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the architecture seemed to me to throb in word you utter, quick to take your meanunison, and audibly to hymn themselves. ing, and polite as a Frenchman in ready It is but a half-step from such seen sym- deference to your expressed opinion; but metry and harmony to harmonies audible none the less he holds firmly to his own and heard symphonies. Surely these belief unless you have convinced his reaarchitects were more than builders. They son. This he may not tell you. He may were musicians; and, like the other great leave you to infer that you have won him tone-masters, they send the key-notes and over; and thus he has sometimes laid sub-tones of harmony thrilling through himself open to the charge of duplicity you in presence of their work, until you and deceit where he meant only to be credfeel new meaning in the coldly perfect ited with politeness. phrase, “Architecture is frozen music.” The modern Greek has the Russian read
Spare, nervous, thin of face, restless- iness in acquiring languages, and the Gereyed, quick and energetic of speech, is the man's patience in investigation, if some modern Athenian. The groups of men slight results can be seen as he works. who seat themselves toward evening at But, like the hungry Yankee who gave the little tables which fill the streets be- up the attempt to earn a promised dinner fore the principal cafés, as they talk poli- by beating on the end of a log with the tics over their little cups of black coffee head of his axe, in his literary and antior their glasses of water and wine, gestic-quarian work the Athenian “must see the ulate with that energy of action in con- chips fly.” Partly to this desire for imversation which marks the passionate son mediate results, partly to the necessity of of the South. Often the Athenian carries self-support, but still more to the utter in his hand a string of beads, not for re- lack of means and money for prosecuting ligious purposes, but that he may relieve researches and excavations, and publishhimself of excessive electricity by shifting ing results, at government expense, is due them through his fingers as he bargains the fact that the Germans have come to and talks—a safety-valve and a re-assur- be regarded as better authorities upon the ing process akin to the Yankee's whit- sites, the antiquities, and the history of tling He is keenly sensitive to every | Greece than are the Greeks themselves.
Even a short residence at Athens, and dred students are instructed by an able the most superficial acquaintance with her faculty of sixty professors, with a high university and its professors, will serve to school for boys and another for girls, with convince one that many a German repu- a constantly improving system of primary tation has been built largely upon work schools, practically free, so that threedone by Greeks, and that Athens does not fourths of her children between the ages lack for Greek scholars and antiquarians of five and sixteen are in school, Athens who, with such support in money and fa- seems to be in no danger of undervaluing cilities for publication as the Germans re- education. Pallas Atrutone, the Unweaceive, would soon become world-famous ried Power of Intellect, is still devoutly authorities, as they now are acknowledged worshipped in the city over which premasters in their departments, among those side the beauteous ruins of her matchless who know them. There is, unfortunate temple. ly, a spirit of personal rivalry and petty Many of the charges which have been jealousy among Athenian scholars, which brought against the good faith of the modhas had a disastrous effect in preventing ern Greek, I believe to be purely the reany united effort to present to the world sult of ignorant prejudice. Others may be connected results of Greek investiga- traced to dishonest and defeated rivals in tions.
trade. The proverb sometimes heard in With a university where fifteen hun-I the Levant, “It takes two Jews to cheat
a Turk, two Turks to cheat an Armenian, der such pressure, the political friction is two Armenians to cheat a Greek,” is not something enormous. Athens supports intended to be strictly complimentary to from thirty to forty newspapers. Politthe honesty of the modern Greek. But ical clubs are more numerous than in clasin the East no trader ever asks the price sic days, and as influential. Every man for his goods which he expects to receive. of prominence has his newspaper, his club Every bargain is presumed to be the re- of personal followers, his petty party. sult of a gradual approach of buyer and when the death of Delegeorges, ex-Prime seller, who set out from the most widely Minister, was announced on the street to a separated limits, and make alternate con- group of Athenian gentlemen with whom cessions, until, after much arguing and I was talking, the first remark was, “Ah, gesticulation, with intervals of quiet smok now Kurie So-and-So" (naming a politiing, common ground is reached at last, and cian of little influence) “ will form a parthe bargain is concluded. In no way could ty, will he not ?" Room for one more asyou so surely make a Levantine merchant pirant to office, with his organized clique miserable as by paying him all he at first of followers, was the argument. demands. I have seen more of deliberate Salaries for public services are of course overcharging and barefaced dishonesty at- pitifully low. Criticism of all official tempted in a day at Paris than I saw in acts, and of every measure advocated by two months while in Greece.
the government, is bitter and ceaseless. Of the glory of ancient Athens, of the This spirit of criticism is not merely a world's great debt to Greece, every mod healthful concern for the public welfare; ern Athenian is keenly conscious. Memo- it is the constant effort to induce a public, ries of her glorious past have always been ever prone to change its political leaders, cherished religiously, kept alive during so to clamor as to put the “ins" out, and centuries of oppression.
to give to other men a chance at what Athens suffers from an excess of intel-must be for them too a brief tenure of lectual activity. The city is overstocked power. Acrimonious attacks upon men with brains. Its hands are idle. Greece and motives abound. The newspapers has no great manufactories; it has no sys- give room to angry opponents for virutem of roads. Among the many failures lent personal diatribes against political of King Otho's reign, perhaps none was rivals. The irrepressible life and mental more injurious than his failure to pro- activity of the nation preys upon itself. vide any means of ready intercommuni Give Greece a mission; let her hope for cation between the provinces of Greece. that influence in the re-adjustment of Of course the topography of Greece--her power after Turkey's approaching dissomountain ranges and deep-reaching gulfs lution (if the chronic “sick man" is inand bays-renders the task of road-build- deed soon to die) which justly belongs to ing a difficult one. But national unity her as the most intelligent, the most enterand material prosperity can not come prising, the most highly civilized race of without good roads. To-day, all Greece the Levant; extend her boundaries, as we has but five miles of railroad, and hardly hope the great powers will soon do; give more than fifty miles of good carriage but a gleam of distant hope to such enthuroads. Finding no outlet in the develop-siastic patriots as joined the club some ment of the country's material resources, time since organized at Athens by Maall the energy of the marvellously active krakes, a shrewd political and religious Greek mind has been turned to trade, to agitator, which professes for its object to study, and to politics; and chiefly to poli- place Prince Constantine, King George's tics, always a passion with the Athenian. oldest son, on the throne of all Greece at With a territory but three-fifths as great as Constantinople—and the truly great qualthat of New York, with a population of ities of this wonderful race, which were nearly two millions, with universal suf-proved to be still hers by the gallant, unfrage, and with a monarchy so limited Ainching heroism displayed in her strugthat the government is in reality a democ-gle for independence, but which have sufracy in the administration of its internal fered a temporary eclipse since that strugaffairs, the Greek nation of to-day devotes gle closed, will once more be displayed to ten times too much energy to governing a world which has so often been inspired itself. This concentration of force within by the words and deeds of the Greeks of narrow limits begets heat at Athens. Un-I ancient times.
VOL. LXII.-No. 372.-53
DECORATIVE POTTERY OF CINCINNATI.
ware of Cincinnati was shown in a quantity to be specially remembered was in May, 1875, at the “International Entertainment” given by the “Women's Centennial Executive Committee of Cincinnati,” in the old Elm Street Exposition Building, on the site of which the College of Music now stands. In the general aim of this committee to make a creditable addition to the work of women at the Centennial Exposition, the specialty of china-painting, then exciting
some interest among the women here and in VARIETY OF PLAQUES.—(SEE PAGE 840.] other parts of the country, was looked upon as
promising a possible field of lucrative work for women. The exhibit, prepared by a few ladies of Cincinnati for this occasion, consisted of several dozen pieces-cups and saucers, pitchers and plates. The excellence of its execution excited attention, and many of the articles, together with subsequent work, were sent to the Centennial Exposition the next year.
The newspapers of that day (May 23, 1875) gave the following as the list of ladies who prepared this first exhibit of china-painting: Mrs. S. S. Fisher, Miss Clara Fletcher, Mrs. L. B. Harrison, Mrs. William Hinkle, Mrs. E. G. Leonard, Miss M. L. McLaughlin, Miss Lincoln, Mrs. A. B. Merriam, Mrs. Richard Mitchell, Miss Clara Newton, Mrs. Maria L. Nichols, Miss Rauchfuss, and Miss Schooley.
These ladies were invited to prepare the work by the Centennial Committee, who provided the china and the firing; the decorators gave their work. The articles were sold at auction during the entertainment, bringing good prices, the highest being twenty-five dollars for a cup and saucer; thirty-five cups and saucers were sold, aggregating three hundred and eighty-five dollars.
The origin of the movement can not be more precisely told, perhaps, than by saying that in the summer of 1874 Mr. Benn Pitman, of the Cincinnati School of Design, started a class of ladies (who had had some practice in water-color painting) in chinapainting. The specialty of china-painting was not included in the curriculum of the School of Design, and could not, under the rules, be taught there. Mr. Pitman procured the necessary materials, invited the ladies to meet at his office for instruction, and engaged the late Miss Eggers as teacher. The ladies forming the class were Mesdames William Dodd, George Dominick, and E. G. Leonard, and Misses Charlotte Keenan, Florence Leonard, M. Louise McLaughlin, Clara Newton, and Georgie Woollard. At that time Miss Eggers and Mr. Hartwig were the only persons to be found in the city who practiced and taught china-painting. Although some of the class generously insisted on sharing the expense of this experiment, Mr. Pitman declined their assistance, and bore it entirely himself.
The work shown on the occasion re- In the next year specimens of this work ferred to in 1875 was for the most part were sent to the Paris Exposition. At the outgrowth of this experiment, and al- about the same time, or soon after, Miss though imperfect, when compared with McLaughlin painted the first successful later results, it was unquestionably the piece of blue underglaze on white ware. most extensive and satisfactory exhibit of It is said that unsuccessful efforts have amateur overglaze decoration made up to been made in different parts of Europe to that time in the United States. The work imitate or reproduce the faience of Liwas deeply interesting as so many carefui moges. However this may be, there is no experiments. Each one made her own doubt that in the United States we are intrials, and gained knowledge and courage debted to the intelligent interest and perfrom her failures. Modes of firing were sistence of Miss McLaughlin for its acas imperfect as all other means and appli- complishment. Months of labor and ances ; but the interested workers were considerable money were spent before undismayed by difficulties and mistakes, success was achieved: the preparation of and eagerly pressed on to higher degrees clays, the adaptation of colors, suitable of excellence.
firing for underglaze decoration, were all Prominent among the ladies whose matters of vital importance in the accomwork gave character to this early ex- plishment of the new decorative process. hibit in 1875 were Mrs. E. G. Leonard ! Down to this time there were no facilities and Mrs. Andrew B. Merriam, whose in- for firing decorated wares beyond the terest has continued unabated, and whose very imperfect means used for firing the delicate and finished overglaze work has overglaze work of jars, and the ordinary caused their names to be well known kilns of the potters. among the best amateur artists of the During the process of her experiments country.
in 1877-78, the work of Miss McLaughlin Among the efficient means of popular- was done at the pottery of P. L. Coultry izing china decoration in Cincinnati at and Co., where special pride was felt in an early day were the establishment of the matter by members of the firm and a small oven, and the teaching of over- employés, and where everything in their glazed painting, by Mr. Edwin Griffith, in power was done to insure success. the spring of 1877. He visited the New In giving credit where credit is due, it Jersey potteries, learned something of may be added that Mr. Joseph Bailey, the processes of using the oxides and of Sen., and his son Joseph, of Mr. Dallas's firing, and being skillful in the use of the pottery, gave her many practical suggesbrush, and pleasant in his ways, he be- tions, derived from their long experience came a successful teacher. The class in the business. It required the union of of Mr. Griffith were taught, and the pro- the knowledge of the artist, the chemist, cess of firing was carried on, in the third and the potter to conduct the experiments story of the old building on the south- to a successful termination. west corner of Fifth and Race streets, The glaze used was that of Messrs. above the carving school of Messrs. Hen- Coultry and Co., and was found to be adry L. and William Fry. The house has mirably adapted to the decorative process since been removed. Mr. Pitman was in which Miss McLaughlin had discovered. strumental in starting Mr. Griffith in this The clays, of which she used a variety, work.
were brought from different parts of Ohio; From 1874 to 1877, the attention of the the vases, jugs, etc., many of them her ladies was exclusively given to overglaze own designs, were at that time made by painting
the firm of Coultry and Co. In 1877, Miss M. Louise McLaughlin, In the latter part of 1879, two kilns for who had been among the foremost in her firing decorated wares were built at the success in china-painting in 1875, publish- pottery of Frederick Dallas, one for uned a hand-book on china-painting, for the derglaze, the other for overglaze work, use of amateurs in the decoration of hard the latter said to be the largest of its kind porcelain, and also began to experiment in the United States. The cost of these in her search for the secrets of the Li- kilns was advanced by two ladies, remoges faience.
spectively Miss McLaughlin and Mrs. The first results in this direction shown Maria Longworth Nichols. During the in Cincinnati were in the fall of 1877. / year 1879, the work of Miss McLaughlin