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BIRDS (continued).

? Pelicans and Herons, 40-50 years. (L. Grindon, 'Life, its Nature.') Hawks

30-40 years. ? Peacocks.

20 years. Goldfinches ? Blackbirds ? Pheasants ? Pigeons ? Nigbtingales 15 years. * Domestic Fowls. ? Thrushes .

8-9 years. ? Wrens

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10 years.

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2-3 years. Mr. Grindon does not give his authority for these ages. It will be seen that he differs from Bacon as to the ages of some birds and mammals.

MAMMALS.—The general cause of death is the same as for birds.
? Greenland Whale, 300-400 years, inferred from the growth of the

Baleen. (Grindon, loc. cit.)
? Dolphin, 30 years. (Bacon.)
* Elephant (Asiatic), 120 years. (De Blainville.)

150 years. (Flourens.)
? 200 years. (Buffon.)

200 years. (Aristotle.)

500 years. (Sunt qui.)
At 30 years the epiphyses were not joined. ("Philos. Trans.'

Everard Home.)
Rhinoceros and Hippopotamus, 70-80 years. (Grindon.)
Horse, 25 years. (Flourens.) But the Bishop of Metz had one

that lived to be 40 years old.
9 or 10 years for most, but some live to 40 years. (* Engl.
Cyclop.' article Horse.)

20 years. (Bacon.)
Horse and Ass, 25-30 years. (Grindon.)
* Mule, is longer-lived than these. (Bacon.)
? Camel, 40 years. (Flourens.) May live to 100 years. (Aristotle.)

50 to 100 years. (Bacon.) ? Ox, 15-20 years. (Flourens.)

Bull, 16 years. (Bacon.)

MAMMALS (continued).
? Sheep and Goat, 12 years. (Grindon.)

less than the Bull. (Bacon.)
Pig, 20 years. (Bacon.)

Slag, 30-40 years. (Flourens.) ? Lion, 20 years. (Flourens.) Haller saw one in a menagerie at

40 years of age which died at 50. Grindon gives 9-10 years

as the ļife of the lion in menageries ; longer when wild. ? Leopard, Bear, Tiger, 25 years. (Grindon.) * Dog, 10-12 years. (Flourens.) Some to 20, 23, or 24 years.

One was 34 years with a correspondent of the writer. * Cat, 9-10 years.

Some to 18 years. (Flourens.) Mr. T. W. Danby had a cat which died at the age of 18 years; it had long been unable to move, except very slowly; it walked across a room for milk and died. (Communicated by T. W.

Danby, Esq)
Rabbit, 8 years. (Flourens.)

7 years. (Bacon.)
Guinea Pig, 6-7 years. (Flourens.)
Man, Fuegian, 45-50 years.

Civilized, 70-80 years. (The Book of Psalms.)
English, 75.5, average age at death of those dying at 51 and

upwards. (Farr.)



Euglena divides so rapidly as in a single night to colour a pool

green. Diatoms, some species divide in 24 hours at certain seasons.

(Smith's • British Diatomaceæ.') Prolococcus nivalis reddens a district in a single night, so rapid is FUNGI live from 7 to 15 days. (Grindon.)

the shifting of individuality by reproductive self-division.

1 • Hesiod,' says Pliny, 'attributes to the rook nine times our life, to the stag four times the life of the rook, and three times the life of the stag to the raven.' reveá is the word used by Hesiod, and ætas by Pliny. Aristotle remarks, in the History of Animals,' lib. vi. ch. xxix, “What is related of the longevity of the stag rests upon no foundation: the duration of gestation and growth of the young stag indicates anything but a long life.'

Polypori are perennial.
ALGÆ.-Fuci and other large forms are perennial.

Delesseria sanguinea is annual.
PHÆNOGAMS.—The majority in severe climates are annuals. Mig-

nonette is a shrub in Barbary, and Palma Christi is a tree

in India. Shrubs live 4 to 5 years. Odoriferous shrubs live 10 or more years. (Hufeland, loc. cit.)

e.g. Sage, Balm, Lavender.
Trees with soft wood, e g. Poplar and Willow, live 50 years.

Fruit trees, 60 years. (Hufeland.)

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In the following list, given by Mr. Grindon, the age is estimated by rings of supposed annual growth, which is not a quite trustworthy method :? Cercis

300 years.

? Oriental Plane . 1000 yeais, ? Elm.

? Lime.

ΙΙοο ? Ivy

? Spruce

I 200 ? Maple

? Oak

1500 ? Larch 576 ? Cedar

2000 ? Orange 630 ? Schubertia

3000 ? Cypress

? Yew

3200 ? Olive


? Taxodium 4000-5000 ? Walnut


? Adansonia

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In the preceding statements the authorities are given. In many cases, the supposed age is only an inference and not an observation at all. This is especially the case with the ages given by Flourens, who made them suit his theory of quintuple ratio. A query is put against the most doubtful and an asterisk against the most soundly based of the statements made.

We now present Lord Bacon's statements on the subject, which we have transcribed from a wellknown translation of his works. Truth and error are strangely mixed in this interesting summary.

‘Touching the length and shortness of life in living creatures, the information which may be had is but slender, observation is negligent, and tradition fabulous. In tame creatures their degenerate life corrupteth them, in wild creatures their exposing to all weathers often intercepteth them; neither do those things which may seem concomitants give any furtherance to this information (the greatness of their bodies, their time of bearing in the womb, the number of their young ones, the time of their growth, and the rest), in regard that these things are intermixed, and sometimes they concur, sometimes they sever.

1. Man's age (as far as can be gathered by any certain narration) doth exceed the age of all other living creatures, except it be of a few only, and the concomitants in him are very equally disposed, his stature and proportion large, his bearing in the womb nine months, his fruit commonly one at a birth, his puberty at the age of fourteen years, his time of growing till twenty.

2. The elephant, by undoubted relation, exceeds the ordinary race of man's life, but his bearing in the womb the space of ten years is fabulous; of two years, or at least above one is, certain. Now his bulk

is great, his time of growth until the thirtieth year, his teeth exceeding hard, neither hath it been observed that his blood is the coldest of all creatures ; his age

hath sometimes reached to two hundred years. 3. Lions are accounted long livers, because many of them have been found toothless, a sign not so certain, for that may be caused by their strong breath.

4. The bear is a great sleeper, a dull beast, and given to ease, and yet not noted for long life; nay, he hath this sign of short life, that his bearing in the womb is but short, scarce full forty days.

5. The fox seems to be well disposed in many things for long life; he is well skinned, feeds on flesh, lives in dens, and yet he is noted not to have that property. Certainly he is a kind of dog, and that kind is but shortlived.

6. The camel is a long liver, a lean creature, and sinewy; so that he doth ordinarily attain to fifty, and sometimes to a hundred years.

7. The horse lives but to a moderate age, scarce to forty years, his ordinary period is twenty years, but perhaps he is beholden for this shortness of life to man; for we have now no horses of the sun that live freely, and at pleasure, in good pastures; notwithstanding the horse grows till he be six years old, and is able for generation in his old age. Besides the mare goeth longer with her young one than a woman, and brings forth two at a burthen more rarely. The

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