its immediate neighbourhood, the the government of Poltava, situated on the elevated banks Gadwall has now, for nearly thirty years, annually bred in of the Grun and the Psel, 73 miles N.N.W. of Poltava, in constantly increasing numbers, 80 that it may again be 50° 22' N. lat. and 34° 0' E long. It is a plain wood-built accounted, in the fullest sense of the word, an inhabitant town, with four Greek churches and two synagogues, deriv. of England; and, as it has been always esteemed one of ing its main importance from its four annual fairs, one of the best of wild fowl for the table, the satisfactory result which, lasting for three weeks, was, up to 1857, held at the of its encouragement by this gentleman is not to be Hermitage of the Transfiguration (Skeet Preobrazhenski). despised.

(A, N.) In 1860 the population was 7263, 1213 of the number GAELIC LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. Until being Jews. According to W. Struve's Calendar for 1878, recently there was doubt as to the family of languages to it was 8425. Gadiatch was the place where the assembly which the Gaelic belonged ; indeed, with many scholars the was convoked by the hetman Vigofski in 1658, for the impression existed that it belonged to the Semitic branch, publication of the treaty contracted between the Ukrainians and that its relations must all be traced among some one or and the Poles. During tho hetmanate it had fortifications other of its varieties. This view arose very much from the of which traces are still extant, ranked as a garrison town, neglect with which the language had been treated by and was the residence of the hetman. At first it was scientific men. Comparative philology is itself a modern included in the military district of Luben, but after 1650 in subject of study. Naturally, in its progress, the more the district to which it gave its name. Along with 13 large prominent languages came first, while the more obscure were villages it was bestowed by the empress Elizabeth on Count passed over as of comparatively subordinate importance. Razumofski, but it was afterwards purchased from him by The study is one so comprehensive, and requiring so large the empress Catharine II. In 1771 the town and district an amount of acquirement of various kinds, that it is ne were incorporated with the province of Kieff, and in 1802 real reproach to modern scholarship that the study of sucha they obtained their present position in the government of languages as the latter should have been postponed in Pultowan

favour of that of languages more generally known. Their GADWALL, a word of obscure origin,' the common turn, however, gradually came, and no one can complain English name of the Duck, called by Linnæus Anas strepera, now that they have not received the attention of very comhut considered by many modern. ornithologists to require petent scholars. It is doubtful whether a higher class of renoval from the genus Anas to that of Chaulelasmus or scholarship has been nurtured anywhere than in the study Ctenorhynchus, of either of which it is not only the typical of the Celtic langunges, as exhibited by such men as Zeuss, but the sole species. Its geographical distribution is almost Dieffenbach, Ebel, Whitley Stokes, the Chevalier Nigra, identical with that of the common Wild Duck or Mallard Henri Gaidoz, and others who have devoted their strength (see DUCK, rol. vii. p. 505), since it is found over the to their exposition. The result has been the completo greater part of the Northern Hemisphere; but, save in establishment of the fact that this class of languages belongs India, where it is said to be perhaps the most plentiful to the Indo-European dr Aryan stock, and is closely related species of Duck during the cold weather, it is hardly any- to the classical braneh of those tongues. where so numerous, and both in the eastern parts of the The first who brought real scholarship to bear upon the United States and in the British Islands it is rather rare question of the family to which the Celtic dialects belonged than otherwise. Its habits also, so far as they have been was Dr Cowles Pritchard. His Eastern Origin of the Celtza observed, greatly resemble those of the Wild Duck; but its Nations is a work of the highest value, distinguished by its appearance on the water is very different, its small head, erudition, and the sound jadgment it displays. He was one flat back, elongated form, and elevated stern rendering it of the most remarkable men whom Britain has produced in recognizable by the fowler even at such a distance as the field of comparative philology. No doubt it is with tho hinders him from seeing its very distinct plumage. In Welsh he chiefly dealt, but, in discussing such questions as coloration the two sexes agree much more than is the case he had to deal with, it mattered little which of the Celtic with any of the European Freshwater Ducks (Anatinæ) - tongues was made use of. Many writers followed Dr one only, the Anas marmorata, excepted; but on closer Pritchard, and there is now, as has been said, no question inspection the drake exhibits a delicate ash-coloured breast, about the Aryan source of the Celtic languages. It is not and upper wing-coverts of a deep chestnut, which are wholly that the words are to a large extent analogons, but the wanting in his soberly clad partner. She, however, has, in grammatical structure and the idioms correspond to such common with him, some of the secondary quills of a pure an extent that the question is put beyond a doubt; while, white, presenting a patch of that colour which forms one of with the exception of a few common vocables, there is little the most readily-perceived distinctive characters of the that is analogous between the Celtic and the Semitic species. The Gadwall is a bird of some interest, since it languages. is one of the few that have been induced, by the protection ) The territory once occupied by the Celtic race is a ques. afforded them in certain localities, to resume the indigenous tion of much interest. Now they are confined within wellposition they once filled, but had, through the draining and known limits. On the European continent they occupy that reclaiming of marshy lands, long since abandoned. In part of France usually called Brittany, the most westerly regard to the present species, this fact is due to the efforts portion of the country terminating in Cape Finisterre. They of the late Mr Andrew Fountaine, on whose property; in occupied this territory so early as the days of Julius Cæsar,

Webster gives the etymology gad well-go about well. Dr R. G. although it has been said that they were emigrants from Latham suggests that it is taken from the syllables quedul, of the Britain at a later period. The topographical terms given Latin querquedula, a Teal. The spelling Gadwall seems to be by Cæsar in describing the Roman invasion all indicate first found in Willughby in 1676, and has been generally adopted by that the language of the natives of Brittany used then, and later writers ; but Merrett, in 1867, has “Gaddel” (Pinax Rerum for a long time before, was as much Céltic as it is now. naturalium Britannicarum, p. 180), saying that it was so called by bird-dealers. The synonym “Gray," given by Willughby and Ray, Opposite to Brittany lies British Cornwall, a region with a is doubtless derived from the general colour of the species, and has its Celtic tongue until about 100 years ago. The two Cornanalogue in the Icelandic Gráönd, applied almost indifferently, or with walls—one in Britain and the other in France-terminated, some distinguisning epithet, to the female of any of the Freshwater Ducks, and especially to both sexes of the present, in which, as, stated

one on each side, the territory occupied by the Celt. The in the text, there is comparatively little difference of plumage in Drake

dialects spoken in these stood in the closest relationship.aud Duck

To the north of this lies the greatest of all the modern second

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tions of the Cimbrian Ceics. Wales, occupied by about a Irish addition made to the verb in the process of culture. million inhabitants, is nearly Celtic, and uses the ancient | At the same time it must be allowed that there is a diffitongue of Wales, Cumbria, and Strathclyde. Across the culty in proving from any literary remains existing that the sea from Wales lies the Isle of Man, where the Gaelic present Scottish form of the language is of great antiquity. branch of the Celtic held sway, and does to some extent all the literary relics that have come down to us are still In Ireland the Gaelic also prevailed, and is still written in what is usually called the Irish dialect. The spoken by about a million people. And lastly, in the present tense is in universal use, as well by Scottish as by Scottish Highlands about 300,000 people still use, less or Irish writers. This arose from the identity of the Irish and more, the old Gaelic tongue of Scotland. Thus Brittany, Scottish churches. The dialect in which all theological Wales, Man, western Ireland, and the Scottish Highlands treatises were written was one, and this dialect extended are now the territory of the Celtic languages. That they from the clergy to bards, and sennacbies, and medical men. once occupied a wider sphere is beyond a doubt. There There is not a page of Gaelic written iú any other dialect Are traces of the tongue, in one form or other, to be found before the middle of last century. But as in other coun. all along southern Europe. Topography is a valuable tries there was both a spoken and a written dialect in use, source of evidence, and one that will be made to serve pur- so in both Scotland and Ireland there appears to have been poses it has never served as yet; and it furnishes us--in a dialect in use among the people as their common speech, İtaly, France, Switzerlaud, Spain, and Portugal - with relies and another used by their scholars,--the former varying which, like animal fossils dug from the depths of the earth, according to locality, and the latter being identical through speak unmistakably of what formerly existed there. How out. Some of the features that distinguish the Gaelic far the Gaelic form of Celtic speech prevailed it is difficult language, partly in common with the other Celtic tongues, to say, or whether it existed alongside of the Cimbric on and partly not, are the following: the continent of Europe. But the name Gallia is significant 1. The aspiration of consonants. This is accomplished by the as applied to France; and it is a suggestive fact that, to change of minto v, of b into v, of d into y, of ginto a broad y, of this day, the Bretons call France Ganl, as distinguished 2. into t; and s and i into h. As appearing in the initial articula. from their own country, and in like manner call the French has been accustomed, in learning other tongues, to observe the

tions this presents a peculiar difficulty to the learner of Gaelic. He language Gallic, as distinguished from the Breton. In changes required by inflexion, and other requirements of correct Scotland the Gaelic and Cimbric races long dwelt together, grammatical structure. But he has not been familiar with changes distinct and yet nearly related. When they separated, in the initial letters of words. In English these letters never either as to race or language, is not easily settled. There undergo any change; but in Gaelic he meets with sueh changes at

once. He finds mac, a son, becoming in certain circumstances vas, are indications on the Continent which rather throw doubt and he is ready to doubt whether both forms belong to the same word. on the idea maintained by some writers that the divergence To make the difficulty as little formidable as possible to the reader, the took place after the settlement of the race in Britain, and authors of the Gaelic orthography fell upon the method of using the farther inquiry as to these indications is esạential ere a begin a word, is now used more than any other letter. The Irish

letter h, which, though hardly a letter in Gaelic, and never used to satisfactory conclusion can be reached. But within the his

use a dot. The use of the h serves to preserve to the reader the toric period the two races existed side by side in Scotland, original form of the word. Hence mac becomes by aspiration, or the Cimbric occupying the region called Strathclyde, with adoucissement as the French call it, mhac, pronounced rac. These their separate government and laws, and the Gael at least initial changes of certain consonants are made for the purpose of

euphony, to which Gaelio makes large sacrifices, and also for the occupying the Dalriadic kingdom of Argyll., The people purpose of distinguishing gender. An aspiration converts the called by the Romans Picts occupied the porth and east of feminine into the masculine, and, vice versa." An ceann is the head, Scotland. That these were the same people with the masculine, a' chos the foot, feminine. So a chos is his foot, a cos is Dalriadic Scots is somewhat questionable. That they were undergoing no change, although its gender is Indicated by the

her foot; a cheann is his head, a ceann is her head, the pronoun closely related to them is beyond doubt, but that they had change. There are other purposes served by aspiration of considerlinguistic and other peculiarities is manifest. Their topo- able importance. The Gaelic learner makes a large acquisition when graphy proves it, being different from that of either Ireland be masters the principles of aspiration, and inquirers into the or Argyll, and, so far as the historic relations of both are characters of the language will cease to blame the frequency with concerned, they indicate a state of chronic war.

which h appears in Gaelic writing when they come to see how im. For

portant a purpose it serves. centuries there were mutual raids of Scots on Picts, and 2. Another peculiarity of the Gaelic language is to be found, as Picts on Scots, until finally, under Kenneth MacAlpine, already said, in the want of a present tense in the verb. The king of Dalriada, the Picts were overcome in the year 813, tive mood. There is no tense expressing simply I do, the form in

verb "to do" is dean, the theme of the verb being in the imperaand they and the Scots became united under one monarchy.

use being I am doing, tha mi a' deanamh. The Irish say deanaim, The tradition is that the Picts were annihilated, -meaning, I do, but that is not the Scottish form of the expression. In this in all likelihood, their power,—and tbers arose one great | Gaelic is not only at one with several of the Celtic branches, united kingdom. The united people are the ancestors of

but with some of the Semitic tongues. And it has this further in

common with these last, that the future is used to express present the present Scottish Highlanders, and the Gaelic language time. This occurs frequently in the Gaelic version of the Bible, has come down from them to us, influenced as to structure where we have an ti a chreideas anns a' Mhac, he that will by the dialect spoken and written by the victors,

believe in the Son, for he that believeth. And yet occasionally a The Gaelic language, as now in use in Scotland, resembles

true present tense appears in Gaelic :an chuinn thu sin! Do closely in its structure both the Irish and the Manx. They you see that? chi, i do see it. In those cases and some others

hear that? cluinnidh, I do hear it; am faic thu sint Do form one family, and yet it has its own distinctive features, there is no doubt a distinct present tense. The cases are, however, Irish scholars maintain that it is a modern and corrupt few, and occur in peculiar circumstances. ofishoot of the Irish, and account in this way for these

3. Another feature peculiar to Gaelie is that there is no real peculiarities. They say, for example, that the absence of appear either in the form of a participle or an infinitive, according

infinitive in the verb. The infinitive in use is a noun which may the present tense in the Gaelic verb is a mere instance of

to the effect of the preceding preposition. I am going to strike, decay, and proves the modern character of the dialect. But tha mi 'dol do bhualadh, I am going to striking; I am striking, tha the Welsh is no modera and corrupt form of Irish, but an

mi a' bualadk, I am at striking,-the preposition do, to, in the one ancient distinct tongue, so far back as history carries

case giving the noun the force of an infinitive, and the preposition ag

or a', at, giving the same noun the force of a participle. The Gaelic 08. And yet it wants the present tense, indicating that infinitive is thus identical with the Latin gerund, and is one of the this peculiarity is distinctive of some of the Celtic tongues, points where the classical and the Celtic tongues meet and touch. and that what is cited 28 a proof of recency may in reality In the article CELTIO LITERATURE reference is made be a proof of priority. The present tense may be called an to some of those cases in which the Irish dialect of the

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ik his power.' This is the kind of witchcraft that has | and that of Ireland. The study of this subject is full of existed all along, and which has cost many poor helpless interest, and is capable of producing important results both creatures their lives at the stake.

linguistic and historical. The field is as yet unoccupied, Topography.-In dealing with the literature of the and affords much to encourage the judicious and painstak. Highlands we cannot overlook the topography of the ing student. country. It is to be regretted that in Scotland we have no Names of Persons.—The literature of the Highlands may Buch MS. remains, containing topographical terms with be held further to include the names of persons as well as their origin, as are to be found in Ireland, nor have we any those of places Indeed some of the older MSS. are filled work on the subject of topography possessed of the slightest with pedigrees, sometimes of kings, sometimes of lesser authority. But we have numerous ancient charters con- persons. Many of these ascend up to Noah, and even ta taining names of places, and we have what are called the Adani, showing at least that they date since the conversion retours, connected with the succession to property through of the Gael to Christianity. There are several interesting out the country, and these contain extensive lists with the genealogical lists in the volume of transactions published spelling adopted for the names at different periods. These by the Iona Club, and there are MSS. in the Advocates' names belong to different languages. There is apparently Library, Edinburgh, which contain several lists of a similar an original language, if not more than one, which is now kind. The descent of family representatives is in these lost. Without this assumption there is no accounting for traced up to the original source, which in many cases is many of the names applied to natural objects. Then there found among the ancient Scottish kings. The preparing is the old Norse and the Anglo-Saxon, the one using wick and continuing of these pedigrees was one of the duties of for a bay, as in Caithness, and the other for a town, as in the ancient bards and senpachies, who transmitted their Roxburghshire ; then there is the British, as in the old knowledge of family history from generation to generation Strathclyde territory, and the Gaelic. The Gaelic, in its It may be believed that these officials would have a measure topographical distribution, does not occupy the same field of bias in favour of their own patrons, and this may have, with that occupied by it as a spoken tongue. The spoken in some cases, influenced their accounts of family history; language and the topography of Galloway are quite at but, upon the whole, there seems to be a large amount of variance ; so with Lewis and others of the Western Isles. truth in what they have transmitted to us, back to a certain The spoken language of Galloway is Scottish, the topography date. The rest is pure fiction. A specimen may be given, is almost wholly Gaelic. The spoken language of Lewis, extracted from the genealogy of the family of Argyll Harris, Skye, &c., is Gaelic, the topography is almost

Genelach mac Cailin Gillespic mac Cailin anann mac Gillespic wholly old Norse. But oue thing is manifest, that Gaelic mac Donch anagha mac Cailin mac Gillespic ruoidh mac Cailin oig names are distributed over the whole surface of Scotland, mac Neill mac Cailin moir mac Gillespic mac Dubgaill, &c., and so although not in equal proportions. These names contain a

on through King Arthur up to Seth, the son of Adam, the son of

God. In English this is—The genealogy of Mac Cailin : Gillespicks, history, could it be evolved. They speak of races distinct

son of Colin, son of Gillespick, son of Duncan the fortunate, son of and successive, altbough their testimony as to dates is Colin, son of Gillespick the red, son of Colin the young, son of Neil, difficult to read, The county names of Scotland in Gaelic son of Colin the great, son of Gillespick, son of Dougal, &c. So far are suggestive :

the genealogy corresponds nearly with the usual genealogies of the

family historians of the house of Argyll Similar pedigrees am Shetland......... Sialluinn. Fife

Fire

furnished of most of the Highland clans. Orkney .... ............ Arcaibh,

Stirling

......... Sruileadh. Caithness........ Gallthaobh. Galloway Gallthaobh The names of persons among the Gaelie races are for the Sutherland Cataobh

Dumfries Dunphris, most part patronymic.
Ros.

Lanark..... Lanerch.
Cromarty
....... Crombadh.
Argyll ........ Araghael.

The first name in its earlier form is usually descriptive, as Donnghal Inverness Inbhearnaoise. Dumbarton...... Dunbhreatuinn,

Dubhghal, Donnachadh, Gillespuig,--Donald, Dougal, Duncan, Inbhearnarunn. Bute

Boite.

Gillespick,- the brown man, the black man, the brown-faced man, Могау. Morthaobh. Linlithgow ...... Lanneuthaich.

the servant of the bishop; often it is taken from the Scriptures, as Banabh. Lothian, M. & E. Loudaidh.

Eoin John, Seumas James, Tomas or Tabhas Thomas, Pcadar Aberdeen ....... Abaireadhain. Renfrew..... Renfreudh.

Peter, &c.; some of the names come from the Norse, as l'orcuil TorKincardine ...... 3...... Cinnechardainn.

quil, Tormaid Norman, Aulaidh Olave, Leod Leod, and some are Forfar Farfair. Ayr { Sirenamacha

.

borrowed from the Normans, as Uilleam William, Eanraic Henry, Perth............... Peart.

&c. Kirkcudbright Cillechuibeirt.

The surnames are for the most part patronymics, as Eoin This list does not include Peebles (which is probably

Mac Neill, John the son of Neil; and in case there should be

another John M'Neil, another step is introduced, as Eoin Mac Celtic), Selkirk, Roxburgh, and Berwick, as there are no Neill mhic Dhomhnaill, and perhaps a third until the person is Gaelic terms for them, but in the other cases it will be

thoroughly identified. Sometimes there is a reduplication of the seen to what an extent the county names. are really Gaelic.

sonship, as Mac Mhic Alasdair, Mac Jhic Ailein, the son of the

son of Alexander or Allan, names of important Highland chiefs. The same is true of names of parishes, which are, to a In other cases the surname is descriptive, as Dubh black, Eoin dubh large extent, Gaelic both in the north and in the south. Black John, Beag little, Mor big. Buidh yellow, Crom bent, It is to be observed that the Gaelic topography of Scotland

Ruadh red, &c., whence many well known English names are differs widely from that of Ireland. The Irish sliabh, for ecclesiastical, as those derived from St John, St Columba, St Cattan,

derived. A large number of Highland names and surnames are a mountain, rarely occurs in Scotland, where the word in St Bridget, and others, and thus become helps to historical inquiry. use chiefy is beinn. It does occur, but the instances are One thing is somewhat remarkable, that there is not an o, in accord. few, while the Scottish ben is as rare in Ireland. Baile, a

ance with Irish nomenclature, among the Scottish Celts. The old township, is sufficiently frequent in Scotland, but not 80

O'Duinn of Argyle is lost, and the patronymic of the Celt is marked much so as the Irish bally. The word strath, for a great

by the uniform use of mac, representing a son, as O does a grand.

son.. The age of fixed family names seems no older than the age of valley, occurs but rarely in Ireland ; in Scotland it abounds charters. Previous to that patronymics universally prevailed, but over the whole kingdom. The abers and pits and invers of when charters were taken fixed names were essential to their value. Scotland are rare in Ireland, or altogether unknown, while Proverbs. From names of persons we may pass to prothere is little resemblance in the names of rivers. These verbs as a part, and a very curious part, of Gaelic literature. two systems of topography may have originated with the Few languages so abound in proverbs, and proverbs of a same people, but in one of the sections there were influences very clever and popular caste. A Highlander seldom gives manifestly at work which were unknown in the other. expression to an important sentiment without hacking it Even in the Dalriadic kingdom of Argyll there are features with a proverb, and these give force and pungency to what which indicate a'marked distinction between the topography he says. A collection of these proverbs was made, in the

Ross..............

..........

.......

Nairn.............

Banff .............

“ Sour grapes

year:1819, by the Rev. Donald Mackintosh, and, to form some the Macleans, the Campbells, the Macleods, the Mackenzies, idea of the number of them, it is only necessary to observe the Mackintoshes, or others-appears at all. In the book of that, under the letter “I” alone, they reach the number of Deer, supposed to be of the 11th or 12th century, the 382 in the first edition of the book. A large number of names of two clans—the clan Morgan and the clan Cananthese proverbial sayings escaped the notice of Mr Mackintosh, appear; but it is very questionable whether these represent and additions were made in the second edition, while any clan existing now, although clan Morgan is said to be some of the very best are not recorded even yet. Prover- the old name of the Mackays of Strathnaver. But the bial sayings in English are represented by sayings of a names in that interesting record are for the most part purely different kind in Gaelic, having the same meaning. “There patronymic, and do not indicate any connexion with existing is many a slip between the cup and the lip" is represented clans. The fact is that, till very recently, the clan name was by Is le duine an ni a shluigeas e, ach cha leis an ni a confined to the chief, as records oi old deeds and processes chagaineas , “ What a man swallows is his own, but not at law serve to show. what he chews.” “ It never rains but it pours” is repre- The Gaelic historical literature of one kind or another is sented by An uair a theid a chailleach 'n a ruith, theid i of considerable extent, and consists of relics, written and 'n a deann-ruith, “ When the old woman takes to running, traditional, of the old senpachies or family historians. In she runs with a will."

-Mionnan a' bhaird certain sections of the country the local traditions are full ris a' chaisteal, cha téid mi fhéin do'n chaisteal bhreun, cha of the stories of old feuds, and, though not to be implicitly teid, cha leig iad ann mi, “ The bard's oath to the castle, relied on, contain usually an element of truth. In Suther"I wont go to the vile castle; no, they won't let me in.'” land the feuds of the Sutherlands and the Mackays, in Lewis The Gaelic proverbs are full of interest, and add much to those of the Mackenzies and Macleods, in Skye the feuds the power of either speech or writing when skilfully used. of the M‘Leods and the Macdonalds, in eastern Inverness

Sgeulachdan, or Tales of Fiction. These at one time shire those of the Mackintoshes and Cummings, in abounded in the Highlands, and had much in common with Lochaber those of the Mackintoshes and the Camerons, in the tales collected and published by Grimm and Dasent, Perthshire those of the Campbells and the Macgregors, and from the German and the Norse. Until lately, these tales others in other quarters are largely related. Native were entirely oral, and .were little known beyond certain accounts of the clans were sometimes committed to writing, portions of the West Highlands... Recently they have been a specimen of which appears in the transactions of the lona collected, translated, and edited, with peculiar care and skill, Club. For a good deal of what is historical regarding the by Mr J. F. Campbell, 'in four 8vo volumes. This is a Highlands, recourse must be had to the Irish Annals, which real addition to Gaelic literature, and. Mr Campbell has laid occasionally refer to events occurring in Scotland. every friend of that literature under obligation. One real MS. Literature. The written Gaelic literature was at service it has done in preserving for us admirable specimens its earlier period so mixed up with that of Ireland that it of the most idiomatio and popular forms of the Gaelic is not easy in every instance to distinguish them. The language. We have it there as used by the tellers of early church of both countries was one, and the early literapopular tales among the people for generations. Whence ture was the offspring of the early church. The very first many of these tales have come it is hard to say, but tales notices we have of the church, whether among the mission have been collected in the small islands south of Barra, institutes of Ireland or in Iona, indicate the existence and where the people seldom tread the soil of even their main extensive cultivation of a native literature. The transcrip. island, containing ideas and forms of thought which never tion or translation of portions of the Scriptures is shown to could have originated there, and the preservation of which have been one of the frequent exercises of the early misin such a locality, is a remarkable fact. Are they relics of sionaries, and they all learned to write the same dialect and a higher civilization existing in ages long gone by? It is make use of the same letters. Many of the MSS. written

. remarkable that the Thomas the Rhymer of Lowland in Iona may be credited to Ireland, and vice versa; and tradition is well known in the traditions of the Highlands, writings found in Continental libraries may be presumed to and that stories of him related on the borders in broad have been the work of Scottish as truly as of Irish writers. Scotch are related in the Highlands in Gaelic as tales of The early treatises, and glosses upon Latin treatises, on great antiquity,

theological and other subjects still existing in the early Clan History.-A portion of the literature of the Gaelic Gaelic dialect are numerous, and have afforded materials Celt consists of clan history. The clan system does not for the acute and masterly criticism of Zeuss, De Nigra, seem to be very ancient. In all probability it dates from Stokes, and others; and these are accompanied by treatises the period when the Gaelic kingdom of Scotland ceased to on grammar, history, medicine, astrology, metaphysics, exist. It has been already said to date from the era of poetry, and similar subjects, which are of much interest. charters. But the two eras are pretty nearly identical: Most of these remains are found in the collections iu Trinity Down to the reign of Malcolm III, the Gaelic kingdom College, Dublin, and in the library of the Irish Royal appears to have been to a large extent homogeneous. There Academy; but there are numerous remains in the Edinbury were no elements in it but what were Celtic, as it never Advocates' Library, which prove at least that there were in really embraced within it the Scandinavian sections. Then Scotland persons who valued and collected this literature the land was governed by its maormors and toiseachs, men There can be no doubt that there were many contributore who represented the central governing power. It would to it as well. seem that when, in the reign of David I., the kingdom The earliest specimen of Gaelic writing, which can be became largely Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman, the Gaelic pronounced to be Scottish beyond any question, is the Book people became estranged from their native kings, and of Deer, said already to be a work of the 11th or 12th gathered themselves in sections under the sway of their own century. The book itself consists of portions of the New chiefs; and hence came chiefs and clans, instead of a king Testament written in Latin. The Gaelic portion consists and his subjects forming a united nation. The change was of historical references, with notices of grants of land & serious one for the Gaelic people, as they never became bestowed on the old monastery of Deer, in Aberdeensbire. again what they had been before. Clan names appear at These references and notices are, for the most part, writter an early period, and in some form or other must have on the margin. They show that, at the time the book was existed before the time of the Saxonized kings ; but rot | written, the Gaelic language was used, both for speaking and one of the great clans of Highland history-the Macdonalds, I writing, ra the district around Deer, where it is nog un

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