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on the Ornithology of Massachusetts” (Rep. on Fishes, Reptiles and Birds of Mass., pp. 259-404), in which were enumerated two hundred and eighty-four species as occurring or probably occurring in the state. Of these, twenty prove to have been wrongly included (more than this number were given inferentially), and thirteen others are synonyms, leaving only two hundred and fifty-one valid and properly included species.
The next enumeration is that of Mr. F. W. Putnam's "Catalogue of the Birds of Essex County" (Proc. Essex Institute, I, pp. 201-231), published in 1856, in which two hundred and forty-five species are given as found in Essex County, while the Appendix adds forty-eight others as found in the state, making two hundred and ninetythree in all. The Essex County list includes but a single nominal species and only four that have not been confirmed by subsequent capture, or that can be considered as in the least degree open to doubt, while only two can be regarded as beyond question erroneously included. The supplemental list is compiled mainly from Peabody, Nuttall, and Audubon, and contains a dozen or more species that are either merely nominal, or that still lack confirmation as birds of Massachusetts, leaving about two hundred and seventy-five as the number of satisfactorily authenticated species.
In 1864 Mr. E. A. Samuels published his "Descriptive Catalogue of the Birds of Massachusetts” (Agric. of Mass., Sec’y's Rep. for 1863, App., pp. xvii-xxix), numbering two hundred and sixty-nine species. Of these, three are now regarded as nominal, and tive or six others have not been confirmed as occurring in the state, although given by Peabody and some other previous autbors. Deducting these leaves about two hundred and sixty, or eighteen less years earlier.
Almost simultaneously with the appearance of Mr. Samuel's list appeared my "Catalogue of the Birds found at Springfield, Mass., with Notes on their Migrations, Habits, etc. ; together with a List of those Birds found in the State not yet observed at Springfield" (Proc. Essex Institute, IV, July, 1864, pp. 48-98). In this paper I gave one hundred and pinety-five as found at Springfield, and two hundred and ninety-seven? as inhabitants of the state. The Springfield list included one species (Empidonax acadicus) given erroneously, but which has since been taken within the area covered by the list, and some others have since been added. In the supplemental list three species were given that I now regard as synonyms, and some eight or ten others were included on the authority of Nuttall, Peabody, Audubon, Cabot, Bryant, and Brewer, of which there is no recent record of their capture, but which (with perhaps two, or possibly three, exceptions) are very likely to occur. Excluding, however, all these there still remain two hundred and eightytwo thoroughly authenticated as birds of the state. Of fifteen others mentioned as likely to occur, over one-half have since been added.
In 1868 was published a "Catalogue of the Birds of New England,” by Dr. Elliott Coues, in which nearly all the species previously attributed to Massachusetts were included. The Great Auk (Alca impennis) was here for the first time recognized as a former inhabitant of Massachusetts, and the Barn Owl (Strix pratincola) and the Varied Thrush (Turdus nævius) were added in the Appendix from notes furnished by the present writer.
2 Squartarola helvetica was accidentally omitted from the Springfield list, though given in the classified list at the end of the paper; hence in my “summary" (p. 97) « 296" should stand 297.
"Notes on some of the Rarer Birds of Massachusetts” (Amer. Nat., III, Dec., 1869, Jan. and Feb., 1870), in which ninety-two species were formally referred to, and eight for the first time recorded as captured or observed within the state (exclusive of one included by error of identification, and four others perhaps not properly to be regarded as indigenous or naturally occurring species). Several species given in my previous list were now withdrawn. The number of species then stood nominally at three hundred and five, but in reality (or as judged by the standard I have adopted for my present list) two hundred and ninety-five.
Later in the same year appeared Mr. Maynard's excellent "Catalogue of the Birds of Eastern Massachusetts', (Naturalist's Guide, 1870, pp. 81-167), comprising nominally two hundred and ninety-nine species, but adding no new ones. Applying the same rules of exclusion that have been used in respect to the other before-mentioned lists the number becomes reduced to about two hundred and eighty-nine. Five or six were withdrawn as birds of Eastern Massachusetts, but otherwise the list includes all of the at that time authenticated indigenous birds of the state except four, kuown at that date as occurring only in the western part of the state.
Since 1870 about twenty-five species have been added, mainly through the investigations of Messrs. Brewster, Purdie, Deane, and Maynard, including three first described from birds taken within the state. No new separate enumeration of the birds of Massachusetts has, however, been since made, but in 1875 Dr. T. M. Brewer published a new "Catalogue of the Birds of New England” (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XVII, July, 1875, pp. 436-454), in which, of course, those of Massa
chusetts were included, embracing nearly all the additions made between the years 1870 and 1875, but generally without giving the date of capture or place of record. Of this list of three hundred and thirty-six species twelve are cither explicitly or inferentially given as not found in Massachusetts ; fourteen others are regarded in the following list as either purely nominal or as merely varietal forms of other species also occurring here; one is an introduced species, and another ("Thaumatias linnæi") I regard as improperly included ; leaving three hundred and eight that may be regarded as birds of Massachusetts, though not of course always necessarily so implied by the phraseology of the list.
The following tabulated summary shows at a glance the number of species attributed to the state at different times since 1833, together with the number authentically recorded, the number still unconfirmed, and the number of merely nominal ones :
9 Embracing, among others, varietal forms here regarded as improperly accorded full specific rank.
* Inserentially, through additions to Dr. Emmons's list. 6 ]nferentially determined.
Given as probably occurring, but not as yet fully confirmed. - Plus four extirpated = 320.
(NOTE:--The asterisk (*) at the left of a name indicates that the species is known to breed within the state. For the sake of brevity, the annotations are restricted to simply indication of season of occurrence and relative abundance, except in the case of the extremely rare or accidental visitors, respecting which the record of captures is brought down from 1864 to January, 1878. Only the original notice, however, is cited. My former catalogue gives the record of rare captures down to 1864 (see also Concs's Catalogue of the Birds of New England” in Proceedinge Essex Institute, vi, pp. 253-314, for the early recori), so that my former paper, and the present, form together a full record in this respect.]
*1. Turdus migratorius Linn. RobIX. Abundant summer resident; a few remain during winter at favorable localities.
2. Turdus nævius Gmel. VARIED Turusu. Accidental. As yet the only authentic record of its occurrence is its capture at Ipswich, in December, 1864 (Allen, Proc. Essex Inst., V, 1868, 312; Amer. Nat., III, Jan., 1870, 572; see further, on its supposed earlier occurrence in Massachusetts, Proc. Essex Iust., IV, 1864, 82).
*3. Turdus mustelinus Gmel. Woop TurysH. Common sum. mer resident except in the higher portions of Berkshire County.
*4. Turdus pallasi Cab. HERMIT THRUSI. Spring and fall mi. grant, except in the mountainous portions of the state west of the Connecticut valley, where it is a common summer resident; occasionally breeds in other parts of the state.
5. Turdus swainsoni Cab. (= T. suainsoni et aliciæ auct.) OLIVE-BACKED Turusa. Common spring and autumn migrant; prob. ably breeds in portions of Berkshire County.
*8. Turdus fuscescens Steph. VEERY; WILSON's Thrush. Com. mon sunmer resident.
*7. Mimus polyglottus Boie. MocKING BIRD. Rare summer visitant, occasionally breeding, particularly in the Connecticut Valley.
*8. Mimus carolinensis Gray. Cat Bird. Abundant summer resident.
*9. Harporhynchus rufus Cab. Brown Thrush. Abundant summer resident. *10. Sialia sialis Hald. BLUEBIRD. Abundant summer resident.
11. Regulus calendula Licht. RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET. Abundant spring and summer visitant.
12. Regulus satrapa Licht. GOLDEN-CRESTED KINGLET. Chiefly a winter visitant, occurring in variable abundance in different years, but usually more or less common. Perhaps breeds in portions of Berkshire County, as it has been reported to do in the Catskills (Trippe, Am. Nat., VI, 47).
13. Polioptila cærulea Scl. BLUE-GRAY GNAT-CATCHER. Acci