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3. Species of probable occurrence. or the following list of twenty-four species, the greater part havo been included in various former lists of the birds of Massachusetts, but generally on inferential or hearsay evidence, or by erroneous identifications. Six have actually been taken within the last three or four years by Mr. E. I. Shores, within a few miles of the southern boundary of the state (near my old collecting ground at Springfield). Others, from their known general range, must evidently occur at rare intervals, and I confidently expect that within the next ten years at least seven-eighths, and probably nine-tenths, of them will be added to the list of those included from having been actually taken within the state. At least one-half of them have already been obtained in adjoining states at points not far from the Massachusetts live.
1. Saxicola conantha Bech. STONECHAT. Ias been taken in Labrador, at Quebec, Canada, and on Long Island, and is of frequent occurrence in the Bermudas.
2. Lophophanes bicolor Bon. CRESTED TITMOUSE. Northern New Jersey; Long Island; New London, Conn. (one instance, Merriam, Rev. Birds Conn., 1877, 9); New Haven, Conn. (Linsley); New Hampshire.
3. Protonotaria citrea Baird. PrornoxOTARY WARBLER. Op accidental occurrence in eastern Maine and New Brunswick (Breuer, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XVII, 439, on the authority of Mr. Board. man), and being a southern spccies may be looked for as of casual occurrence in Massachusetts.
4. Helmitherus vermivorus Bon. WoRM-EATING WARBLER. Ilas been taken in Suffield, Con., on the southern boundary of Massachusetts, and is a rather common summer resident in portions of Southern Connecticut (Purdie, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, II, Jan., 1877, 21; Am. Nat., VII, 1873, 692).
5. Helminthophaga pinus Baird. BLUE-WINGED YELLOW WarBLER. “A summer resident in southern Connecticut and in the Connecticut Valley," where it breeds (Merriam, Rev. Birds Conn., 14).
6. Dendræca cærulea Bairc. CÆRULEAN WARBLER. Ilas been taken as far north as Suflic!d, Conn., on the southern boundary of the state (Purdie, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, II, 1877, 22).
7. Oporornis formosa Buiril. KENTUCKY WARBLER. Was taken by Mr. E. I. Shores in Suffield, Conn., Ang. 10, 1876,- the only record for New England (Merriam, Rev. Birds Conn., 1877, 22).
8. Myiodioctes mitrata Aud. HOODED WARBLER. Rare summer resident in southern Connecticut (errinm). Has been taken in Suflield, Conn., by Dr. E. I. Slores, July 8, 1875 (Purdie, Bull. Nutt.
312. Fratercula arctica Steph. ARCTIC PUFFIN; Sea Parrot. Not uncommon winter visitant.
313. Mergulus alle Vieill. DOVEKIE ; SEA DOVE. Irregular and generally rare winter visitant along the coast; occasionally common.
314. Uria grylle Brünn. BLACK GUILLEMOT. Rather common winter visitant.
315. Lomvia troile Brandt. (L. troile et ringvia auct.) COMMON GUILLEMOT; MURRE. Common winter visitant.
316. Lomvia arra Coues. (Cataractes lomvia Bryant.) TulickBILLED GUILLEMOT. Common winter visitant along the coast.
2. Extirpated Species. 1. Meleagris gallopavo var. occidentalis Allen. WILD TUR. KEY. Well known to have been a common species in southern New England for a long time subsequent to the first settlement of this part of the country (see Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, I, Sept., 1876, 55), but long since ceased to exist here in a wild state. Considered as pearly extinct by Emmons in 1833, but said by Hitchcock to be at that time "frequently met with on Mount Holyoke" (Rep. on Geol. Mass., etc., 1833, 549).
2. Grus canadensis Temm. SANDIILL CRANE; Brown CRANE. Unquestionably more or less abundant two hundred years ago (sec Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, I, Sept., 1876, 78), but there is no recent record of its occurrence.
3. Grus americanus Ord. W110OPING CRANE; WHITE CRANE. This species was given by Emmons in 1833 as a rare but regular visitant, but there is no later record of its occurrence. It unquestionably occurred here at the time of the first settlement of the country, in common with the preceding species.
4. Alca impennis Linn. GREAT AUK. The former existence of this species in Massachusetts is attested by the occurrence of its bones in the Indian shell heaps of the coast, particularly at Ipswich, and there are also unquestionable allusions to its presence on Cape Cod at the time the coast was explored by Gosnold in 1602 (see Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, I, Sept., 1876, 59).
Other species that are virtually extirpated, although retained in the preceding list, are the Prairie Hen (Cupidonia cupido), supposed to be now restricted to Martha's Vineyard, where only a few, if indeed any, representatives of this formerly rather common species still exist (see anteà, p. 22); the Whisting Swan (Cygnus americanus), now only a rare straggler, and probably also the Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator). To these may probably be added the Labrador or Pied Duck (Camptolæmus labradorius), respecting which see Rowley, Orn. Miscel., pt. VI, pp. 205–223, 1877; also Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, III, Apr., 1878.
*297. Sterna macrura Nord. ARCTIC Tern. Abundant summer resident along the coast.
The form described as Sterna portlandica by Mr. Ridgway (Amer. Nat., VIII, 1871, 433), and since referred to S. macrura by Brewster (Ann. Lyc. Nat. Ilist. N. Y., XI, 1875, 201) and Saunders (Proc. Zool. Soc., Lond., 1876, 650) has been taken on Muskeget Island (Brewster, Am. Sports., V, 219, Jan, 16, 1875).
*298. Sterna dougalli Mont. (S. paradisea auct.) ROSEATE TERN. Common along the coast in summer.
*299. Sterna superciliaris var. antillarum Coues. LEAST TERN. Comnion along the coast in summer.
300. Sterna fuliginosa Gmel. SooTY TERN. Accidental. Two recent records of its capture in Massachusetts, - Lawrence, Oct. 29, 1876 (Deane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, II, Jan., 1877, 27); Williamstown, Sept., 1876 (Tenney, Am. Nat., XI, 1877, 213). Also several times taken recently in Connecticut and Rhode Island, -Saybrook, Conn., summer of 1876 (Purdie, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, II, Jan., 1877, 22; sce also Merriam, Rev. Birds Conn., 1877, 13t). From these records ‘it appears that six specimens were taken in Connecticut, one in Rhode Island, and two in Massachusetts, during 1876, mostly in September.
301. Hydrochelidon lariformis Coucs. SHORT-TAILED TERN; BLACK TERN. Accidental, or very rare. Ipswich, taken by Mr. C. J. Maynard (Allen, Am. Nat., III, Feb., 1870, 644).
302. Cymochorea leucorrhoa Coues. Leacu's PETREL. Common winter visitant along the coast.
303. Oceanites oceanica Coucs. Wilson's PETREL. Common off the coast.
304. Puffinus major Fabr. GREATER SHEARWATER. Common off the coast, especially in winter.
305. Puffinus fuliginosus Strick. Sooty SHEARWATER. More or less common off the coast, especially in winter.
*308. Colymbus torquatus Brünn. Loox; GREAT NORTHERN DIVER. More or less frequent resident.
307. Colymbus septentrionalis Linn. RED-THROATED DIVER. Common winter visitant along the coast; rare in the interior; most numerous in autunu and spring.
308. Podiceps cornutus Gmel. Horned GREBE. Chiefly a winter visitant, but not commoll; a few remain in summer.
309. Podiceps griseigena var. holbolli Coues. RED-NECKED GREBE. Chiefly a winter visitant; not common. Sometimes met with in suinmer.
*310. Podilymbus podiceps Laur. PIED-BILLED GREBE. Rather rare resident; more common in spring and fall than at other seasons.
311. Utamania torda Leach. Razor-BILLED AUK. Not uncom
279. Stercorarius pomatorhinus Vieill. POMARINE JAEGER; POMARINE SKUA. A not common winter visitant.
280. Stercorarius parasiticus Coues. (S. crepidatus Saund.) RICHARDSON's SKUA; PARASITIC JAEGER. Along the coast in winter; not common.
281. Stercorarius buffoni Coues. (S. parasiticus Saund.) BUFFON'S Skua. Rare on the coast in winter.
282. Larus glaucus Brünn. GLAUCOUS GULL. Rare winter visitant.
283. Larus leucopterus Fabr. WHITE-WINGED GULL. Rare winter visitant.
284. Larus marinus Linn. GREAT BLACK-BACKED GULL. Commoji winter visitant.
285. Larus argentatus Linn. HERRIXG GULL. Abundant win. ter visitant; a few remain along the coast in summer, where formerly they probably bred.
286. Larus delawarensis Ord. RING-BILLED GULL. Rather uncommon on the coast in winter.
287. Larus tridactylus Linn. KITTIWAKE GULL. Common win- • ter visitant.
*288. Larus atricilla Linn. LAUGHING GULL. Formerly a not uncommon summer visitant; now nearly extirpated from our coast.
289. Larus philadelphia Ord. BONAPARTE'S GULL. Common winter visitant, but more numerous in fall and spring.
290. Xema sabinei Bon. FORKED-TAILED GULL. Accidental. The only record is Boston llarbor, Sept. 27, 1874 (Brewster, Am. Sportsman, V, 1875, 370).
291. Sterna anglica Mont. (S. aranca auct.) GULL-BILLED Terx. Accidental. A recent record is Ipswich, Sept., 1871 (Brewster, Am. Nat., VI, May, 1872, 306).
292. Sterna caspia Pallas. Caspiav Tern. Rare or accidental in winter.
293. Sterna regia Gamb. ROYAL TERN. Accidental. Two specimens taken by Messrs. Maynard and Brewster on Nantucket Island, July 1, 1874 (Am. Sports., V, 249, Jan. 16, 1875).
294. Sterna cantiaca Gmel. (S. acufavida auct.) SANDWICII TERN. Accidental. One record only, Chatham, August, 1865 (Allen, Amer. Nat., III, Feb., 1870, 614).
*295. Sterna hirundo Linn. Common Tern. Abundant summer resident along the coast.
296. Sterna forsteri Nult. (S. harelli auct.) Forster's TERN. Rare or accidental, Ipswich, Sept., 1870 (Breuster, Am. Nat., VI, May, 1872, 306; coast, “two or three" specimçus, 1873, Purilie, Am.
winter visitant. Formerly, like most of the ducks, more common than now (Breuer, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, II, Apr., 1877, 46).
284. Camptolæmus labradorius Gray. LABRADOR Duck. For. merly a rare winter visitant; probably now nearly extinct.
265. Somateria mollissima Leach. EIDER Duck. Common spring and autumn visitant, some remaining in winter.
288. Somateria spectabilis Leach. King EIDER. Rare winter visitant.
267. Edemia americana Swain. Scoter. Abundant in spring and fall and common in winter.
268. Edemia fusca Swain. VELVET SCOTEN; WHITE-WINGED Coor. Common winter visitant.
289. Edemia perspicillata Fleming. Surr Duck. Cominon winter visitant.
270. Erismatura rubida Bon. RUDDY DUCK. Rather common winter visitant, but most numerous in fall and spring.
271. Mergus merganser Linn. GOOSANDER; MERGASSER. Common winter visitant, but most numerous in fall and spring.
272. Mergus serrator Linn. RED-BREASTED MERGANSER. Abundant in spring and fall, many remaining in winter. .: 273. Mergus cucullatus Linn. BOODED MERGANSER. Rather
common spring and autumn visitant, many remaining in winter, and perhaps in summer.
274. Sula bassana Linn. Ganxet; Solan Goose. Common winter visitant.
275. Pelecanus trachyrhynchus Lath. Wuise PELICAN. Now accidental; formerly common (Allen, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, I, Sept., 1876, 60). The only recent correct record of its capture appears to be North Scituate, Oct. 6, 1876 (Purilie, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, II, Jan., 1877, 22). The specimens reported by me (Am. Nat., III, Feb., 1870, 640) as taken at Ipswich and Nantucket were fouud later to be P. fuscus. (See remarks under P. suscus.)
276. Pelecanus fuscus Linn. Brown PELICAN. Accidental. Ipswich (Maynard, Nat. Guide, 1870, 149; crroneously noticed by me under the head of the preceding species in Am. Nat., III, 610). Nantucket (Allen, Am. Nat., III, Feb., 1870, 640, but wrongly given as P. erythrorhynchus). Corrected in a note added to last page of author's extras, in which it is stated that "from information just received there is every reason for believing that this flock” of White Pelicans, men. tioned on page 40 (of extras) as having visited Nantucket Island, “were Brown Pelicans." .
277. Graculus carbo Gray. Common Conmorant. Common winter resident.
278. Graculus dilophus Gray. DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT.